HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FOR INDIA C. C. ABRAHAM Since...
HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FOR INDIA
C. C. ABRAHAM
Since the human organism is a psycho-physical unity the over-emphasis on the development of the
intellect to the neglect of the physical, which is not uncommon in our educational system, cannot but
result in unbalanced individuals. Hence the writer makes a plea for the introduction of a physical
education programme for children, adolescents, women and workers in the interest of national health and
Mr. Abraham is Director of Health Education, Y. M. C. A. College of Physical Education, Saidapet,
The war in Europe and the Far East hazards are a great menace to national
have both come to an end. Man's eyes well-being. Professor Hill who has given
are now turned toward building an enduring an admirable analysis of the problem
peace and a better world. The peace of the points out that the mortality in India
world depends, to a large extent, on whether
at all ages, is four to eight times that of
there is freedom from slavery, domina-
Britain, the expectation of life at birth
tion, and exploitation in Asia. India being 26 in India, while it is 62 in Britain ;
occupies a key position among the Asiatic and only half the people born reach 22
peoples. She is conscious of this • great years instead of 69 as in Britain. Health
responsibility and has been making plans statistics show that 25 to 50 per cent.
for improving the lot of nearly four hundred
of the entire population suffer from malaria
millions of her people. Raising the standard and millions die of preventable diseases
of living, eradication of illiteracy, educa-
such as tuberculosis, cholera, plague, and
tion of the masses, stamping out disease, small-pox. A large part of the population,
improving and conserving the health of Professor Hill adds, is underfed ; and
the people, etc., are some of the important according to any reasonable standards
steps that are being generally suggested the number is more than half. Of these
in order to build a new India. Elaborate many millions are living on the verge of
post-war plans are already drawn up to starvation with the obvious result that
make this dream a reality.
chronic malnutrition acts with disease
in a vicious circle, producing poverty
"World War No. II has proved beyond and inefficiency.
any doubt that the Indian can be built
into a tough guy—to use an American
Coupled with a constructive pro-
phrase—if he is given the food, the train-
gramme of improving the standard of living
ing and the experience. Indian soldiers of the masses and the removal of the risks
won renown and fame for their valour, to healthy living like malnutrition, diseases,
courage and endurance in the East as well lack of sanitation, illiteracy, ignorance,
as in the West. To build up he health of etc., a nation-wide programme of Health,
the millions of India is a gigantic, but Physical Education and Recreation must
not an impossible task. The first step be introduced.
in this direction is to improve the
Brief Historical Survey.—
India has been
economic status of the people and influenced in the field of physical education
thereby the standard of living of the masses. by three main forces. One, indigenous
Second, the environmental hazards to being Indian and the other two, foreign
healthy living must be removed. Health being British and American.
254 C. C. ABRAHAM
(i) India's own Heritage.
—A careful Besides these there are numerous other
study of the Indian culture reveals that, minor games suitable for young and old.
for many centuries, the people of India
Wrestling was a great national sport
from the Vedic era lived a life in which in ancient India. Garadies, Kalaries, Akha-
adequate physical growth and development das, and Talim-Khanas, which were once
were the normal outcomes of a natural the gymnasia of India, promoting physical
life. The Aryans fought their wars and education through the art of wrestling,
ploughed their fields, but soon settled still continue to exist in many parts of
down to a life of ease which provided ample India, reminding one of ancient Greek
leisure for meditation and philosophy. The physical culture.
vigorous physical activities, once provided
India has also received a rich heritage
by normal, natural outdoor life, gave of rhythmic activities in the form of classical
place to a system of yogic exercises and dances and folk-dances. These dances
practices. Religion was the basis of the and the songs that accompany them
practice of Yoga, and the supreme goal represent the soul of India's ancient
of Yoga was Samadhi or state of oneness culture. In a scheme of Physical Education,
with Brahma (God).
