RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD S. ANANDALAKSHMY The major research...
RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
S. ANANDALAKSHMY
The major research studies of the last decade have been received and categorized for
heuristic purposes under the heads of: (a) Development Norms and Infancy; (b) Personality
and Affect-related Variables and (c) Cognitive Variables. Both published and unpublished
sources have been cited.
The a-theoretical approach and the inappropriate use of standardized tests common to
a majority of studies have been critically examined. The new directions for child study are
suggested, with a focus on socially relevant problems.
Dr. (Miss) S. Anandalakshmy is Reader in the Department of Child Development, Lady
Irwin College, Sikandra Road, New Delhi 110 001.
In the contemporary Indian scene, there a-theoretical basis for the choice. There
is a great deal of interest in childhood. is, however, an emerging body of research
Changes in behaviour and development with which originates in socially relevant issues
age, and the process of change constitute and in which there is better specification
the focus. The more recent concern with of the rationale for sample and variable
developmental changes is not always selected.
explicit; sometimes, it is implicit in the
selection of age as the independent variable, I. Developmental Norms and Infancy
or in the search for the antecedent-
consequent links in the developmental span.
A study of developmental norms of
Although the study of developmental children in India between the ages of 21/2
processes would be well served by a follow-
to 5, sponsored by the National Council
through of intra-individual development, for Educational Research and Training has
most studies in this area take a cross-
been discussed at length in the volume,
sectional rather than a longitudinal "Review of Research in Psychology",
approach in the research framework.
published by the I.C.S.S.R. One part of
In the studies in Child Development in it which was published (Muralidharan,
India, two trends are apparent; the 1974), stated that children living in urban
approach, by and large, is an a-theoretical areas showed a faster rate of motor
one and the variables taken up for study development than those living in rural and
are test-related, not theory-related. Also, industrial areas. A comparison of the
samples are selected for convenience results with those of Gesell's norms showed
rather than for theoretical reasons. The that on the whole, the present sample
base for sampling i.e. the independent appeared to be a little ahead in the
variables has been examined critically. The development of most of the motor skills
thrust of the criticism of existing psycho-
than Gesell's sample.
logical research in India (Anandalakshmy,
In another study, sponsored by the
1974) was that theoretically unrelated N.C.E.R.T., the Developmental Norms
constructs have often been arbitrarily Project focussed on the age group 51/2 to 11
selected as dependent or independent years and is reported to be completed. The
variables. Many studies have used member-
objective was to study the effects of different
ship of a caste or religious group as the environmental variables on development:
independent variable in the study of home, school, urban residence, social class,
psychological factors without establishing etc. The publication of both these nation-

296
S. ANANDALAKSHMY
wide normative studies is awaited with of Infant Development has been used for
interest, since they are the first of the kind assessing cognitive and motor development.
in India.
The study is in the process of being written
There has been one study on motor and as this goes to press (Anandalakshmy,
mental development of infants, undertaken 1979).
in the M.S. University of Baroda. An early
Socialization as an area of research is a
version of the Bayley Infant Scale was shared interest of several social sciences.
used for the study, and performance on Basically, the studies share the objectives
which was compared with the Bayley of identifying relationships between
norms on U.S. infants. Within the Indian characteristic patterns of adult behaviour
sample, there were urban upper class, and their supposed antecedents in childhood
urban lower class and rural infants. The experience. This antecedent-consequent link
comparison of mean total motor scores receives theoretical support from the
suggested the superiority of Indian babies dynamic personality theory as well as from
in the first fifteen months. Within the Indian learning theory though they expose diffe-
sample, for the first six months of life, rent explanatory principles.
urban upper socio-economic class babies
Many studies on infants have been
scored lowest on averages and urban lower concerned with the age at which children
socio-economic class babies scored the are weaned and toilet-trained in different
highest. Babies from the rural areas occupy SES groups. By and large, mothers from
the middle position. Regarding comparative the upper SES employed better feeding
standing on mental scales, urban upper practices and weaned their children earlier.
class infants had better average than the A few studies showed that there were
U.S A. sample, practically for the whole specific differences between higher and
period under study.
lower socio-economic groups. Educated
Currently, there is a large-scale longi-
mothers belonging to the high-income
tudinal study in progress (Ghosh, 1976). group used feeding practices that were
Over 5,000 infants have been followed up more responsive to infant needs, than did
from the prenatal stage to age 6. As it the lower socio-economic group mothers.
is the pediatric wing of the hospital that The later weaned and toilet-trained their
is conducting the study, the variables of children at a later stage than the mothers
physical growth and health status have been of the higher socio-economic group (Desai,
the focus of the investigation. Socio-
1965; Devi, 1967; Singh, 1966).
