THE 'GIVING' BEHAVIOUR ON MONEY AND SERVICE M . RADH ACHUTHAN ...
THE 'GIVING' BEHAVIOUR ON MONEY AND SERVICE
M. RADH ACHUTHAN
Giving is intrinsic to all faiths of man. Giving by the general population of Hindus and Muslims in the states of Uttar
Pradesh, West Bengal and Karnataka, India, based on survey data from a stratified random sample, is presented in
this paper. Giving can be either in the form of Money (beyond taxes paid and temple or zakat donations made) or
Service. Giving under either form is disaggregated on the bases of age, religion, education, and sex (basis: 1981
Census) and household income (basis: Voluntary disclosure) for the three states. Regression analysis results are also
presented.
M. Radh Achuthan Ph.D. in Futuristus (Social Psychology/Social Planning) from the Union Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio,
is currently Professor of Physics in the Division of Natural Sciences, Long Island University, Southampton, New York
11968, USA. His current research interests are in the areas of social psychology, social planning and education.
Introduction
Giving is an intrinsic part of sanctions orchestrated by the major faiths of man, as in Hinduism,
Buddhism, Judaism, Christainity, and Islam. This paper explores the factors operating in Indian
society amongst Hindus and Muslims that engender and promote variations, in the extent to which
they say they have given money (aside from taxes paid and temple donations/zakat made) or service,
in order to help 'non-familial others in need'.
These factors are explored at two levels. First, the sanctions on Giving as orchestrated by Hinduism
and Islam are examined. Second, results from a survey questionnaire administered to probability
samples in three Indian states are used to demonstrate widespread variations in the Giving behaviour
of the people, and to show how structural position (age, gender, education, income, urban-rural
dwelling) within Indian society, identifies such variation.
Background to Giving
Hindu Giving: Ethics of the Vedic Period and Giving as a part of Dharma
The primary sources of guidance in Hindu ethics over the ages have been the Rg Veda, the
Brahmanas, and the Upanishads:
"In the Rg Veda the summam bonum was harmony with the will of the Gods who maintained the
order of Rta. In the Brahmanas the summam bonum was sacrificial rectitude. In the Upanishads the
highest practical ideal for man's ethical endeavours is self-knowledge." (Crawford, 1982), leading to
an introspective search, expressed in the well known prayer:
From the unreal (asaf) lead me to the real (sat)
From darkness lead me to light!
From death lead me to immortality (Brh. Up, 1.3.28)
How does one attain any of these? In the Upanishads, in order to overcome ego-desires (ahamkara),
the ethical life is indispensable. The prescribed discipline to attain moksa is brahmacharya — moral

'Giving' Behaviour 251
conduct conducive to contemplation of the Brahman.
"This soul (Atman) is obtainable by truth, by austerity (tapas), by proper knowledge (jnana), by the
student's life of chastity (brahmacharya), constantly (practised)". (Mundaka Up, 3.1.5)
But to achieve the same, one needs the guidance of a spiritual teacher. No amount of individual
thinking can take place without the Guru, "who is learned in the scriptures and established in
Brahman ". (Mund. Up, 1.2.12)
The young man approaches the teacher with "fuel in hand"; the fuel symbolises the light of reason to
be imparted by the teacher to the student. (Mund. Up, 1.3.12; Prasna Up, 1.1). The Brahmachari
must first develop his rational faculties; he can then undertake the struggle between reason and
passion leading to the purification of the intake of the senses that can lead to a purification of his
personality. This will lead to the capability of an uninterrupted flow of spiritual consciousness and lead
ultimately to revelation. Virtue, together with reason constitutes the second means of attaining strength
(Virya, bala). Satya (Truth), is the primary virtue in the life of the Brahmacharin.
The third mode of Dharma is Dana, commitment of the pupil to the Guru, when the pupil gives of
himself to the Guru, as a gift. All dana (gift, charity) is to be made in this manner, of reverend
commitment. The Taittiriya Upanishad speaks of this requirement:
One should give with faith (sraddha)
One should not give without faith
One should give with plenty (sri)
One should give with modesty
One should give with fear
One should give with sympathy (sam-vid) (Taitt Up, 1.11.3).
While these are idealisations, and the departures in reality may be significant, practice of dharma and
dana were structured into the jajmani system within the ordering of caste in Hinduism.
In Hinduism, in traditional India, religious and economic interdependence of society was engineered
and assured through the caste and jajmani system. The system, realised in Indian villages which were
more or less closed and self-supporting units, is pan-Indian, with regional variations (Beteille, 1965).
The structural aspects of the jajmani system are best articulated by quoting Dumont, 1980:
It has become common practice to apply the term 'jajmani system' to the system
corresponding to the prestations and counter-prestations by which the castes as a whole are
bound together in the village, and which is more or less universal in India. To a large extent it is
a question of natural as opposed to monetary economy. It is also a question of the closed
economy of the Indian village in which essential goods and especially services are found, or
used to be found, either in the spot or in the immediate vicinity: this fact corresponds, therefore,
to what has long been called the 'village community' in the economic sense of the phrase.
Further,
jajman, is used to designate the patron with respect to the person he employs; it comes from
the Sanskrit yajamana, a participle having reflexive force and meaning 'sacrifier' (as opposed
to 'sacrificer'): 'he who has a sacrifice performed', and the jajman is the master of the house