adequately planned for India, the activities
"Cleanliness, self-discipline of
that are native to the soil of the country
body and mind and resignation
must find their rightful place because these
to life were some of the features
exercises, games and dances are peculiarly
of Yoga. The impression most
Indian and through them the children
Westerners have gained that
of the country can express themselves
Yoga means self-mortification
naturally, and thereby interpret the culture
and torture of the body is
of India to the rest of the world.
not true. Such aberrations are
(ii) The British Influence.
not countenanced by Yoga.
association with the British people extends
The immediate goal of the
to well over 200 years and within this long
Yogin was self-control and not
period some of the British sports and
British traditions in sports have established
themselves in India. Britain's isolated posi-
There seems to be a consensus of opinion tion free from the turmoils of the continent
among physical educators in India today of Europe enabled her to develop her
that, quite apart from religious beliefs, outdoor sports and outdoor activities. Her
Yogic exercises are excellent keep-fit exer-
free institutions, love of personal liberty
cises for all ages and sexes, and that they and individualism tended to create and
have a place in our physical education foster her great team spirit and competitive
games of football, cricket, hockey, tennis,
Out of Yoga has come the Indian golf, track and field athletics, boating,
breath-holding game of Chedugudu or swimming, rowing, archery, etc. The values
Kabbadi or Hu-tu-tu, played all over of play and sports in moulding and deve-
India under various names. Kho-Kho is loping character have been long recognised
another vigorous Indian team game. Nearly by the British people. Their public schools,
all of these games require no equipment. colleges, and universities have set the
A Scientific Evaluation
by Behenan, Ph. D., published by Martin Seeker and Warburg Ltd.,
London, pp. 120.
HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FOR INDIA 255
traditions in sportsmanship and fair play. young men as leaders in physical education
Wherever they have gone, the Britishers was the beginning of scientific physical
have taken their sports and their traditions education in India.
in sports with them. In this field India
has really gained through her long associa-
Through the various Y.M.C.As. scat-
tered all over India, and particularly
tion with them, and their games and through the Y.M.C.A. College, the concept
sports have become popular throughout of physical education, as understood
the country ; these games have come in America, gradually permeated the whole
to stay in India. We have to admit that country. The schools and colleges in
they have their exercise and health values. practically every Province have been bene-
They also provide opportunities for all fitted by this.
classes and communities of people to
come together for recreation. They pro-
Through a programme of physical
mote team work, team spirit, co-operation, training, games and sports in the associa-
fair play and a feeling of comradeship tions, through short term courses in
and esprit de corps,
besides developing the physical education, through demonstrations
qualities of leadership.
of physical activities and through lectures,
Britain has also introduced into India the Y.M.C.A. Physical Director tried to
Gymnastics as adapted by Maclaren create a new interest in Physical Education
from the German system ; Swedish
and to interpret it as it is understood in
the western countries, especially America.
Drill, adapted from the Ling system ; To the Y.M.C.A. should be given the credit
Military marching tactics ; rhythmic exer-
for introducing free play, hygienic drill
cises adapted from the Danish system ; and exercises and games like Volley-ball
bar-bell exercises and scout drill. All and Basket-ball ; for making physical educa-
these activities have their legitimate place tion more interesting, attractive and useful ;
in a comprehensive programme of physical and for evolving a method of combining
the indigenous exercises like the Dundhals
(iii) The American Influence.
—In the and Bhaskis and indigenous games like
field of physical education, America has in-
Chedugudu, (Kabbadi), Kho-Kho, Atya
fluenced practically the whole world. This patya, etc., with western exercises and
influence has been widened and maintained games. The establishment of the National
by the Young Men's Christian Association Y.M.C.A. School of Physical Education
and its International Physical Education in 1920 (College of Physical Education
College at Springfield, Massachusetts, since July 1931) for the purpose of training
U.S.A. In the space of five decades, America
educated men of high character as Physical
has sent out to India several graduates Directors is, therefore, of the utmost
of the Springfield College as pioneers significance in the history of Physical
in the cause of physical education. The Education in the country.
most outstanding contribution to India
has been the twenty years of pioneering
Suggested Programme of Physical
service by the late Mr. H. C. Buck. Mr. Education.
