T H E ARTICLES O N SOCIAL W O R K I N T H E Mrs. ANITA...
T H E ARTICLES O N
SOCIAL W O R K I N T H E
Mrs. ANITA HERLEKAR*
I N D I A N J O U R N A L OF SOCIAL W O R K
I
in 1936, there has been a continuing depen-
dency on the social work literature as it is
Literature is an important device to record
developed in the U.S.A. It is this literature
ideas, propositions and principles derived that has provided the frame of reference
from individual experiences and observations, to social workers in India. And it is
which, in course of time, help to add to, and necessary at this stage of the development
to formulate, a common frame of reference, of social work profession in India, that it
or an intellectual tradition of a profession. should develop literature with significant
It is also a device of communicating to the orientation and relation to the Indian social
professionals, the various observations, and cultural conditions. It was realised quite
experiences and experiments in a manner early that Indian social work must be based
which contributes to the existing body of on and related to social work experience
knowledge or to the existing frame of in this country. Emphasising this and a need
reference and to the general growth of the for research in this regard, Dr. Clifford
science. A professional journal thus con-
Manschardt clearly stated, "As a matter of
tributes to the formulation and development fact, the pioneering of a social studies curri-
of this aspect of a profession. As is the case culum in India is itself a major piece of
with any new, developing profession, the research, as it is quite impossible to reproduce
new trends and variations in thinking and western experience without submitting it to a
practice of social work are reflected in the great amount of critical analysis and
articles in professional journals to start with. scrutinising each subject in the light of the
Through a journal, the experiences in the Indian conditions. The fact that the Tata
field of work and the development of new School, while still in its infancy, saw fit to
theories in social science could be discussed. establish, the Indian journal of social work
Thus, "for the development of the pro-
for the encouragement of original research
fession, a suitable professional magazine is is concrete evidence of its interest in this
of vital importance."1
subject."2
For the past several years since the first
Thus the Indian Journal of Social Work
social work school was established in India was started by the Sir Dorabji Tata
* Mrs. Herlekar is on the Staff of the Encyclopaedia of Social Work unit in the Central
Social Welfare Board, New Delhi.

300
M R S . ANITA HERLEKAR
Graduate School of Social Work in 1940,
II
only four years after this pioneer social work
The Indian Journal of Social Work has
school was established. The Journal was published, over a period of last twenty five
started as a 'Quarterly devoted to the years nearly (June 1940 to Sept. 1964),
interests of social work'.
about 838 articles on various subjects related
to social work. These include the papers
The Journal has since been publishing presented for discussion at the annual and
literature on a variety of subjects related biennial sessions of the Indian Conference
to Indian social conditions, discussing various
of Social Work, and other Seminars and
problems of significance to social workers. Conferences organised under the auspices of
The range of the subjects discussed in the the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, and
articles of the Journal is very wide, carrying other social work organisations. These articles
from such subject-matter as of general are classified in the following broad
interest to social workers, such as social categories:
change, educational problems, communal
discord, etc. to such subject-matter as directly
1. general interest topics, including
relates to the fields and methods of social
articles on social services like educa-
work, like social work in medical setting,
tion, health, housing, community
industry, a family welfare agency, etc. The
harmony, standard of living, social
main purpose of this study has been to sort
legislation, and social welfare in other
countries etc.;
out such material as has direct significance
to the fields and methods of social work,
2. allied social sciences, including articles
or to various welfare services, from a mass
on sociology, economic problems,
of such matter which is of indirect, though
psychology, psychiatry, anthropology,
undoubted, value to social work. The classi-
attitudes studies etc.;
fication of articles attempted here is not
3. labour welfare, including industrial
based on any standard pattern of classi-
relations, labour conditions, labour
fication, but has a very broad and general
legislation, trade unions, social work
basis in order to accommodate the differences
in industry etc.;
and unevenness of approach of various
4. social defence, including crime and
authors and the variety of topics discussed
delinquency, prohibition, beggary,
in the articles. It however takes into con-
prostitution etc.;
sideration generally such questions: does the
article bring out the function of social work
5. correctional social work, including
in relation to the subject discussed? does it
probation, institutional and after-care
indicate the welfare services that are existing
services e t c ;
or that are needed in relation to the groups
6. contemporary social work, including
or problem under study? does it discuss
general articles on the profession of
contemporary social work, its history, fields
social work, fields of social work,
and philosophy? does it examine any of the
voluntary social work, history and
methods or techniques of social work? does
philosophy of social work etc.;
it contain information on matters which
7. planning administration, co-ordination
contribute to the understanding of social
and evaluation of social welfare,
problems and fields of services? etc.
including welfare policy;

T H E A R T I C L E S O N SOCIAL W O R K I N T H E INDIAN JOURNAL O F SOCIAL W O R K
301
8. community development, including
A little more careful study of the articles
rural and urban community develop-
included in these categories indicate their
ment and community organisation;
n a t u r e thus.