252 M. Radh Achuthan
who employs a Brahman as a sacrificer.
Dumont cites and interprets, a jajman as "he who has religious (dharmik) rites performed by
Brahmans by giving them fees, etc"; jajmani: "the privilege (adhikar) of performing the functions of
domestic priest (purohit), barber, bari (helper) on the occasion of marriage, etc." The religious
connotation is still present today. Dumont says :
I have translated 'adhikar' as privilege, but it is also responsibility, and a personal asset is
involved: each family has its purohit, its barber, etc and neither party is free to escape from its
relationship, so much so that the jajmani in the sense of such an obligation can, for. example,
stand as security for a loan of money.
Further,
there are many words to designate the specialists, who are more like clients in their relationship
to a patron than employees in relationship to their employer, since the relationship is a personal
one, and the word jajman designates anyone who employs someone in conformity with the
system, and the complementary word, let us take praja, anyone so employed (Dumont, 1980).
Islam
In Islam, the traditional pattern of authority comes from at least five different sources: The Caliph had
taken over from Muhammad the symbolic function of being the political and religious leader of the
community. The Caliph, however did not take on the interpretation of religion. Religious interpretation
was conducted by a group, the Ulama, acknowledged to have the expertise to interpret religion. In
the course of time, subsequent to consensus on issues of interpretive importance, the collection of
such interpretations by the Ulama came to be known as the Sharia. Once an interpretation became a
part of the Sharia, it essentially became non-debatable. The Sharia is thus semi-autonomous, with the
Ulama delegating to itself only the function of 'commentary'. A fourth form of authority rested with the
Sufi leaders, who gradually became spiritual advisers to political leaders, and the fifth was the Mahdi,
a charismatic leader, not legitimated by political or religious authority, but by inspiration, and
recognised by the masses as divine (McDonough, 1978).
In South Asia, in general, Islam had of necessity to be expressed in the vernacular, since Arabic,
Persian and even Urdu (except in parts of North India) remained impenetrable to the local people.
Thus during the 15th to 18th centuries, Muslim cultural mediation expressed Islam in local cultural
idiom for better understanding and appreciation. In the Nabivamsa, Sayyid Sultan (16th-17th century)
depicted prophet Muhammad even as an avatar of God (Hardy, 1987). With the fall of the Mughal
dynasty in 1857, the Ulama came to the conclusion that the community needed them more than ever.
The Sufi order gradually declined; the traditional type of Mahdi did not materialise; despite the Khilafat
movement, the Caliphate made little progress. Thus, the traditional authority in spiritual matters came
to rest in the Ulama and the Sharia. This has required the Ulama to hold the source of their authority,
the Sharia, against all attacks from within and without.
In contemporary South Asian development since 1947, Islam has articulated its plasticity, located as it
is in three nations — India, Pakistan and (since 1971) Bangladesh. In India, given the constitutional
guarantee of freedom of religious workship, the Deobandi Ulama reign supreme as far as the practice
of Islam is concerned. There is a decreasing Muslim majority who continue to oppose interpretations
of the Indian courts applying to Muslims, as citizens of the Indian republic.