—Physical education and recrea-
Buck founded the first Physical Education tion are nation-building activities. These
College in India at Madras in 1920. The activities can exert their maximum in-
establishment of the Y.M.C.A. College fluence on a people only if the obstacles
of Physical Education for training educated standing in their way are first removed.
256 C. C. ABRAHAM
First, the ascetic philosophy of life of the during this period the teaching of skills,
Indian people should give place to one techniques and attitudes should be stressed.
in which life here and now is to be lived The minimum daily instructional period
well and abundantly.
should be thirty minutes in the morning
The concept of the human organism and thirty minutes in the afternoon. In
as a psycho-physical unity should be addition, there should be recess periods,
accepted. The physical basis of life, which periods for free and supervised play,
is generally looked down upon, must and integration of physical education activi-
receive its due emphasis and attention. ties with other phases of the curriculum.
India is deteriorating in health. The country
Activities included in the physical
is in a state of national degeneration education programme for elementary
physically. The entire mass of the people schools should be varied in nature, and
need to be roused to recognise the value should include games of simple organisa-
of physical health and development with tion for large and small groups ; rhythmic
reference to national health and progress. activities including free and creative
Poverty, sickness, disease, malnutri-
rhythms, singing games and folk dances ;
tion and starvation are enemies of human hunting and chasing games ; modified
progress. If a scheme of National Physical athletic games ; stunts, tumbling and self-
Education and Recreation is to succeed testing activities ; activities on gymnastic
in India, such a scheme should become and playground apparatus ; mimetics and
part of a national plan in which the standard
story plays. This programme of activities
of living of the masses is improved, and should be suited to the interests, needs
adequate food, shelter, clothing and medical and physical capacities of the pupils.
help are assured.
Individual differences must be taken into
account. School managements should pro-
Education in India must receive a vide equipment and supplies sufficient
thorough re-orientation. It must be made in amount and variety, together with
suitable to the genius and needs of the adequate indoor playroom and outdoor
Indian child. The present over-emphasis playground facilities, to permit conduct
on the development of the intellect to
the neglect of the physical should give of such a programme.
place to the education of the whole child,
Elementary school classroom teachers '
possessing a perfectly educated mind and should have a sufficient amount of training
a perfectly educated body. Physical educa-
to enable them to conduct physical educa-
tion must have its legitimate place in this tion activities suitable for elementary school
scheme of education. It must become an children. Such training should be given
integral part of the total education of the in every teacher-training institution. Special
child. To make this possible, there must be training classes should be conducted for
a re-adjustment and balancing of the curri-
teachers already in service.
culum of studies. More and better schools
Middle and High Schools.
will be needed and also more and better in the middle and high schools should
qualified and trained teachers.
participate in a daily programme of super-
—All children in vised physical education activities. The
the elementary school (classes 1-5) should minimum time allotment for physical
participate daily in a programme of super-
education classes should be the equivalent
vised physical education activities ; and of the school's regular academic periods.
HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FOR INDIA 257
Additional time should be allotted for should include a variety of team games,
practice and participation periods. Time-
major and minor ; a variety of individual
tables for physical training classes should and small team sports such as tennis,
be planned as carefully as are other class archery, handball, badminton, teniquoit,
periods. They must fit into the regular fencing, boxing, wrestling, quoits, stunts,
school day along with other classes in such tumbling, pyramid building, gymnastics,
a way that every pupil may receive physical drills, marching, etc. ; efficiency tests and
training daily. This may necessitate radical group competition ; track and field athle-
re-organisation of the entire school pro-
tics ; rhythmic activities including folk
gramme, even to the extent of starting the dances, gymnastic dancing, etc.