9. t h e handicapped, including the General Interest Topics.—The articles
physically and the mentally handi-
included in this category are very infor-
capped;
mative. T h e y are helpful to social workers
10. medical and psychiatric social work; to understand, in a better manner, some of
11. family and child welfare, including the problems they have to face while giving
youth welfare;
social work help to people, either on an
12. social work education and training;
individual level, or in their work with groups
13. tribal welfare;
and communities. Discussions about educa-
14. social case work and group work;
tional problems and schemes, unemployment,
15. t h e under-privileged, including the co-operation, nutrition, dietary standards,
scheduled castes, Harijans and back-
health services, physical education, rural in-
w a r d classes;
debtedness etc. a r e some of t h e topics in view.
16. research;
T h e y help social workers to know w h a t are
17. welfare organisations including
the general problems and how they affect
communal charities, charitable trusts, individuals, groups and communities.
welfare institutions etc.;
T h e r e are other articles in this category
18. public welfare, including social
t h a t deal with social conditions, welfare
insurance and security.
problems and services in other countries.
These are not by any means exclusive cate-
T h e r e are others t h a t discuss topics of current
gories. T h e main factor for classifying any interest, like war, refugees, etc. T h e y make
article in one particular category is its social workers better informed.
emphasis on t h e relevant aspects of the topic.
Almost all the articles deal with their
T h u s the article on T.B. control is classified subject in a very comprehensive, though
under general interest, while t h a t on T.B. general, manner. T h e y t r a c e the historical
social workers, their functions and training evolution of the problem. T h e y show the
has been put under medical and psychiatric magnitude of the problem, the importance of
social work.
giving adequate attention to it, or how it
T h e highest number of articles, 168 out of
has been grossly neglected etc. T h e function
the total 838, come under the category of and role of social workers in relation to these,
general interest topics. T h e next category to though m u c h limited, has rarely been
claim a large number of articles is t h a t of brought out.
allied social sciences, claiming 158 articles.
Allied Social Sciences.—This is a very
Labour welfare has 128 articles; social important area of the literature published
defence 49; planning administration, co-ordi-
in the Journal. T h e articles on social science
nation 44; community development 4 3 ; subjects have a definite scholarly quality.
social work 4 1 ; correctional social work 32; T h e importance of such topics like caste and
the handicapped 30; medical and psychiatric family, rural-urban relationships, behaviour
social work 29; family and child welfare 26; patterns in social adjustments, family dis-
social work education and training 26; tribal organisation, tribal communities, parent
welfare 2 1 ; social case work a n d group work
child relationships, tradition and its role,
17; the under-privileged 8; research 7; personality types, social attitudes, etc. is
welfare organisations 7; and public welfare 4. beyond doubt. Yet it would be necessary to

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M R S . ANITA HERLEKAR
see the relation of these and such other topics
it out. There are a few articles that deal
from allied social sciences in a more inte-
with the functions and role of labour welfare
grated manner. The value of social science officers, wherein the importance of human
content in social work should be considered, relationships, the need for handling workers'
besides providing fundamental knowledge to problems with an insight into human dyna-
social workers, more in terms of the integra-
mics etc. have been emphasized. But they do
tion of this knowledge with the social work not indicate to what extent, the under-
methods and skills, and the insight it standing of the dynamics of human relation-
provides for a careful analysis of the two-
ships and behaviour is being used by the
way relationship between social science and welfare officers. Labour welfare has been
social work knowledge. It should provide the oldest field in which social work was
an insight into the use of social work accepted with some readiness, and it is in
methods, skills in social situations and into this field that a very large number of social
related experience.
