The Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. XXIII, No. 4 (January 1963). A...
The Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. XXIII, No. 4 (January 1963).
A STUDY OF EMPLOYEES' ADJUSTMENT WITHIN AND OUTSIDE
S. SULTAN AKHTAR AND DINYAR M. PESTONJEE
In the following lines the authors have tried to ascertain the degree of relationship
which exists between factors outside the work situation and the factors within the work
situation. They believe that social adjustment is not as important in influencing adjustment
within work situation as personal adjustment.
Mr. Akhtar and Mr. Pestonjee are research scholars in the Department of Psychology,
Aligarh University. Aligarh.
—The concept of adjust-
understanding of behaviour in industrial
ment is very common and at the same time situations.
very old. It has acquired different meanings
However, the above mentioned writings
with the passage of time.1 Many writers and scores of other investigations which have
have explained and defined the term in aimed at finding the worker-maladjustment
various ways, but it is usually accepted that fall short of one great requirement. None
the "goal of adjustment is satisfaction".2 It of these have attempted to ascertain the
may be pointed out here that the relationship degree of relationship that exists between the
between work-adjustment and adjustment factors outside the work situation and the
to other spheres of life is closely interlinked. factors within the work situation.
Dudek3 has strongly recommended that to
The present investigation was undertaken
have a deeper insight into the problems of with a view to ascertaining the degree of
human relations a study of the "conditions this relationship. By 'factors within the work
both within the plant and outside the plant" situation' is meant all those variables which
must be taken into account.
influence a worker while he is working on
A number of studies dealing with this a particular job, e.g., hours of work, nature
problem have clearly borne out this of work, opportunities for advancement,
contention. The findings of the pioneer treatment of supervisor, policies of the
investigation conducted by Elton Mayo at management, reward and punishment, etc.
the Hawthorne Plant and reported in The "factors outside the work situation"
detail by Blum4 clearly show that the imply those conditions and activities which
outside-the-job factors influence the workers influence a worker's personality but which
more than the factors within the job. A are directly operative only when the worker
more or less similar point of view is has left his work premises. These include
propounded by Garrison,5 who has
such variables as, sociability, attitude toward
recommended the study of "personal and people in community, friends and associates,
social factors, as well as minute aspects of emotionality (inferiority feelings, worries),
the physical environment" for a better health, family members and finances, etc.
1 T . R. Sarbin, "Adjustment in Psychology", Character
Vol . V I I , p. 240.
2 A. T. Profferberger, Principles of Applied Psychology,
New York : Appleton-Century-Croft,
3E. E. Dudek , in C. H. Lawsche, Psychology of Industrial Relations,
New York : McGraw -
4 M . L. Blum, Industrial Psychology and its Social Foundations,
New York : Harpe r Bros.,
5K. G. Garrison, & J. Gray, Psychology in Industry,
New York : McGraw-Hill , 1956.
328 S. S U L T A N A K H T A R AND D I N Y A R M. P E S T O N J E E
Method and Procedure.
—The sample of
the present study consists of drivers and
conductors of U. P. Government Roadways
and private bus services drawn from three
zones. T h e centres covered under these
zones were: Lucknow, K a n p u r , Allahabad,
Barabanki (Eastern Z o n e ) ; Agra, Aligarh,
M a t h u r a (Central Zone) and Bulandshahr,
Dehra D u n , Meerut and Saharanpur
(Western Z o n e ) . An attitude and Adjust-
ment Inventory* was administered to drivers
a n d conductors.
T h e Inventory covers four areas, namely,
Job, Management, Social and Personal. T h e
Split-half reliability of this inventory based
on 472 cases varies from .80 to .94 for
different areas. T h e Inventory has been
validated against ratings of supervisors' and
employees' work records. T h e responses of
subjects were thoroughly checked and scored
T h e obtained value of X2 (= 77.37) with
with the help of a scoring key. Each 4 df led to the refutation of the null
subject's scores for the four areas were hypothesis. Thus it was concluded that
employees' adjustment outside work situation
T h e scores for Job and Management areas is related to adjustment within work situation
were combined to give an indication of and vice versa.
employees' adjustment within work situation.
Similarly, Social a n d Personal areas were
In order to find out the degree of relation-
cumulatively scored to give an indication of ship the contingency coefficient ' C , given
the adjustment outside the work situation.