school day earlier; but if we are to educate
The physical education instruction
the whole child we must re-organise school period should be utilized for the teaching
life in such a way that our aim may be of skills and attitudes in the foregoing
programme of activities, and should not
All pupils in the school should be be used as a period for free and undirected
enrolled in physical education classes. play. All reasonable precautions should
Those who, by reason of illness or disabi-
be taken to prevent accidents. Habits
lity, are unable to participate in the more of safety in activity should be developed.
vigorous forms of activity should be
Supplies and equipment sufficient to
assigned to classes in modified activity, organize and conduct the programme
or to rest, with full credit in either case. properly should be provided by school
No pupil needs to be excused from physical managements from funds budgetted for
education where such a programme is such a purpose. The physcial education
programme should not be allowed to
"Work in scouting, or guiding, or in subsist on such gleanings as the gate receipts
military training should be not permitted of athletic contests, demonstrations, or
to serve as a substitute for physical educa-
student fees, but should be supported
tion, since the objectives and the means on the same basis as classes in History,
of obtaining the objectives of each are of English, Mathematics and other school
a divergent nature.
Classes in physical education should
Adequate bathing and sanitary arrange-
be small enough to permit efficient instruc-
ments, dressing rooms, indoor and outdoor
tions. It may be suggested that twenty-
play facilities should be provided in each
five pupils per teacher per period is desir-
school in order to make possible the most
able. However, never should a class be effective programme.
allowed to consist of more than forty
Teachers of physical education should
pupils per teacher. Pupils should be be thoroughly prepared for their duties.
classified and grouped according to their They should be persons with the best
available training and certified as specialists.
The physical education programme Unqualified persons must not be permitted
should receive equal recognition with to teach physical education.
other subjects in the curriculum.
Classes in modified activity, corrective
The content of the programme of physical education, or rest should be provi-
physical education in the middle and high ded for those pupils who, because of dis-
schools should be broad and varied. It ability or illness, may not safely participate
258 C. C. ABRAHAM
in vigorous activity. The medical examina-
should be necessary. Ample facilities for
tion and doctor's recommendation should vigorous games and recreation under super-
be made the basis of assignment to this vision ought to take the place of
programme. Facilities for conducting the compulsion. But, for many years to come—
above programme should be provided about 20 years after a national system
in each school. The service of teachers of education has been in operation—
with specialised training in corrective compulsion even in the University classes
physical education should be available for will be essential. At present, the great
majority of the students enter college
All middle and high school pupils without any knowledge of games and
should change of clothing for the physical actual instruction becomes necessary to
education period. Bathing should be make them "physically literate" !
required at the close of each physical Attempts to teach them and to develop
education class. It is most unhygienic to in them a liking for games and sports,
exercise in clothing in which the person where they have been seriously tried, have
will remain after exercise. To prevent been found to be eminently fruitful. So, a
chills and fevers there should be a system of compulsory physical training
complete change of clothing for exercise, will have to be enforced for a number
and the exercise should be followed by a . of years to come, till such time when
bath and change into dry clothing.
compulsion shall become unnecessary. At
the same time, a minimum requirement
Records of physical education work will have to be worked out for the Univer-
should be maintained. Just as registers, sities which would be enforced in all the
tests and measurements and records of colleges in India. At present, even where
progress are kept in other subjects, similarly
compulsory physical training is in force,
attention must be paid to physical the actual programme to be followed is
education. Such records serve as incentives left to the individual colleges with the
to pupil and teacher, and enable us to result that many colleges are satisfied
discover whether we are realizing our with merely recording the attendance of
aims and objectives. It may be pointed the students without giving them an
out that keeping records may not by itself attractive programme. Universities must
be sufficient incentive. A system of credits appoint Physical Directors who will
in physical education should be introduced see that the minimum standards
and such credits must be taken into con-
are maintained and that an adequate
sideration for promotion of a pupil. programme is provided for every college
This is the only feasible way of putting student.
physical education at par with other sub-
At the University stage, a student
Colleges and Universities.