'Giving' Behaviour 253
In Pakistan, "Under martial regime of General Zia Haqq, Shariat courts have been established, Zakat
(prescribed alms levy) introduced and the intention of enforcing the Qur'anic penalties for crimes
against God proclaimed. Attempts are being made to introduce interest free forms of banking and
commercial enterprise" (Hardy, 1987). However, there is no taboo in the Muslim faith against seeking
profit in commerce.
In Islam the non-ritual divine guidance covers the domestic, social, aesthetic, political, judicial, and
economic areas of human activities. This guidance meets the spiritual and psychological needs of the
practitioner and makes the practitioner a better social being. The economic framework is delineated
by "the call to uphold Islamic virtues of truth, honesty in dealings, respect for the right of others,
pursuit of moderation, sacrifice and hard work" (Rauf, 1978). Islam also provides ordinances
(injunctions and prohibitions) structuring the Islamic economic system. One of these commandments
is the payment of Zakat, meaning 'that which purifies' and 'that which fosters' and amounting to a
duty on 'alms giving'. Zakat is the hub and pivot of Islamic public finance and covers the moral,
social, and economic spheres:
In the moral sphere Zakat washes away the greed and acquisitiveness of the rich. In the social
sphere Zakat acts as a unique measure vouchsafed by Islam to abolish poverty from society
by making the rich alive to the social responsibilities they have. In the economic sphere Zakat
prevents the morbid accumulation of wealth in a few hands and allows it to be diffused before it
assumes threatening proportions in the hands of its possessors. It is a compulsory contribution
of the Muslims to the state exchequer (Mannan, 1986).
Further, Zakat is associated with salat (prayer); Zakat is barren when not associated with salat, and
salat, fruitless when estranged from social welfare and Muslim leaders were prepared to take to task
those who discriminated between salat and Zakat.
Six principles of the Sharia govern the payment of Zakat. It is paid by : 1. Those who hold the faith; 2.
The principle of equity (the lesser the labour and capital, the lesser the levy); 3. The principle of
productivity {Zakat is due, only when it is mature); 4. Principle of reason (Only mature men are
responsible for Zakat; not children and those incapacitated); 5. Principle of convenience (New
converts in foreign land are not required to pay Zakat) and 6. Principle of freedom (Only freemen are
required to pay Zakat; not slaves) (Mannan, 1986).
In our delineation above of the interdependence of religion and economics in different societies, the
'Giving of Money or Service' as a phenomenon, can be seen to be religion and society specific, in its
practice. In Hinduism, with the strong historical hold of the jajmani system in villages where no person
can escape from his/her jajmani role and where society's functional obligation can be security for a
loan of money, the connotation of 'Giving', even in the 1980s, must be seen as emerging from
socio-dynamic rules reflective of the same. In Islam, likewise, all Giving must be seen as emerging
from the concepts of Zakat and Salat.
However all 'Giving' among human beings outside of kin-altruism, can probably be shown to be a
strategy of mutual endearment approved by the group, to:
a) elucidate reciprocal 'giving' of goods and services (reciprocal altruism)
b) to come to terms with the belief that one is blessed with fortune and gain spiritual credit (reciprocal
altruism)
c) affirm group values and induce free giving in others with no expectation of return (induced altruism).