economic and family size data are, of
course, available. Cognitive assessment of Socialization in Childhood
the 4-year old and 6-year old cohort is in
progress. This study promises to be a land-
Studies on growth and development of
mark, in that it links several socio-economic young children emphasize the importance
factors with health and with cognitive of good nutrition, a healthy environment
functioning. Another study of the relation-
and parental attitudes. The development of
ships between nutritional status, environ-
the child has been found to be positively
mental factors, maternal interaction and related to stimulation at home. High and
cognitive functioning has been undertaken low stimulation homes were characterised
on a moderate scale. About 500 infants, 6 on the basis of leisure-time activities of
to 24 months of age, from urban Delhi parents, availability of toys, space and
constitute the sample. The Bayley's Scale books. Children were rated on activity level

RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
297
and social, emotional, intellectual, motor role in child care was limited (Basu, 1975).
and language development. Children from
A study conducted in a Community
homes high on stimulation, scored higher Development Block in Alipur, Delhi State,
on four of the six aspects studied: activity obtained an integral picture of the child-
level, social, language and intellectual rearing practices and the use of health and
development (Muralidharan, 1970). Signi-
educational services for the child under
ficant differences between adequately and 6. The demographic profiles of the sample
non-adequately nourished children were indicated a predominantly Jat and Harijan
observed on height, weight and intelligence,
population, where most heads of household
all measures favouring the well-nourished were employed in the city and a majority
group. On most measures, the inadequately were illiterate. It was found that the number
nourished group also showed greater of family members working in the city bore
variation than the adequately nourished no relationship to the size of the family.
group (Warner and Muralidharan, 1970). However, the educational level of the
Studies have been conducted on different
father and the size of the family were
groups differentiated on the basis of region,
related inversely. The beliefs and practices
religion or caste. These have been on small
in the upbringing of young children were
samples and very few generalizations ascertained by the interview method. It was
emerge. The majority of the mothers found that religious beliefs and traditional
breast-fed their babies for several months. rituals related to pregnancy implied various
Weaning was found to be strict in some restrictions imposed on the mother.
cases. There was no emphasis on toilet-
Children were breast-fed on self-demand
training though it started at an early age. until the age of three and there was little
In a study on a Muslim community, it was
emphasis on toilet-training. Mothers of
found that mothers played a significant preschool children reported that by age
role in making children dependent. The three, children followed instructions, helped
majority of the children were moderately in household tasks and took on odd jobs.
aggressive and toilet-training started late In a discussion on how the child acquired
(Shroff, 1970). A recent study of Hindu, knowledge, most mothers felt that the child
Muslim and Christian families (N=180, learned on his own. Books and teachers in
60 from each group) to examine the their view, played a secondary role. Families
differences in child-rearing practices; in which members had more urban contact
specifically, feeding and weaning, dressing, and were better educated, assisted children
sleep and play routines, discipline and in learning tasks. Only half the number
moral training, was conducted using home of preschool children attended 'balwadis'.
visits, observation and structured interviews.
The majority of mothers were indifferent
There were some differences among parents
to preschool education and did not consider
of the three groups; predictably SES and
it essential for the development of the
structure of family (nuclear/joint) also child. Out of the 1,000 mothers interviewed,
influenced the practices (Saied, 1975). 67 per cent used the services of the Primary
Amongst the tribals of Tripura, there was Health Centres. Most of these utilised the
an elaborate system of rituals and taboos services for curative purposes when the
in connection with the birth of the child. child was sick, rather than for preventive
There was no conscious effort to wean the purposes (Deulkar, 1977).
infant and toilet-training depended on the
Child development research has establish-
child's physical maturation. The father's ed a relationship between the child's

298
S. ANANDALAKSHMY
experiences in the family and his behaviour. the lower socio-economic status levels
A study conducted by Ames (1974), (Muthayya, 1974).
investigated the influence of the type of
Social psychologists are concerned with
family on 31/2 to 5 year old children and the origins of certain aspects of behaviour
their infraction with adult family members. which, at times, become social problems.
The findings indicated that nuclear family Prejudice is one of these areas and naturally,
children were brought up under the direct the family as the primary agent of socializa-
influence of adults more than were joint tion, was studied for the beginnings of
family children. Nuclear family children unfavourable attitudes to outgroup mem-
were reported to be more likely to have bers. The origin of prejudice in children
restrictions placed on their activities.
was investigated (Vyas, 1971 and Sharma,
1979) with the hypothesis that age and
The types of family constellation as well prejudiced attitudes would be correlated.
as family interactions are considered to be Religion, caste and social class prejudices
significant determinants of the child's social of children were taken into account. The
behaviour. Aggression, dependence and age hypothesis was supported, stressing the
achievement are among the major variables cognitive aspect of prejudice; there was also
investigated in this context. Parental a relationship between attitudes of parents
disciplinary techniques were studied in and the prejudices manifest in their children.