—In a care-
is physically grown up, or very nearly so,
fully planned system of education, a student and more emphasis should be given t o :
would have undergone a long period of the vigorous type of team games, track
systematic compulsory physical training and field athletics, boxing, wrestling, etc.,
by the time he reaches the University (acquatics where possible), rather than to
stage. The habit of regular exercise and formal exercise and apparatus work. At
play should, by this time, have become the same time, it is important that every
so universal that no further compulsion student is encouraged to take up some
HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FOR INDIA 259
game, like tennis or cricket, which he can co-ordinated programme of health and
continue to play for a number of years physical education.
even after leaving the college.
Physical Education for Girls and
More emphasis must be given to Women.
—The education of girls lags behind
intramural athletics. College athletics have that of boys and in physical education
come to mean college teams in the their position is even worse. More facilities
various games and sports, while the great should be provided throughout the country
majority are left uncared for. A programme for the education of girls. The social
of intramural competitions should therefore disabilities and customs which stand in
the way of their getting their due share of
be given greater importance.
out-door life, play, exercise, etc., must be
Inter-University competitions must removed by educating the parents and the
be properly organised and conducted by public.
experts who should form the personnel
The programme for girls depends on
of the Inter-University Sports Board. A their age. Till about the age of eleven in
great deal of improvement in this direction India, boys and girls may play the same
games. They enjoy activities such as
Each college must have its Department running, chasing, dodging, climbing, swing-
of Physical Education with a Physical ing, skipping, hopping, jumping, vaulting,
Director of outstanding abilities at its swimming, etc. Games of minor organisa-
head. The Physical Director must have tion are also suitable for this age.
assistants and coaches for special games, Competitions between boys and girls in
according to the strength of the College. running, jumping, throwing, etc., are also
Physical Directors must be given a salary permissible till this age.
and status equal to other important teaching
members on the college staff. It may be
A distinction is to be made in certain
mentioned that even in British Univer-
respects between the physical education
sities the need for such Physical Directors to be given to the girls and the physical
has been felt, and that some of them education to be given to the boys after
have already appointed qualified men on this age. The distinction is based on certain
their staff. In the U.S.A., this has been biological and psychological factors asso-
in practice for many years and the results ciated with adolescence. Girls should avoid
have been very satisfactory.
violent exercises, games, sports etc.,
indulged in freely by boys of their age.
From the physical and medical exami-
Girls could compete in running, skipping,
nations of college students conducted by dancing, swimming, etc., with other girls
the Universities of Calcutta, Punjab and and could also begin to take part in team
Madras, it is evident that a majority of games such as net ball, throw ball, ring
college students suffer from some remediable
tennis, badminton, tennis, playground ball,
defect or other. This shows the need for hocky, kho-kho, atya-patya, etc. Rhythmic
an efficient health education programme exercises, especially those which can be
in the colleges. Instruction in personal performed to the accompaniment of music
and community health must be a signi-
and song are eminently suitable to girls
ficant phase of this programme. The as also any form of calisthenics, lezim,
college doctor and the college physical club swinging, tiparaya, zimma, phugadi,
director should work out a harmonious, garba dances and many others. Indeed,
260 C. C. ABRAHAM
India has a rich heritage of folk and classical will have to be provided in rural areas.
dances, and these should find a very signi-
There still exist in rural areas, villages and
ficant place in the physical education pro-
small towns, the Akhadas, Gradies, Talim¬
gramme for girls and women. Also posture khanas, which were once the centres of
training should be very much stressed.
physical education in India. Their utility
and influence should be extended. More
Physical education for women after of similar training centres with adequate
the age of twenty is very much neglected facilities, equipment and leadership may
in India. So, during their school and be started.
college career, they should be taught
games and exercises which they could
Every village should be helped to
continue in later life. Games like develop its own recreation centre. Rural
badminton, activities like walking, skipping, recreation leaders must be trained and
swimming, etc., can be indulged in appointed to initiate a community recrea-
throughout life. Keep-fit exercises also may tion programme for every village and to
be taken regularly.
organise inter-village competitions, etc.