2 5 4 M. Radh Achuthan
The Survey
Social consciousness, defined as 'preparedness to help non-familial others in need', is surmised to
draw sustenance from survival demands, belief in sacred law, the implied sense of duty, equity,
justice, and brotherhood, for Indians of all religions independent of their social status. Based on the
above surmise, an interview protocol constructed to study helping/non-helping behaviour included
questions on the 'Giving' record on Money and on Service of the respondent: Data were collected as
reports on this close-ended structured questionnaire administered in the regional language by
personal interview, (interviewer, same sex as interviewee), to a stratified (basis, 1981 Indian Census)
random sample of age 20 years and above (1984 voter registration list), in the states of Uttar Pradesh
(n = 258), West Bengal (n = 127) and Karnataka ( n = 86 ). Stratification was by sex, age, dwelling,
literacy (education), and religion. The Giving record on Money is measured as the number of days of
daily pay donated per year and the Giving record on Service is measured as the number of days of
Service donated per year. The principal investigator was the field coordinator.
The Questions
Questions 35 to 38 of the questionnaire dealt with the Giving record of the respondent (questions 1 to
35 dealt with the structural data of the sample and other issues not related to this study) :
35. There are various ways of giving of yourself to others outside your family. These are by teaching,
by providing a protected environment, by giving donations or by providing service... In which
way have you helped those who need help? Have you given charity?
1 No 2 Yes
36. With regard to teaching, providing a protected environment, of giving service... in which way(s)
have you helped those who need help?
1 No help 2 service 3 protection 4 teaching
37. (If charity) specifically, how much money have you donated above and beyond taxes paid?
Have you donated : 1. a day's pay per year?
2. a week's pay per year?
3. two week's pay per year?
4. three week's pay per year?
5. a month's pay per year?
6. two or more month's pay per year?
38. (If service, protection or teaching) specifically, how much of your time have you donated in the
past?
Have you donated : 1. one day of your time per year?
2. one week of your time per year?
3. two weeks of your time per year?
4. three weeks of your time per year?
5. one month of your time per year?
6. two or more months of your time per year?
The response was quantified as follows: 1 week=5 days; 2 weeks = 10 days; 3 weeks = 15 days; 1
month = 22 days; 2 or more months = 44 days.

'Giving' Behaviour 255
Table 1 provides sample state and data collection description.
Table 1
SAMPLE DESCRIPTION
State
Population Language
Political
Location
Survey
No. of
No. of
1981
Party in
in India
Months
(Dist)
Interviews
Census
Power
Village+
(Mln)
1986
Town
1. Uttar
110
Hindi
Congress
North
Dec 86,
(8)
258
Pradesh
(Indira)
Jan, Feb,
55
May, June
'87
2. Karnataka 37
Kannada
Janata
South
Mar, Apr,
(5)
86
'87
22
3. West
54
Bengali
Communist
East
July, Aug,
(5)
127
Bengal
party —
Sept '87
29
Marxists
Findings on Giving of Money
The response on the Giving of Money in terms of the 'Number of days of pay given per year', is
broken down on the bases of the structural variables — age, household income, religion, education
and sex by dwelling — in Tables 2a-2e, for each state.
Table 3 gives a state summary on the Giving of Money disaggregated on the bases of the structural
variables.
Tables 2a-2e and Table 3 together justify the following observations on the Giving of Money.
By Age
Table 2(a) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of pay per year
given to help others, by age, for sample States.
In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal Giving of Money decreases with age up to age group 30-44 years,
then increases for group 45-59 years and then decreases again for>60 years group. In Karnataka, it
decreases with age up to age group 45-59 years and then increases slightly. In all the three states
Giving of Money generally decreases with increasing age.
By Household Income
Table 2(b) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of pay per year
given to help others, by income, for sample States.
In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal Giving of Money decreases, increases, decreases, and then
increases with increase in monthly income from Rs. < 4 0 0 to Rs. > 5 0 0 0 per month. In Karnataka the