relation to aggression. Children exhibited
It is only in recent years that pro-social
significantly more aggression towards behaviour has received some attention from
objects than towards persons. Parental researchers. Altruism, co-operation and
techniques that encouraged internalization sharing behaviour are among those varia-
of behaviour codes were effective in con-
bles. Generosity of children was studied in
trolling aggressive behaviour or in relation to parental warmth. In both the
channelling it into pro-social behaviour. The upper-income families (Kapoor, 1973) and
child from a family where parents punished lower-income families (Issacs, 1973), it was
the child without an explanation, tended to found that moral values internalized by
be more aggressive in peer interactions children depended on the warmth of the
(Sharda, 1972; Anandalakshmy, 1979). A parent-child relationship and the interaction
study on the influence of educational patterns. No sex differences in generosity
qualifications of parents, their SES and the behaviour of children were seen. A study on
size of the family on the social participation altruism in 8-9 year-olds indicated that
of preschoolers (Begum, 1975) concluded institutionalized children were significantly
that there was a positive relationship bet-
less altruistic than non-institutionalized
ween the variables (education, SES and size children. A sex difference in altruism was
of family) and the children's participation in observed, girls being more altruistic than
the social activities at school.
boys. Training by a friendly adult model
The importance of fathers in child-
for a short period did not alter the institu-
rearing is being gradually acknowledged in tionalised children's altruistic behaviour
the academic literature. A study conducted (Jain, 1973). Altruism has been studied as
on attitudes of rural parents towards child-
it relates to social class, in another study.
rearing, revealed that fathers who belong With increasing socio-economic status
to the higher socio-economic status group, levels, an increase in sympathy and concern
maintain a more favourable attitude towards for fellow beings was observed (Sakkar,
child-rearing than those belonging to 1972).

RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
299
Several studies have been undertaken in other aspirations for their future. Craftsmen,
the natural settings of small, homogeneous who are economically marginal, tend to
groups. In this set of studies, the method involve the whole family in craft activities.
of study is near-ethnographic with the Therefore, they were specifically selected in
investigators interviewing parents and order to study the patterns of socialization
children informally. These studies differ for future occupational goals. Socialization
not only in the methodology used, but also for competence in families of craftsmen
in the selection of the independent variable, such as the potters (Gill, 1974), the mat-
i.e. parental occupation. The milestones in makers (Sahai, 1974), the makers of lac
child-rearing generally considered for study, bangles (Vasudeva, 1974) and the toy-
like feeding, weaning, and toilet-training are makers (Murthy, 1974) was studied. In all
derivative from Freudian theory and these communities, the general finding was
considered to predict modal personality. In that young children helped parents with
this set of studies, the Freudian model has occupational activities. Parents did not
been set aside, in favour of a model which consciously train their children for compe-
takes socio-economic and occupational tence but rather, the performance of certain
factors as the social realities within which tasks depended on the situational needs.
a child grows up. The variables studied The specific purpose of training children
here were those which were also subjectively for future roles was implicit and not often
relevant to the parents interviewed.
stated by parents. Significant sex and birth
The selection of competence as the order differences in the nature and expecta-
dependent variable, rather than intelli-
tions of tasks performed existed in all the
gence or personality, also represents a communities. By and large, girls were
breakthrough. Competence is defined as trained to be self-reliant and responsible
being made up of three components: Self-
and boys were trained for achievement,
reliance, Responsibility and Achievement, generally in the craft. The extent to which
which were three of the eight variables, the children had formal schooling was a
used by the Whiting cross-cultural studies function of the economic status of the family
(Whiting, 1966).
and the sex of the child. A larger study
The first set of studies helped to establish sponsored by the ICSSR, of the block
the method and were of socialization patterns
Varanasi, farmers of Rudrapur (U.P.,) and
in a rural group (Yardi, 1972), in a Harijan printers of Sanganeer, silk weavers of
slum (Bajaj, 1973), in a Harijan village Chattarpur (Delhi) has been completed and
community (George, 1973), and in a low-
is expected to be published in the near
income urban group (Vohra, 1973). It was future. The section on the Sanganeer com-
found that there was no clear pattern of munity has been published (Anandalakshmy,
rules which the parents followed. Yet, 1975).
there were sex and birth order differences,
favouring responsibility for girls and II. Personality and Affect-related Variables
achievement for boys. The abilities of the
in Development Adjustment
children were largely geared to the per-
formance of tasks essential for economic
In a study of preschoolers, significant
survival.
differences between adjusted and maladjust-
The father's occupation was expected to ed children were seen in parental child-
influence the attitude towards the children's rearing characteristics like accepting/
occupational socialization as well as the rejecting, relaxed/overanxious and autho-

300
S. ANANDALAKSHMY
ritarian/democratic. Living in a nuclear ness of the children worried the parents, but
family contributed to better adjustment than the greatest concern was regarding their
living in an extended family. Maternal future (Jain, 1967). In an exploratory study
education was an important factor influenc-
of families which have retarded children
ing adjustment but the child's age, sex and 10-14 years old, it was found that the
social class were not significant variables presence of a retarded child in the family
(Periera and Thirtha, 1972). In most other subjected the family members to some
studies, social class membership was a amount of stress, although the exact
salient variable in adjustment.