workers find employment every year. In view
of this, one would expect to find a more
The various articles dealing with allied established relationship between this field
social sciences remain distinct from articles and social work theory, principles and
discussing social work or social work methods. practice, reflected in the articles on labour
They do not show any integrating elements welfare. Labour welfare literature in the
that would make them clearly meaningful to Indian Journal of Social Work describes the
to social work. 'Contributions of Sociology field most adequately, but only vaguely
to Social Work' by Dr. John E. Owen or indicates such a relationship. Case studies
'Social Work in Gross Cultural Perspective' which would put in focus the applicability
by Dr. Herbert H. Aptekar or 'Social Case of social work methods and principles in this
Work and Cultural Problems' by Smt. M. field are but rare. This is an area which
M. Desai are some of the very few articles needs attention in the Journal.
that bring out the relationship between social
work and social sciences to some extent.
Social Defence.—The major areas covered
While it would be necessary for social work by this category are beggary, prostitution,
to draw knowledge to a very large extent prohibition, crime and delinquency.
from social sciences, it would be also
There is relatively a large number of
necessary to relate this to social work know-
articles dealing with the beggar problem.
ledge in a vary clear manner.
The problem is analysed and assessed in all
Labour Welfare.—The articles in this its aspects. Socio-economic causes of beggary,
category deal with different aspects of labour
types of beggers, their mental traits, their
welfare, industrial relations, labour legis-
organisation etc. have been carefully studied
lation, work and life of industrial workers, and presented. Some of the articles also give
role and duties of labour welfare officers, historical review of beggar relief-schemes,
personnel management etc. They describe legislation for the control of beggary etc.
and analyse the working of various welfare They also suggest schemes for the rehabilita-
schemes and programmes, and highlight tion of beggars, and for prevention of
their adequacies and inadequacies. Gene-
beggary.
rally, they describe very adequately the field
Various aspects of crime and delinquency,
of labour welfare in almost all its aspects. socio-economic factors leading to such anti-
Yet as regards the functions of social work social behaviour, hereditary traits and
in this field, very few articles try to bring personality types as studied from habitual

T H E A R T I C L E S O N SOCIAL W O R K I N T H E INDIAN JOURNAL O F SOCIAL W O R K
303
criminals, etc. are described a n d analysed. in the Indian Journal of Social Work, since
Prevention is emphasised in most of t h e the development programmes were started
articles, and preventive programmes are in the country. Some attempt seems to have
suggested.
been made, though rather vague, to
Comparatively, there are fewer articles on determine the relationship of social work
prostitution and prohibition.
and community development. It is believed
Correctional Social Work.—It is in the that community development is not a field
articles in this category t h a t services for of social work entirely. It covers several
correction, control and prevention of t h e areas of work, involving inter-professional
problems of social defence are indicated. team work. Although it is as yet not fully
They describe such services as they currently accepted as a field for social work, it seems,
exist, as well as suggest new schemes and that that social work has a role to play in
services as are needed to make the correc-
community development, is being gradually
tional programme more effective. Administra-
realised. " T h e role of the social worker in
tion of prisons, certified schools, beggar this field is that of an educator—However
homes, rescue homes, after-care programmes, this role of an educator or the very concept
etc. have been dealt with in different studies. of social education is a little distant from the
Probation, its importance and effective use current methodological practice of social
in correctional work, role of probation work. T h e question t h a t follows is w h a t is
officers, modern approach to the problems the role of social education in social work:
of crime etc. have been discussed and whether or not it is preferable as a new
emphasized in a number of articles. T h e method to the other methods of social
need for social work training for correctional work."3 Yet another author points o u t :
personnel is stressed very often.
" T h e task of the S.E.O., as envisaged by the
authorities is to create people's enthusiasm
Planning, Administration, Co-ordination
and to secure popular participation in the
and Evaluation.—Most of the articles on rural development programmes—For look-
planning social welfare programmes have ing very much like the community organiser
critically examined the First Five-Year Plan. in a social work setting, he represents the
Subsequent plans have not evoked as m u c h mainspring of the implementation of the
interest and attention in the Journal. Articles welfare service plan in the project area."4
on administration and co-ordination of
welfare programmes, mainly deal with the
Articles on urban community development
need for a different approach to administra-
point out that there is little of corporate life
tion of welfare programmes, the need for and civic co-operation among communities
adequate training of welfare personnel, for living in isolation in urban areas, and that
co-ordination at various levels in the govern-
urban community development, through a
ment departments administering welfare conscious process of social integration and
services, among the voluntary welfare social education can evolve corporate spirit
agencies, etc. T h e emphasis in most of these and civic cohesion.