256 M. Radh Achuthan
Table 2(a)
GIVING OF MONEY BY AGE
No. of Days of Pay per year Given to Help Others
States
Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Kamataka
Age Category
Mean Std. n Mean Std. n Mean Std. n
(yrs)
Dev. Dev. Dev.
20-29
7.4 10.4 72 3.8 3.7 42 3.9 5.7 29
30-44
6.4 9.7 86 2.6 3.1 44 1.7 4.0 32
45-59
7.1 10.2' 70 3.9 5.0 24 1.6 2.1 16
> 6 0
3.5 4.6 30 3.1 4.1 17 2.0 2.3 9
All
6.5 9.6 258 3.3 3.8 127 2.3 4.3 86
pattern is different: Giving of Money increases, decreases and then increases from monthly income of
Rs. 400 upto Rs. 5000.
Table 2(b)
GIVING OF MONEY BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME
No. of Days of Pay per year Given to Help Others
States
Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Karnataka
Household
Mean Std. n Mean Std. n Mean Std. n
Income (Rs)
Dev. Dev. Dev.
400
6.7 10.0 61 4.1 3.9 16 2.1 5.2 19
401-1000
4.1 5.6 108 2.3 2.7 55 2.3 4.7 43
1001-2000
10.8 13.3 47 3.7 3.4 33 1.8 1.9 20
2001-3000
6.2 9.5 32 3.1 3.4 14 3.0 2.8 2
3001-5000
13.8 20.3 4 3.8 5.7 6 7.5 3.5 2
> 5 0 0 0
10.2 9.7 6 14.0 8.5 3 — — —
All
6.5 9.6 258 3.3 3.8 127 2.3 4.3 86
By Religious Community
Table 2(c) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of pay per year
given to help others, by religious community, for sample States.
Hindus have a higher score in West Bengal and Karnataka (3.5 and 2.4), while Muslims have a higher
score in Uttar Pradesh (9.5) in matters of Giving of Money.

'Giving' Behaviour 257
Table 2(c)
GIVING OF MONEY BY RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY
No. of Days of Pay per Year Given to Help Others
States
Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Karnataka
Religious
Mean Std. n Mean Std. n Mean Std. n
Community
Dev. Dev. Dev.
Hindu
6.0 9.2 222 3.5 4.1 96 2.4 4.5 77
Muslim
9.5 11.6 36 2.8 2.8 31 1.1 1.5 9
All
6.5 9.6 258 3.3 3.8 127 2.3 4.3 86
By Education
Table 2(d) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of pay per year
given to help others, by level of education, for sample States.
Table 2(d)
GIVING OF MONEY BY EDUCATION
In all the three States, with increasing formal education, Giving of Money increases up to secondary
school graduation. In Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka, college graduation decreases Giving of Money,
while in West Bengal it increases. Those with non-formal religious education have the highest score in
Uttar Pradesh.

258 M. Radh Achuthan
By Dwelling and by Sex
Table 2(e) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of pay per year
given to help others, by dwelling, for sample States and by Sex .
Table 2(e)
GIVING OF MONEY BY DWELLING AND SEX
No. of Days of Pay per Year Given to Help Others
States
Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Karnataka
Dwelling
Mean Std. n Mean Std. n Mean Std. n
Dev. Dev. Dev.
Male
Urban
6.9 9.6 26 7.2 6.1 17 2.1 2.9 13
Rural
3.8 7.0 109 4.7 3.2 50 3.4 6.5 31
Total
4.4 7.6 135 5.3 4.2 67 3.0 5.7 44
Female
Urban
6.7 7.0 22 1.6 1.8 16 1.3 1.3 11
Rural
9.3 11.7 101 0.9 1.2 44 1.5 2.0 31
Total
8.9 11.0 123 1.1 1.4 60 1.4 1.8 42
In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal the responses of urban males have a higher score (6.9 and 7.2),
while in Karnataka the rural males have a higher score (3.4). In Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka rural
females have a higher score (9.3 and 1.5), while in West Bengal urban females have a higher score
(1.6).
In Table 3 we give a state-wise summary on the Giving of Money disaggregated on the bases of the
structural variables.
Findings On Giving Service
The response on the Giving of Service in terms of the 'number of days of time given per year', is
broken down on the bases of the structural variables — age, household income, religious community,
education, and sex by dwelling — in Tables 4a-4e, for each state.
Table 5, provides a state summary on the Giving of Service disaggregated on the bases of the
structural variables.
Tables 4a-4e, and Table 5, together justify the following observations on the Giving of Service:

'Giving' Behaviour 259
Table 3
VARIATION OF GIVING OF MONEY WITH CHARACTERISTICS (STRUCTURAL VARIABLES)
OF THE RESPONDENT, BY STATE
Structural Variables :
Sex : Male/Female
Education : None, 1-5 Grade, 6-10 Grade, H.S. Graduate, College Graduate, Post-Graduate.
Income : < 4 0 0 ; 400-1000; 1001-2000; 2001-3000; 3001-5000; > 5000/month
Age : 20-29 ; 30-44 ; 45-59 ; > 6 0 years
Dwelling : Urban/Rural
Uttar Pradesh — State Mean = 6.5
Variable Commentary
Sex. Female higher than Male (8.9 vs 4.4)
Education Starting at (4.0), higher with education up to Secondary Graduate (9.4),
Post-Graduate lowest {3.0), None, Intermediate (6.1).
Income : Range 401-1000, lowest (4.1); 3001-5000 highest (13.8); < 4 0 0 and 2001-3000
intermediate at (6.7, 6.2)
Age : Over 60, lowest (3.5); 20-29 highest (7.4)
Dwelling : Urban higher for Males (6.9 vs 3.8), Rural higher for Females (9.3 vs 6.7)
Religion : Muslims (9.5) higher than Hindus (6.0)
West Bengal — State Mean = 3.3
Variable Commentary
Sex : Male much higher than Female (5.3 vs 1.1)
Education None, lowest (1.2); higher with education Post-Graduate highest (8.8).
Income Range 401-1.000, lowest (2.3); most (apprx 3.5); over 5000 highest (14.0)
Age :. 45-59 group highest (3.9); oscillates with increasing age
Dwelling Urban higher for both Males (7.2 vs 4.7), and Females (1.6 vs 0.9)
Religion Hindu (3.5) higher than Muslim (2.8)
Karnataka — State Mean = 2.3
Variable Commentary
Sex Male higher than Female (3.0 vs 1.4)
Education None, lowest (1.3); higher with education up to Secondary Graduate (6.4), then
lower (3.4)
Income Range 1001-2000 lowest (1.8); 3001-5000, highest (7.5)
Age 20-29 group highest (3.4); 45-59 group lowest (1.6)
Dwelling : Rural higher for both Male (3.4 vs 2.1), and Female (1.5 vs 1.3)
Religion : Hindu (2.4) higher than Muslim (1.1)
By Age
Table 4(a) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of service per
year given to help others, by age, for sample States.

260 M. Radh Achuthan
Table 4(a)
GIVING OF SERVICE BY AGE
No. of Days of Pay per year Given to Help Others
States,
Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Karnataka
Age Category
Mean Std. n Mean Std. n Mean Std. n
(yrs)
Dev. Dev. Dev.
20-29
15.4 13.1 72 5.7 6.1 42' 7.5 7.7 29
30-44
14.9 13.8 86 4.0 5.4 44 8.9 10.1 32
45-59
11.1 10.2 70 3.4 5.2 24 9.9 12.0 16
> 6 0
14.9 13.7 30 5.9 10.8 17 11.1 7.4 9
All
14.0 12.7 258 4.7 6.6 127 8.8 9.4 86
In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, with increasing age the Giving of Service decreases up to age
group 45-59 yrs, and then increases for those in age group>60 yrs. In Karnataka Giving of Service
increases with age for all age groups.
By Household Income
Table 4(b) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of service per
year given to help others, by household income, for sample States.
Table 4(b)
GIVING OF SERVICE BY HOUSEHOLD INCOME
In Uttar Pradesh, Giving of Service increases with monthly income up to range Rs. 1001-2000, and
decreases for higher income ranges. In West Bengal, it fluctuates: decreases, increases, decreases
and then increases with increase in monthly income. In Karnataka, it increases with increase in
monthly income.