nature of the problem varied in each case
There is a growing acceptance of the (Saxena, 1976). A similar study on deaf
importance of the preschool experiences for children revealed parallel findings (Kumar,
later school adjustment, but this is not 1(976). There was, even in the case of
unequivocally supported by the available children with sensory deficits or lower
data. Some studies clearly reveal the mental functioning, a difference in the
importance of pre-school attendance for all-
parental aspirations for sons and daughters.
round adjustment to the primary school
In recent years cross-cultural psychology
(Muralidharan and Banerji, 1975). But a has come into a status of its own; on one
study on the influence of nursery school hand, the discipline tests the universality
attendance in the adjustment of upper class of psychological variables, constructs and
children in kindergarten showed no signi-
theories; and on the other, it helps to
ficant differences in the personal, social, identify the cultural determinants of human
home and academic adjustment of children behaviour. There are only few such studies
exposed to a preschool programme and that have used Indian samples.
those not exposed to such a programme.
A few studies have examined cross-
The type of nursery school attended (child-
cultural differences in anxiety. No significant
oriented and task-oriented) also did not differences in the anxiety levels of
influence later adjustment (Grover, 1975). American, French, Japanese and Indian
Similar conclusions were arrived at in boys from high-fee schools were found.
another study on children from the lower Indian girls from high-fee schools were
socio-economic status groups (Chadha, significantly higher on anxiety than Japanese
1975), where it was found that attendance girls and were not significantly different
of a preschool class in the Municipal School on anxiety from American and French girls.
did not significantly influence adjustment Sex differences were in interaction with
of the children in class I, in personal, socio-economic status. Girls had higher
social or academic terms. This area requires anxiety scores than boys in high-fee schools
more research, especially as the above but in low-fee schools, boys were more
findings go counter to the theoretical anxious (Muralidharan and Sharma, 1971).
predictions.
There are several problems that parents
The studies on the influence of social
face in dealing with children with deficits. and cultural factors on the developing child
One of these cases is having a mentally do not give a very clear picture on the
retarded child in the family. Twenty-eight whole, partly because the country has a
children between 9 and 14 years of age were multitude of sub-cultures and societies, and
selected and studied intensively. Predictably, partly because the studies have not always
children with IQs lower than 50, presented been large-scale or systematic enough for
more problems. Aggressiveness and moodi-
generalization.

RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
301
III. Variables related to Cognitive
However, no difference was evident in the
Development;
personal-social aspects of behaviour. School
attendance seemed to influence the
Intelligence, as measured by standard acquisition of concepts positively when
intelligence tests, and cognitive abilities, as school-going and non-school going children
measured by performance on the Piagetian were compared to one another (Malani,
tasks, form two separate categories of 1975).
research. Much of the earlier and more
In a study investigating the performance
traditional studies involved tests of of children on categorization tasks (Vartak,
intelligence. Piaget measures have been used 1972), it was observed that younger children
and found to have a cross-culturally valid classified objects mainly by the more obvi-
theoretical framework, but Indian researchers ous characteristics like colour, whereas the
have, on the whole, been slow to take the older children classified objects by their
Piagetian studies.
function. The relationship between per-
A longitudinal study on mental develop-
formance on a classification task and on
ment during infancy, using the Bayley scale, a task involving role-taking skills indicated
revealed a consistent pattern of mental that there was no relationship between the
development. Also, mental development of two variables. Both tasks required cognitive
individual infants as measured by the scale ability but each of them, a different type.
fluctuated a great deal. Parental education One finding of interest was that girls showed
and income were, however, significantly a higher level of role-taking skills at an
related to the mental development of earlier age than boys (Behl, 1976).
children after the age of two (Pathak, 1790).
The conservation abilities of children
Nutritional status has been found to be have been studied, using Piagetian tasks.
linked with mental development. Children By and large, the studies are replications
suffering from marasmus during infancy which support the theory (Rao, 1976). When
showed lowered scores on measured matched on mental age, the upper SES
intelligence but the difference was not children performed better on conservation
significant. The evidence indicates that the tasks than children from the lower SES.
lag seen in malnourished children of their Conservation ability was also positively
inter-sensory integrative functions puts them related to academic achievement. No sex
at a definite disadvantage in developing differences were found (Kapur, 1972).
learning skills and profiting from the School and non-school children of the same
complex sensory stimulation provided by age were used as samples for a study on
the educational environment (Ghai et al, conservation of mass, liquid and number.
1973).