articles seems to be to point out how
Social Work.—This category generally
inadequately social welfare services are covers the modern concept of social work,
attended to, and how m u c h needs to be the scientific approach to social work, the
done.
nature and scope of modern social work, the
Community Development. — Community profession of social work and its development
Development has attracted m u c h attention in India, its philosophy, its historical back-

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M R S . ANITA HERLEKAR
ground in India etc. Thus one finds that mentally handicapped children, their pro-
"Professional social work actually began in blems of adjustment to the demands of
India in the forties of the twentieth century, society, ignorance and inability of parents to
as an organised activity for combating pro-
recognise mental retardation in children etc.
blems of social maladjustments in urban They also suggest ways and means to educate
communities."5 It is also described as a the mentally handicapped and also their
"somewhat immature adoption of foreign parents and family for mutual adjustment,
methods to deal with problems born out of and programmes for making this group as
different causes and conditions."6 Yet useful and adjusted as possible.
another author sees an increasing professional
awareness on the part of social workers in
Among the physically handicapped the
India, and points out to "the need to under-
problems of the blind have been discussed
take an objective study of the prevailing at some length. The problems of the
social and economic conditions in India, and physically handicapped are assessed, and
determine how best we can adapt the various schemes for their education, training and
processes of social work, like social case rehabilitation are discussed. The deaf and
work, social group work, community orga-
mute is a neglected group in the Journal, as
nisation and social research to the prevail-
it is also in the general organisation of services
ing needs of the Indian population."7 for the physically handicapped.
Doubts are also expressed at places whether
social work could be considered a profession
Medical and Psychiatric Social Work.
at all.
This is the only field where professional
social work seems to have made a mark,
The historical background of social work and this is reflected in the literature on
in India has been brought out rather medical and psychiatric social work in the
inadequately. One finds references to the Journal. Even here, it is more medical social
concept of social work in ancient times, but work than psychiatric social work, that is
one does not get a clear picture of how discussed. The role of social workers in a
modern professional social work found its hospital setting, organisation of social service
place, what were the factors that led to pro-
department, the dynamics of the worker-
fessional social work etc.
patient relationship, and the way the worker
The philosophy of social work has been makes use of his social work training are
discussed in the light of the ideals and clearly brought out. Emotional support,
principles of social work as upheld by medicines, contacts with the family, accom-
Mahatma Gandhi and also in relation to the modation in infirmaries, referral for pros-
basic values of democracy and the accept-
thetic appliances, organising library services,
ance of a scientific approach and discipline tuition for hospitalised children etc. are
to social work upheld by the social work pro-
some of the types of services and help the
fession. But social work philosophy altogether social worker gives to patients. Emphasis is
has not received enough attention in the laid on the role of a psychiatric social worker
Indian Journal.
in the diagnosis of patients, and on other
The Handicapped.—The articles in this help a worker is able to give. A number of
category deal with the problems of both the these articles present case studies in Indian
mentally handicapped and the physically settings and are helpful in seeing clearly the
handicapped. They critically analyse the application of social work theory in Indian
causes and effects of frustration in the setting, as well as its limitations.

T H E ARTICLES O N SOCIAL W O R K I N T H E INDIAN JOURNAL O F SOCIAL W O R K
305
Family and Child Welfare.—When view-
state to a stable status."8 It seems to be
ed as one of the fields of social work, this reflected in the change of emphasis. T h e
category does not do much justice to the emphasis on the need for training has more
subject, in the sense that the articles do not or less disappeared. And there is increasing
indicate the existing welfare services for the emphasis on the content and pattern of social
family and the child. They do discuss how-
work training.
ever, several services that need to be
Tribal Welfare.—These articles deal with
organised, the need for such services in view the subject in a very general manner. Yet
of the changing social patterns, etc. It is the social and cultural patterns of the tribes,
perhaps indicative of the fact that services their special problems because of their
are yet to be developed in this area. A family
isolation for ages, the need for trained
welfare agency, its functions in a com-
personnel is emphasised again and again.
munity are still rarely known. However, the The problems of tribal welfare, being in the
different areas in which a family could need main the problems of tribal development,
help from a family welfare agency have been are much akin to those of community
clearly brought out.
development. And social work still has to
Social Work Education and Training.— establish its role in both these areas.