The primary aim of education for Such programmes should always be pro-
girls should be to enable them now to be moted with the co-operation of the people.
happy and healthy at their present stage Gradually the villagers should be made
of life, and as adults to be efficient members to feel their responsibilities in maintaining
of the community ; and to make the the recreation centre as a village insti-
majority become strong and sturdy mothers,
tution. In the early stages, financial assistance
able to run a home efficiently and look should be given to it by the Government.
after their children intelligently. Their The shifting of the financial responsibi-
education, therefore, must be different lity to the people must be gradual. The
from the present day system and should training of young villagers as community
lay stress on their health, growth, and recreation leaders will be necessary in
development through exercise, play, and order to extend this programme to all
on a sound programme of health education. ,the villages. Occasionally, all these villagers
Mother craft, child care, anatomy, physio-
may be brought together for a common
logy, personal, home and community participation in a recreational programme,
and such celebrations could be timed
hygiene, nutrition, etc., may be taught with a festival. The amount of good that
as part of their health education studies.
will come from such recreational centres
Educated, trained leadership is essen-
is immense, provided the leadership offered
tial. Teachers trained for at least two is of the right type. They provide oppor-
years in Physical Education and Health tunities for educated young men to serve
Education will be required. Every encou-
the country and help to build up a healthy,
ragement should be given to the trained efficient and happy India.
personnel by way of salary and status.
Recreation for Rural Areas.
Rural Recreation Officers, to organise
sion of recreation for the rural areas is village recreation, must be specially trained
the backbone of a national scheme as in the Physical Education Colleges. The
almost 90 per cent. of the population of success of this scheme will depend on
India live in villages. Therefore greater their enthusiasm, initiative and organising
facilities, aid, and direction for recreation capacity.
HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FOR INDIA 261
Urban Public Recreation.
appendage to any other department what-
ment, the Municipalities and the Local ever may be the administrative con-
Bodies should accept the responsibility veniences. By that arrangement we
for organising public recreation through cannot expect any drive, initiative, planning,
playgrounds and allied services. Here is progress and efficiency of service, especially
a field of preventive medicine for building when a lot of pioneering in the field has
up positive health. It can counteract yet to be done.
the evil effects of slums and slum habits,
offer counter-attractions to the drink evil
The recreational facilities that are
and other pernicious habits, and solve the suggested already exist in abundance in
problem of leisure. This can be acheived by almost all the progressive countries of
providing plenty of open areas, especially the world. It is high time that the following
in congested localities, with facilities for features at least are provided in a compre-
recreation and exercise. It is possible hensive city-wide scheme of organised
to co-ordinate public recreation and school public recreation for men, women, boys,
physical education in such a way that the girls and children :—
schools may use the facilities during the
school hours and the public during the
1. Playgrounds and Recreation
other hours. The importance and value
Centres (Community Centres).
of public recreation has been recognised
in all the advanced countries. In India
2. Aquatics—Swimming Pools,
the need is urgent for providng all the
facilities for boating, etc.
possible facilities for people to '' re-
create " themselves. There should be
3. Gymnasia—for Indian and
centralised control, professional guidance
Foreign Gymnastics, Boxing,
and supervision, free flow of necessary
equipment, organisation and co-ordination
of a city-wide programme.
4. Enclosed Playing Fields such
as stadii, etc.
Proper leadership is the key to the
realisation of the maximum results. The
5. Organised Fore-shores, Sand-
technique of imparting education through
accresions, Riverbeds, etc.
recreation and of building up health and
physical fitness, has to be acquired through
6. Organised Camp-sites outside
professional training on the broad founda-
Municipal limits but within
tion of a liberal and general education,
sound character, and love of sports,
games, recreation and outdoor life. A
Recreation for Industrial Workers.
great deal depends on the choice of leaders.