Schooling, per se, was found to have no
A study undertaken to investigate the effect on conservation ability which, it was
effects of various types of programmed argued, could be because of the quality
preschool experiences on concept formation, of schooling being poor or the kind of out-
and personal-social adjustment, found of-school experiences being good for the
that when children were exposed to struc- development of conservation ability (Ahmed,
tured learning situations and to incidental 1973). Conservation ability of primary
learning experiences, both groups showed school children was studied in relation
a higher level of acquisition of concepts to comprehension and appreciation of
than children who had been exposed to humour as measured by a tool consisting
neither of these preschool situations.
of 15 humour stimuli. Conservation ability

RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
303
21/2 to 4 years of age (Rao and Ananda-
in the acquisition of language (Hindi)
lakshmy, 1973). The children in both groups followed universal patterns of language
used a simple sentence structure (Restricted development. The children did not use the
Code) more frequently. When talking to two linguistic systems separately but tended
adults, all children made the speech structure to use words from both as a composite
more elaborate, than while talking to peers. language (Bedi, 1976).
The major findings were that specific
Another study dealt with switching of
situational variables were more important codes of bilingual children (Marathi and
determinants of speech style especially when Hindi), in relation to the role of the person,
spontaneous speech is considered rather the situation and the topic of discussion.
than the global variable of socio-economic 3-year-olds did not switch language, but
status. Social class differences in the amount 8-year-olds did, showing that language-
of verbalization in terms of total word count switching begins before 8 years and after 3
were present, but not in the structure of years of age. In 8-year olds who were
the sentences (Bhargava, 1974). The upper clearly bilingual the topic of discussion was
class children tended to use more of the not related to the choice of language (Oak,
Elaborated Code than lower class children 1975).
and lower class children used more intra-
The effect of preschool education on the
communicative speech than those from the language and intellectual development of
upper class but the differences were non-
disadvantaged children was investigated.
significant. A parallel study (Madan, 1974) Children exposed to a pre-school were
confirmed these findings. The findings of found to be performing consistently better
these studies are in contradiction to the in enumerative, quantitative aspects of
established relationship between social class language (vocabulary) and in certain
and language behaviour. In the spontaneous measures of intellectual ability than children
speech of children, the social class differences in a primary school, who had never been
get attenuated.
exposed to a preschool experience. However,
In a study analyzing the speech of 4 year-
there seemed to be no real difference in
old children (Nayyar, 1975), it was observed the degree of comprehension, quality of
that children did not modify their speech language used and other relevant qualitative
structure to the age of the listener—whether aspects of language (Muralidharan and
the listener was 2 years, or 4 years of age Banerji, 1973). A more recent doctoral
or an adult. Children used more of the study (Pankajam, 1979) also supports the
Restricted Code in all these situations, i.e. thesis that preschool attendance enhances
in interaction with adults, peers and younger language competence.
siblings.
Moral Development
The differences in structure, function and
content of language in children of two age-
Moral development is treated as subsumed
groups; (2-3 yrs) and (4-5 yrs) were studied under cognitive development because the
and it was found that older children used studies deal largely with moral judgement
less egocentric speech, a longer mean length rather than with moral behaviour. In
of utterance and a higher proportion of Piagetian theory, systematized by Kohlberg,
structurally complete sentences (Wadhwa, moral development is related to age and
1976). A study on younger children, 18-30 cognitive maturity.
months of age, exposed to two languages
A cross-sectional study to assess the
in the home-situation, indicated that stages knowledge of moral values of children (6-11

304
S. ANANDALAKSHMY
yrs) from two types of schools showed a lists of funding agencies as well, there is
direct relationship between concept forma-
a certain tendency to converge on these
tion and age. Sex differences in the know-
areas.
ledge of moral concepts existed at the lower
There may be a more concerted effort to
age level, but disappeared with age. build theory in Child Development, or to
Differences due to school environment did apply theory to specific aspects of the
not influence the knowledge of moral Indian cultural experience. In this context,
concepts among older children (Sinha and Kakar's book: "The Inner World" is an
Verma, 1972). Another study showed a important contribution. He uses the
significant relationship between moral psychoanalytic framework for his analysis
judgment and intelligence as measured by of childhood and society; his book is rich
the Raven's Progressive Matrices (Verma, with references to traditional Indian myths
1976). In a study on the development of and practices. It would seem fair to predict
religious concepts in Hindu children of four that psychologists interested in the cultural
age groups (6, 8, 10, 12 yrs) findings specifics that influence a child's life will
indicated that children's religious concepts turn to the Indian sources for insights.
progressed through stages parallel to those
Serious re-thinking on methodology will
of cognitive development. Variations in however be necessary, before such studies
patterns and content of socialization are launched. Developmental processes are
accounted for individual differences in the naturally universal, but the cultural and
amount of information possessed (Sharma, sub-cultural variations in their expression
1976).
are important. For instance, in using a stan-
Several other studies are in progress. The dard measure of intelligence on culturally
Kohlberg Moral Judgment test (based on different groups the results are not really
the Piagetian framework) has been adapted comparable. The inference drawn from the
to suit the Indian culture at the M.S. differing scores is that one group is superior
University of Baroda. In the Indian samples, or inferior to the other. The risks are
there are no sex differences or social class obvious. The assumption that performance
differences when total scores are considered. on the test is a conclusive indication of
On specific issues, some SES differences the person's competence and the social
were observed and explained (Saxena and implication of this categorisation into
Saraswati, 1976; Verma, 1976).