'Giving' Behaviour 261
By Religious Community
Table 4(c) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of service per
year given to help others, by religious community, for sample States.
Table 4(c)
GIVING OF SERVICE BY RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY
In Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka, the Muslims have a higher score (14.9 and 10.2), while Hindus have
a higher score in West Bengal (5.0) in Giving of Service.
By Education
Table 4(d) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of service per
year given to help others, by level of education, for sample States.
Table 4(d)
GIVING OF SERVICE BY LEVEL OF EDUCATION
In Uttar Pradesh, Giving of Service increases with formal education inclusive of college graduation,
and then decreases. In West Bengal, it increases with formal education inclusive of secondary school
graduation and then decreases. In Karnataka, it increases with education inclusive of college

262 M. Radh Achuthan
graduation. In all three states, Giving of Service increases with education inclusive of secondary
school education.
By Dwelling and Sex
Table 4(e) shows the means, standard deviation, number of cases, for number of days of service per
year given to help others, by dwelling, for sample States and by sex .
Table 4(e)
GIVING OF SERVICE BY DWELLING AND SEX
In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal urban males have a higher score (16.9 and 11.4), while in
Karnataka rural males have a higher score (10.5). In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal urban females
have a higher score (14.3 and 1.7) while in Karnataka rural females have a higher score (7.7).
Regression Analysis: Table 6 gives the results of regression analysis on the Giving of Money (RQ37)
and the log(RQ37), with the structurals as the dependent variables.
On Giving of Money, Table 6 allows the following observations in terms of a quasi-model.
In Uttar Pradesh, 9 per cent of the variance in the Giving of Money is explained in terms of the
variables of being male, income, and being Hindu, whereas 12 per cent of the variance in the
log(Giving of Money) is explained by the variables of being male, the lack of income, and being
Muslim, (non-Hindu).
In West Bengal, 41 per cent of the variance in the Giving of Money is explained in terms of the
variables of being male, income and education, whereas 46 per cent of the variance of the log(Giving
of Money) is explained by being male and education.
In Karnataka, 10 per cent of the variance in the Giving of Money is explained in terms of the variable of
education, whereas 7 per cent of the variance of the log(Giving of Money) is explained by income.

'Giving' Behaviour 263
Table 5
VARIATION OF GIVING OF SERVICE WITH CHARACTERISTICS (STRUCTURAL VARIABLES)
OF THE RESPONDENT, BY STATE
Structural Variables .
Sex
Male/Female
Education
None, 1-5 Grade, 6-10 Grade, H.S. Graduate, College Graduate, Post-Graduate.
Income
<400; 400-1000; 1001-2000; 2001-3000; 3001-5000; > 5000/month
Age
20-29 ; 30-44 ; 45-59; > 60 years
Dwelling
Urban/Rural
Uttar Pradesh — State Mean = 14.0
Variable
Commentary
Sex
Male higher than Female (16.4 vs 11.4)
Education
Starting at (10.3), higher with education up to College Graduate (19.7),
Post-Graduate (10.8)
Income
Range 3001-5000 and >5000 lowest (10.5, 10.3); 1001-2000 highest (19.6)
Age
45-59 group, lowest (11.1); 20-29 highest (15.4)
Dwelling
Urban higher for both Male (16.9 vs 16.3), and Female (14.3 vs 10.8)
Religion
Muslims (14.9) higher than Hindus (13.9)
West Bengal — State Mean = 4.7
Variable
Commentary
Sex
Male much higher than Female (8.1 vs 0.1)
Education
Starting at (2.5), higher with education, Secondary Graduate highest (10.5), Post
Graduate lower (8.5)
Income
Oscillates with income, Range 2001-3000 lowest (2.7) over 5000, highest (18.0)
Age
Lower with increasing age up to age 60 (5.7 to 3.4) then higher (5.9)
Dwelling
Urban higher for both Male (11.4 vs 7.0), and Female (1.7 vs 0.6)
Religion
Hindu (5.0) higher than Muslim (3.9)
Karnataka — State Mean = 8.8
Variable
Commentary
Sex
Male higher than Female (10.1 vs 7.5)
Education
Starting at (6.4), higher with education Grades 6-10 at (12.1): College Graduate
highest (22.0)
Income
Starting with (6.3) higher with Income, Range 3001 to 5000, highest (22.0)
Age
Higher with increasing age, (7.5 to 11.1)
Dwelling
Rural higher for both Male (10.5 vs 9.3), and Female (7.7 vs 6.9)
Religion
Muslim (10.2) higher than Hindu (8.7)
Both in Uttar Pradesh and in West Bengal, being male contributes to the explanation of most of the
variance in both linear and log quasi-models of Giving of Money. In Karnataka, neither is this
observation upheld, nor is there a pattern between the two quasi-models.