T h e table of norms was consulted and by the formula was
each subject was classified as "maladjusted",
"moderately adjusted" or "adjusted" with calculated. T h e calculated value of 'C was
respect to his scores on both within and found to be equal to .36. As suggested by
outside work situation factors. A 3 x 3-fold Tate6, appropriate adjustment of the
contingency table was formed, as given on contingency coefficient was m a d e by dividing
this page, a n d the null hypothesis that it with its upper limit, i.e., .82 in order to
there is no relationship between the extent of make the 'C value comparable to the
employees' adjustment within and outside product-moment coefficient of correlation.
work situation was tested by X2 test.
By making the adjustment in this way the
*This Inventory was standardized by Sultan Akhtar in connection with his Ph.D. work.
This Inventory has been included in the 'Mental Measurement Hand-book For India' com-
piled by Dr. L. Long.
# O represents the observed frequency.
E represents the expected frequency. T h e expected frequencies are given within brackets
of each cell.
6 M . W. T a t e , Statistics in Education,
New York : Macmilla n Company , 1955.
A STUDY O F E M P L O Y E E S ' A D J U S T M E N T W I T H I N AND OUTSIDE W O R K SITUATION 329
value of 'C was raised to .439. This value,
Discussion of results.
though not very high, is significant, because clearly show that the extent of employees'
the number of cases are quite large adjustment within work situation is
(N = 4 9 2 ) . It confirms that the chance significantly related to adjustment to outside
factors could not have influenced the result. the work factors. T h e values of tetrachoric
As regards the direction of relationship, coefficients reported in Table 2 reinforce our
the examination of the observed values of earlier contention. It must be pointed out,
cell frequencies readily suggests that the however, that social adjustment yields low
direction is positive. T h e positive or negative correlation coefficients with job (.56),
direction of the relationship could also be personal (.47) and management (.38)
ascertained by computing the difference areas. But personal adjustment is found to
between the 'observed' and 'expected' values be highly correlated to Job (.69) and
of the cell frequencies, though, this Management (.65). T h u s it may be
computation is not generally recommended.7 concluded t h a t social adjustment is not as
However, we find that this computation important in influencing adjustment 'within'
indicates a positive relationship. T h u s the work situation as personal adjustment. This
relationship between the extent of employee may be attributed to the fact that personal
adjustment within and outside work situation area comprised such factors as emotiona-
is found to be positive.
lity, health, home life, finances, and attitudes
towards members of the family. These
A further analysis of the data was m a d e factors have a direct bearing on the whole
to assess the interrelatedness of each area personality make-up of an individual. Since
with the other. T h i s was done to find out these factors are predominant in adjustment
the extent of influence exerted by each in to all the spheres of life, we can expect to
contributing to the employees' adjustment find a high correlation between the Personal
with other areas. For this purpose and Job, and Personal and Management
Tetrachroic Coefficient of correlation
between the four areas was calculated and
the results are reported in T a b l e 2.
T h e findings of the present investigation
are in line with the suggestions of numerous
authors. Dudek8 suggests t h a t there are a
few specific factors which can be held
TETRACHORIC COEFFICIENT OF CORRELA-
responsible for satisfactory adjustment to life.
TION BETWEEN THE FOUR AREAS OF
These factors a r e : "Congenial h o m e and
family life, satisfactory sex r e l a t i o n s . . . and
freedom from undue worry about financial
Job Manage- Social Personal
and other matters." M c M u r r y 9 is also of the
view that personality maladjustment, in
Job ... .82 .56 .69 general, is directly related to maladjustment
Management ... .38 .6
. Tiffin, Knight and Asher,10 on the
basis of their own study, have concluded that
Social ... .47
the h u m a n individual has to a d a p t himself
?M. W. Tate, Ibid.,
8E. E. Dudek, Op. Cit.
9R. N. McMurry. Handling Personality Adjustment in Industry,
New York: Harper, 1944.
10J. Tiffin, F. B. Knight & E. J. Asher, The Psychology of Normal People,
Boston: Heath and
S. SULTAN AKHTAR AND DINYAR M. PESTONJEE
constantly to his environment which includes ment. Adjustment or maladjustment is the
friends, family and home, work and resultant of many complex and interacting
community on the one hand and his own factors. The locus of these factors can be
inner life comprising his abilities, interests, both within the work situation and outside
attitudes and limitations on the other. Fisher the work situation. A series of investigations
and Hanna11 have also contended that is required to assess correctly the nature of
"vocational maladjustment is a reflection of factors which cause maladjustment, both
within and outside the job. We propose to
extend the present study in this direction.
Factors outside the work situation may be
responsible for employees' maladjustment to
However, the findings of the present study
a greater extent but factors within the work could be effectively utilized for selecting,
situation are also responsible for maladjust-
training and placement of workers.