"better" and "worse" groups can be serious.
Psychologists have a responsibility to give
Projection for the Future
the right kind of guidance regarding
The study of child development is educational and social policy. It is therefore
gradually getting more responsive to new necessary that there should be greater
social needs and to the findings from the awareness of the interpretation and applica-
other social sciences. There is an increased tion of their research findings.
awareness of the issues that have con-
Observation of young children under
temporary social salience. There is also an naturalistic and controlled conditions will
articulation that issues of immediate continue to be a major method for the study
application to social problems must be of the child. One expects that researchers
tackled first. In this context, poverty and will make adaptations of the techniques of
deprivation, social prejudice and social assessment, and move away from recording
backwardness, all receive more attention. test results per se, to identifying the process
Since these topics are put high on priority under study in each case. A certain healthy

RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
305
scepticism regarding the validity of more intensively for the antecedents of later
standardised tests (which are almost always development in the childhood span, and in
translations of vintage American Tests) and adulthood.
a willingness to reject a test that is un-
Cross-cultural studies are undertaken to
suitable would be a positive step. Perhaps, test the universality of developmental
changing the venue to the homes or to principles as well as to study the differences
informal settings, will make possible more in performance insofar as they explain the
valid conclusions.
cultures. Both these reasons have been
responsible for the upsurge in cross-cultural
Another trend in the study of develop-
studies on development. It is to be hoped
mental processes that would be desirable that we move away from mere replication
is the shift to longitudinal studies. For studies to the development of theoretical
too long, statements about development constructs and new methods relevant to our
have been made on the available data from clime and culture. Indian researchers may
cross-sectional studies. The equivalence of need to take up areas of study that have
samples of different age groups on non-age subjective relevance to the people. On the
variables have been taken for granted in other hand, areas relevant for policy
the past. Longitudinal studies would reveal implications cannot also be ignored by the
the intra-individual variations which in turn academic. Out of the plethora of materials,
could provide normative data. The tendency seminar papers and the like emerging out
to look for the origins of the developmental of the I.Y.C., it is to be hoped that some
processes would also take researchers to insights will be possible and that the child
younger age groups. Infancy and the pre-
as an individual and as a person will stand
school years should logically be studied to benefit.
REFERENCES
Ahmed, Z.
Performance of School-going Children Conservation Tasks. Un-
1973
published master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Ames, E. W.
Adult Child Interaction in Nuclear and Joint Households in an
1974
Industrial Town in India. Paper presented at the meeting of the
American Anthropological Association, Mexico city.
Anandalakshmy, S.
How Independent is the Independent Variable? In Dawson,
1975
J.L.M. and Lonner, W. J. (Eds.) Readings in Cross Cultural Psy-
chology. Hongkong: University of Hong Kong Press.
1975
Socialization for Competence. In Berry J. W. and Lonner W. J.
(Eds.). Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology. Amsterdam: Swets
and Zeitlinger.
1979 (a)
"Cognitive Concomitants of Children's Aggressive Behaviour:
Explorations into Theory and Method." Paper presented at the
International Symposium on Aggressive Behaviour, All India
Institute of Medical Sciences, March, 1979.
1979 (b)
Cognitive Competence in Infancy. Project Sponsored by the
Indian Council of Social Science Research, under Completion,
1979.
Bajaj, R.
Patterns of Socialization for Competence in Harijan Families in
1973
a New Delhi Slum. Unpublished master's dissertation, University
of Delhi.

306
S. ANANDALAKSHMY
Basu, S.
A Study in the Child Rearing Practices in the Tripuri Tribe of
1975
Tripura. Unpublished master's dissertation, Tata Institute of
Social Sciences, Bombay.
Bedi, A.
Spontaneous Speech of 18-30 Month Old Children Exposed to
1976
Two Languages. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Delhi.
Begum, N.
Influence of Educational Qualifications of Parents, Socio-econo-
1975
mic Status and Size of Family on the Social Participation of
Preschoolers. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Madras.
Behl, K.
Role-taking Skills and Classification Abilities in 6 to 10 Years'
1976
Old Children. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Delhi.
Bhargava, A.
Maternal and Child Language in two Socio-economic Groups.
1974
Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Chadha, S.
Influence of Nursery School Attendance on Adjustment of Chil-
1975
dren in Class I. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Delhi.
Desai, M.
A Study of Child Rearing Practices with Reference to Feeding
1965
and Toilet Training in Higher and Lower Socio-economic Groups.
Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Baroda.
Deulkar, D.
Child Rearing Practices in Alipur. Report submitted to the De-
1977
partment of Social Welfare.