264 M. Radh Achuthan
Table 6
REGRESSION ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR GIVING OF MONEY
WITH STRUCTURALS, BY STATE
The most robust regression explanation of the Giving of Money data, is for West Bengal.
Table 7 gives the results of regression analysis on the Giving of Service (RQ38) and the logRQ38, with
Table 7
REGRESSION ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR GIVING OF
SERVICE WITH STRUCTURALS, BY STATE

'Giving' Behaviour 265
the structural as the dependent variables.
On Giving of Service, Table 7 allows the following observation in terms of a quasi-model.
In Uttar Pradesh, 5 per cent of the variance on the Giving of Service is explained by being male and
education, whereas 9 per cent of the variance of the log(Giving of Service) is explained by being male
and education.
In West Bengal, 37 per cent of the variance on the Giving of Service is explained by being male,
income and the small size of the family, whereas 60 per cent of the variance of the log(Giving of
Service) is explained by being male and education.
In Karnataka, 17 per cent of the variance on the Giving of Service is explained by education and age,
whereas 21 per cent of the variance of the log(Giving of Service) is explained by education, age and
family size.
In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, being male contributes to most of the explanation of the variance
in both quasi-models. In Karnataka, education contributes to most of the explanation of the variance in
both models.
The most robust explanation of variance of the Giving of Service data, is for West Bengal.
Summary and Conclusions
The empirical analysis generates simple but significant points about the variation in Giving Money and
Giving Service within the Indian population.
First, significant differences exist between the three states. Uttar Pradesh shows the overall highest
score with Karnataka the lowest on Giving Money and West Bengal the lowest on Giving Service.
Second, there exists wide variation in both types of Giving within each of the three states studied.
There are significant differences between men and women, richer and poorer, educated and less
educated, urban and rural dwellers, Hindus and Muslims, and different age cohorts.
Third, on Giving Money the across-state uniformities observed are that some education enhances
Giving and the younger tend to give more; besides that, the structural characteristics of Giving Money
varies from state to state, particularly when the direction of these relationships is contrasted. On Giving
Service the across-state uniformities observed are that males have a higher score than females and
Giving is higher with education up to college education, inclusive; that aside, the between-state
structural characteristics varies, when the direction of these relationships is contrasted.
A causal model on Giving is not available at present. The constraints of the sample size with limited
measure on potentially critical variables, have restricted analysis strategy. We believe that a complex
pattern of causality is operative. Data collection from a substantial sample of 1000-1500 respondents
per state and a modified protocol with Giving as the primary focus should provide a better insight into
causal modelling on Giving in India.
Such information is of critical value to successfully devise and market Indian secular social

266 M. Radh Achuthan
programmes, and in particular, to draw out and orchestrate the voluntary participation of the people in
the development of Indian human resources.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author acknowledges financial assistance from Long Island University; the Planning Department, Government
of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow; the Planning Department , Government of Karnataka, Bangalore; and the Dalmia
Charitable Trust, New Delhi for data collection in India on this sabbatical leave year (1986-87) research project,
affiliated with the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi. Contributions by Leonhard on data analysis, feedback from
Centre scholars at seminars, Indian facilitation by Nisha Sahai Achuthan and the assistance of translators,
interviewers, and others far too numerous to name, are gratefully acknowledged.
DEFINITIONS
Altruism: An activity that promotes the fitness of the recipient at the expense of the provider
Kin Altruism: Activity that promotes the fitness of genes in other related to the self
Reciprocal Altruism: Activity that promotes the fitness of other in return for activity that promotes fitness of the self
Induced Altruism: Activity that promotes the fitness of other at an expense to the self, with no benefit to the self or to
its genes present in the recipient
Inclusive Fitness: That measure of its reproductive success which an organism shares with related organisms
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