T h e main emphasis of the articles in this
category seems to advocate the importance
Social Case Work and Group Work.
of formal education and training for social Among the methods of social work, it is only
workers. Proper selection of students, impor-
social case work t h a t has found some place.
tance of a well-organised field work pro-
T h e r e are hardly any articles on group work
gramme, examination of the syllabus, and community organisation though there
suggestions for changes in the courses, are a number of references to the use of
standardisation of training etc. are discussed these methods in different situations. T h e r e
to a great extent. T h e articles plead for a is a general feeling that in I n d i a mass
recognition of the need for trained social methods are likely to be more effective t h a n
work personnel, and standardised post-
the individualised methods like case work.
graduate training, and state at more t h a n And it is curious that it is case work which
one place, t h a t there are no substitutes for has been discussed to a greater extent in
full professional trainings
the social work literature in the Journal.
T h e r e are only 16 articles on case work,
In recent years, however, the attention of
hardly works out an average of one per
the social work educators seems to be volume of the Journal. The authors have
directed to the more practical problems of attempted to relate the use of case work in
social work education, viz. field work and the Indian social cultural setting, and in rela-
supervision. T h e articles, however, only tion to different fields, medical, correction,
emphasise the importance of these in social probation etc.
work training. And one does not get m u c h
idea as to the efforts m a d e in different
There seems to be a trend that, perhaps
schools of social work to make the field work in the authoritarian cultural pattern, a more
programme more effective, and supervision active approach would be more advisable in
more meaningful and educative to the the practice of social case work than too
students. It is claimed that, " T h e training much emphasis on the principle of self-
movement for professional social workers in determination, self-responsibility etc. This
India is now emerging from an experimental principle, though intellectually acceptable at

306
M R S . ANITA HERLEKAR
present, in actual practice seems to be rous-
III
ing resistance and a feeling of inadequacy
in the clients in certain situations.
( T h e articles in the Indian Journal of
9 But it is
still difficult to make any generalised state-
Social Work thus deal with a very wide
ment in this regard, as there is no additional variety of subjects which are of much
evidence in the rest of the literature, to interest to social work. Social sciences
support it.
occupy a very prominent place in the
Journal. Comparatively, the number of
The Under-privileged.—The problems of articles dealing with various aspects of
the scheduled castes, the untouchables, the modern professional social work is very
Harijans and other backward communities small. Generally, the articles contain much
are analysed and discussed in this category. information on the subject they discuss.
Education, technical training, employment They give a brief background of the subject,
opportunities, special facilities that would giving it a historical perspective. They
enable this class to rise upto a minimum usually take into account almost all aspects
level in the country and compete with other of the subject, and there seems to be an
classes are discussed adequately at quite some effort to give as much information, on as
length. They also discuss the adequacies and many aspects of the subject as possible.
inadequacies of the existing programmes for Most of the articles stand out in terms of
their welfare.
their comprehensive scope and a well
Research.—The seven articles in this informed approach. There also seems to be
category point out the importance of social an emphasis on the descriptions of current
research and the functions of research in problems and their plausible solutions.
social work. This is yet a very neglected area
in India, and research literature, in the
One of the important needs that the
Journal clearly reflects it.
Indian Journal of Social Work has tried to
The research notes, that are lately being meet, is that for statistical information.
published in the Indian Journal, are very Usually it is very difficult to get statistics,
valuable. They give information on the particularly for social welfare activities in the
findings of different researches on common country. The articles in the Indian Journal
problems, bringing together the considered contain statistical information, though not
opinions of research scholars on these pro-
always up-to-date. The Journal has been
blems, providing a sort of a valid base of one of the very few sources of welfare
knowledge at this stage as far as these pro-
statistics for a long time.
blems are concerned.
Another important area that the Indian
Welfare Organisations.—The articles in Journal of Social Work has covered, although
this category give information about different to a very limited extent, is in relation to
welfare agencies, charitable trusts, social social work literature related to Indian
work training institutions etc.
background. Here again, it is the Journal
Public Welfare.—Social insurance and which has some material dealing with social
social security are discussed in this category. work practice in India.