Devi, K. N.
Child Rearing Practices in Rural Families at Two Income Levels.
1967
Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Madras.
George, E.
A Study of the Patterns of Socialization for Competence of Hari-
1973
jan Boys and Girls in a Delhi Village. Unpublished master's
dissertation, University of Delhi.
Ghai, O. P., Ratna, K.:
"Effects of Early Marasmic Malnutrition on Subsequent Men-
et al.
tal Development," Indian Pediatrics 10:155; Journal of Indian
1973
Academy of Pediatrics, XII, 1, 87.
Ghosh, S. :
Longitudinal Study of a Birth Cohort of 6000 Babies. Research
No date
in progress.
Gill, R. :
Patterns of Socialization for Competence in Potters Families in
1974
New Delhi. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Delhi.
Grover, P.
Influence of Nursery School Attendance on the Adjustment of
1975
Upper Class Children in Kindergarten. Unpublished master's
dissertation, University of Delhi.
Isaacs, M.
Parental Warmth and Generosity of 7-8 Year Old Children in
1973
Low Income Families. Unpublished master's dissertation, Univer-
sity of Delhi.
Jain, M. C.
Social Problems Related to the Presence of a Mentally Retarded
1967
Child in the Family. Unpublished master's dissertation,
Bangalore.
Jain, N.
Altruism in 8 to 9 Year Old Institutionalised and Non-institu-
1973
tionalised Children. Unpublished master's dissertation, Univer-
sity of Delhi.
Kapoor, S.
Parental Warmth and Generosity of 7-8 Year Old Children in
1973
High Income Families. Unpublished master's dissertation, Uni-
versity of Delhi.

RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
307
Kapour, R.
Social Class Differences in Conservation and Academic Achieve-
1972
ment of Elementary School Children. Unpublished master's dis-
sertation, University of Delhi.
Kanser, F.
A Study of the Development of Curiosity in Children of 4, 5
1976
and 6 Years with reference to Age, Sex, and Economic Status.
Unpublished master's dissertation, Madras University.
Kumar, N.
Family Dynamics and the Deaf Child: Case Studies. Unpublish-
1976
ed master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Kumari, L.
Conservation Abilities of 6 to 8 Year Old Boys from two Oc-
1976
cupational Environments. Unpublished master"s dissertation,
University of Delhi.
Madan, M.
Relationship between Maternal and Child Language in two So-
1974
cio-economic Groups. Unpublished master's dissertation, Univer-
sity of Delhi.
Malani, I.
A Study of Concept Formation in Pre-school Groups Taught by
1975
Two Methods, National Council of Educational Research and
Training (Mimeo.)
Mehta, S.
Sex and Social Class Difference in Language Development of
1972
Pre-school Children. Unpublished master's dissertation. Univer-
sity of Delhi.
Mohite, P.
A Study of the Language Performance of Pre-school Children
1973
with Special Reference to Their Socio-economic Status. Un-
published master's dissertation, M. S. University of Baroda.
Muralidharan, R,
Motor Development of Indian Children-Developmental Norms
1974
of Indian Children 21/2 years to 5 years. In Buch, M. B. A Sur-
vey of Research in Education. Centre of Advanced study in
Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, M. S. Univer-
sity of Baroda.
Muralidharan, R. and :
"Language Development of Kindergarten Children in Relation
Banerjee, U.
to their Paternal Occupations," Indian Educational Review, 8, 2.
1973
"Effect of School Education on the Language and Intellectual
1974
Development of Under-privileged Children," Journal of Education
and Psychology, XXXII, 1.
Effect of Pre-school Education on the School Readiness of
1975
Under-privileged Children of Delhi. International Journal of
Early Childhood,
Vol. 7, No. 2, 188-191.
Muralidharan, R. and :
"Manifest Anxiety in Indian Children," Indian Educational Re-
Sharma, A.
view, Vol. 6, No. 2, 67-68.
1971
Murthy, V. : Patterns of Socialization for Competence in the Families of
1974
Toy-makers of Muhammadpur, New Delhi. Unpublished master's
dissertation, University of Delhi.
Muthayya, B. C.
"Attitude of Rural Parents towards Certain Aspects of Child-
1974
rearing Practice," Indian Educational Review, Vol. 9, No. 1,
48-65.
Nayyar, S.
Patterns of Verbal Communication of 4 Year-Old Children with
1975
Listeners of Three Age Groups. Unpublished master's dissertation,
University of Delhi.
Oak, M.
Language Switching in the Spontaneous Speech of 3 and 8 Year
1975
Old Bilinguals. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Delhi.

308
S. ANANDALAKSHMY
Pankajam, G.
A Comparative Analysis of Language Development of Children.
1979
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Madras.
Pathak, P.
Mental and Motor Growth of Indian Babies (1 month-30
1970
months). Department of Child Development, Faculty of Home
Science, M, S. University of Baroda.