The first step towards re-creating the
This field of community service should lives of the workers and their families
be properly explored by the Municipal is to do away with the slums and provide
and Local bodies. They should set up a sanitary dwelling colonies. Otherwise, the
separate department of recreation on a conditions and effects of slum-living are
par with the other departments as in so deleterious that all the ameliorative
England, the U.S.A., and the U.S.S.R. measures taken will be wasted, without
There is no use treating it as an unimportant
yielding substantial results. After all, by
262 C. C. ABRAHAM
the influx of the industries the Government
Training of Leaders.
and the Municipalities have been benefitted available for promoting health, physical
immensely, and as such there is a moral education and recreation in India is not
obligation on their part to solve the anywhere near the number required for
problem of industrial housing in a satis-
this big country. India has only 40,000
factory way and to provide community doctors—one doctor for every 9,000 of
centres for healthy, social and community the population. More doctors means more
The industries should be made to
There are only five Physical Education
pay towards securing the physical fitness Colleges, namely, the Y.M.C.A. College
and health of their workers and their of Physical Education, Madras ; the Train-
families. It will ultimately contribute to-
ing Institute of Physical Education,
wards industrial efficiency, health, harmony, Bombay ; the College of Physical Education,
and maximum production. Thus it will Hyderabad ; and the Lucknow Christian
be in the best interests of the industries College of Physical Education. At a rough
themselves as well as that of the workers estimate, the total number of Physical
to legislate for a comprehensive scheme Education teachers trained from all these
of recreation under the guidance of experts training centres so far may be between
on industrial recreation, and to arrange 2,500 and 3,000. These figures go to show
the supervision of the same under the the inadequacy of the number of training
auspices of the Government. Organised colleges and trained leaders.
recreation can counteract the evil effects
of mechanised routine work which is
India needs at least one Physical
characterised by monotony and repetition. Education College in each one of its
A well organised programme should cater Provinces and Indian States. Men and
to the recreational needs of the workers women possessing training in Health, Phy-
inside and outside the factories, near to and
sical Education and Recreation are needed
away from their homes, in various types in large numbers. Universities, Colleges,
of active and passive recreational activities. and schools require highly educated and
A healthy working class will be an asset adequately trained physical directors and
to the industries as well as to society.
coaches. Industrial concerns want persons
with training in Recreation and Health
The facilities of industrial recreation Education. Recreation leaders and play-
that have been suggested here are nothing ground supervisors are required for urban
Utopian. They are in vogue in almost all public playgrounds. Rural India needs
the progressive countries of the world. thousands of community leaders for pro-
The key to its success lies in the provision viding recreation for the millions of villagers
of expert direction and adequate leader-
living in the 700,000 villages.
ship. The recreational movement is a
challenge to industry. Post-war India will
To keep abreast with modern develop-
be industrialised a great deal and the ments in Health, Physical Education and
problem of industrial recreation will have Recreation, India must be prepared to
to be accepted sooner or later and the send out experienced men and women
sooner it is done the better it will be for in the profession for post-graduate study
all those concerned.
in the West. Sweden and Denmark have
HEALTH, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION FOR INDIA 263
Physical Education Colleges offering a be obtained from the colleges and univer-
four year degree course. There are Physical sities both in the United Kingdom and the
Education Colleges in England which offer U.S.A. A system of exchange of members
advance courses in Physical Education. of the faculty of Physical Education colleges
In the U.S.A. the Columbia, the Chicago in India and the United Kingdom and
and the Stanford Universities offer post-
the U.S.A. may be arranged. The experience
graduate degree courses.
and training thus gained by our students
in the Western countries will be of great
Indian students must be helped, as in help in the reconstruction of India to
other fields of education, with scholarships which our Statesmen are directing their
and other facilities to proceed to the time and energies.
West. Scholarships and studentships may