Periera, J. and
"A Study of Some Factors Influencing Social Adjustment in
Thirtha, N. V.
Preschool Children," Research Bulletin of the Department of
1973
Psychology, Osmania University, IPA, 1:508.
Rajput, S.
Training for Creativity: School-going and "Non-school going
1976
Children. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Rao, A. and
Patterns of Linguistic Communication in Pre-school Children of
Anandalakshmy, S
Two Socio-economic Status Levels. Paper read at the Institute
1973
of Advanced Study, Simla, in the Seminar on Language and
Culture.
Rao, P
Creative Thinking: Training Nine Year Old School Children.
1976
Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Rao, S. N
"An Experimental Investigation of Children — Concepts of Mass,
1976
Weight and Volume," Indian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 51,
No. 3, 212-220.
Sahai, A.
Patterns of Socialization for Competence in the Families of
1974
Craftsmen: Matmakers in New Delhi. Unpublished master's dis-
sertation. University of Delhi.
Sahni, A
Conservation Ability and Comprehension and Appreciation of
1973
Humour in Primary School Children. Unpublished master's dis-
sertation, University of Delhi.
Saied, S
Child-rearing Practices among the Hindus, Muslims and Chris-
1975
tians in the City of Madras. Unpublished master's dissertation,
University of Madras.
Sakkar, S. B.
"Altruistic Interest of School Children," Journal of Education
1972
and Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 1, 14-18 (IPA, 1:480).
Sawhney, K
A Developmental Study of the Transition from a Perceptual to
1973
a Conceptual Mode of Cognitive Functioning. Unpublished mas-
ter's dissertation, M. S. University of Baroda.
Saxena, A.
Family Dynamics and the Mentally Retarded Child: Case
1976
Studies. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Saxena, K. and
Development of Moral Judgement of Indian Children between
Saraswati, T. S,
the Ages Eight to Twelve Years. Paper presented at the Interna-
1976
tional Association in Cross-cultural Psychology Conference, Til-
burg, Netherlands.
Sethi, S. S.
Effect of Planned Experiences on the Development of Seriation
1975
Abilities in Four Year Old Preschool Children. Unpublished
Ph.D. thesis, Ohio State University.
Sharda, N.
Parental Disciplinary Techniques and Aggression in Preschool
1972
Children. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Sharma, A.
Development of Prejudice in Children: an Empirical Study. Un-
1979
published doctoral thesis, University of Delhi.
Sharma, B.
Children's Religious Concepts: a Developmental Study of 6 to
1976
12 Year Old Hindu Children. Unpublished master's dissertation,
University of Delhi.

RECENT RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CHILD
309
Shroff, N. C.
A Study of Child Rearing Practices in the Ismaili Community in
1970
Ahmedabad City, Unpublished master's dissertation, M. S. Uni-
versity of Baroda.
Singh, A
A Study of Child Rearing Practices with Reference to Feeding
1966
and Toilet-training in Higher, Middle and Lower Socio-economic
Groups. Unpublished master's dissertation, M. S. University of
Baroda.
Sinha, D. and
"Knowledge of Moral Values in Children," Psychological Studies,
Verma, M.
Vol. 17, No. 1, 1-6 (IPA, 1:427).
1972
Verma, A. K.
"Anxiety as a Variable in Perceptual Reaction", Indian Disser-
1970
tation Abstracts, Vol. 1, 54-57.
Vartak, V. A.
Pre-school Children's Performance in Categorization Tasks. Un-
1972
published master's dissertation, University of Delhi.
Vasudev, M.
Patterns of Socialization for Competence in Craft Families In-
1974
volved in Making Bangles. Unpublished master's dissertation,
University of Delhi.
Verma, S.
Social Class Differences in the Moral Judgement of Children
1976
from 10 to 12 years. Unpublished master's dissertation, M. S.
University of Baroda.
Vohra, A.
Patterns of Socialization for Competence in Low-income Families
1973
in New Delhi. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Delhi.
Vyas, S. K.
"The Origin of Prejudice in Children," In Shanmugan, T. W.
1971
(Ed.), Researches in Personality and Social Problems, University
of Madras, 1973, 129-154.
Wadhwa, R.
Spontaneous Speech of Preschool Children: Structure, Function
1976
and Content. Unpublished master's dissertation, University of
Delhi.
Warner, G. E. and
"Nutrition, Cognitive Status and Achievement Motivation of New
Muralidharan, R.
Delhi Nursery School children," Journal of Cross-Cultural Psy-
1970
chology, Vol. 1, No. 3, 271-281.
Whiting, J. W. M.
"Field Guide for a Study of Socialization", Six Culture Series,
et al
Vol. 1, New York: Wiley.
1966
Yardi, R.
A Study of the Difference in the Patterns of Socialization of
1972
Rural Boys and Girls in a Selected Village near Delhi. Un-
published master's dissertation, University of Delhi.