These were perhaps inspired by the
Employees' State Insurance Schemes, and
There have however been several gaps in
weigh the possibilities of having a general the Indian Journal, which perhaps result
social security scheme to cover different from the small number of articles dealing
sections of the population.
with modern professional social work. The

T H E ARTICLES O N SOCIAL W O R K I N T H E INDIAN J O U R N A L O F SOCIAL W O R K
307
limited number of such articles does not deal with particular, more clearly identified
offer much scope for presenting related, issues t h a t are directly involved in social
consistent and integrated material which work practice in India, and with such
takes into account w h a t has been said on the
issues that are particularly relevant to social
subject by others. As a result each article work problems in India. This would be
shows a tendency to be an independent unit
possible when the articles on social work
of thought based mainly on the author's in the J o u r n a l would show a pronounced
own experience and observation. It does not
and clearer professional orientation. It would
indicate a development of thought built on be necessary to have a larger number of
earlier writings. T h u s social work literature such articles so that it would be possible to
in the Indian Journal tends to be, w h a t systematise individual observations and
Roger Little calls 'collective literature', experiences and to relate them to the efforts
which has its value up to a point. T h e of other thinkers.
tendency to be non-cumulative seems to
There seems to be a conscious effort now
result from "a common failure of the social in this regard, as seen from the research
work profession to communicate its notes, lately being published in the Journal.
experience and thinking by cumulative These notes present the. findings of various
analysis and synthesis rather t h a n by accre-
researches on common problems for the
tion."10 T h e characteristics of being un-
guidance of future research providing a
related, descriptive, general etc. are not valuable and valid base of knowledge as far
peculiar to social work literature in the as these problems are concerned. Such
Indian Journal. T h e y are to be commonly efforts need to be extended to other areas
found with the social work literature in of social work knowledge as well, particularly
India and outside as well. This is perhaps keeping in view the contributions of profes-
because of the peculiar nature of the social sional social work and its practice in relation
work knowledge developed by the social work
to different problems.
profession. Alfred Kadushin, while studying
T h e Indian J o u r n a l of Social Work has
this component of social work knowledge in made a very important contribution in
U.S.A., points out t h a t it is all based on indicating a different approach to social
experience and casual observation. And
problems. T h e concept of social work p u t
experience can never be adequately commu-
forth in the Journal has no longer limited
nicated. But at the same time there needs itself to that of helping people in need. An
to be an effort to conceptualise such know-
important addition to its dimensions is t h a t
ledge, through the communication of ideas of " . . . .helping them in making their own
or what is known as an intellectual frame adjustments to life, building their inner
of reference. Such an effort needs to be strengths and resources so that it ultimately
vigorously m a d e in the Indian Journal of develops their capacity to lead satisfying
Social Work, the leading social work journal and useful lives, independent of outside aid;
in the country.
with these new perspectives social work has
T h e articles on social work in the Journal very little need for pure charity and philan-
at present deal more with the broader thropy. . . . because t h a t only leads t o
problems related to social work. This has further dependency and deterioration of
h a d its value in clarifying the basic values ones' capacity to help oneself."11
t h a t social work upholds. But now there
Yet another dimension of the professional
seems to be a need for such articles as would
approach represented in the Indian Journal

308
M R S . ANITA HERLEKAR
of Social Work has been the acceptance of undermining of the traditional approach to
a scientific discipline in social work. The their solution—an approach which may
values of scientific approach had been alleviate, but not cure. Also Science has
appreciated by the Servants of India Society brought out the highly complex and delicate
from the very beginning, as seen from its nature of human problems which need
emphasis and insistence on a study of facts human sympathy and devotion, but need in
as a basis for action. Scientific discipline in addition, specific skills."12
relation to the problems of social work
Social Work is thus shown to imply the
showed a different significance, in terms of practice of these specific skills, viz. social
specific techniques based on a Scientific case work, social group work, community
understanding of social and personal dyna-
organisation and research,' in the areas of
mics. " The acceptance of a scientific social welfare, and that, any one who
discipline in social work has two important practises them is a social worker. Such a
implications which need to be understood. professional stand-point also stressed the
Through its knowledge of social dynamics value of these skills, and the importance of
and the dynamics of the human personality, training social workers in these through
science has contributed to our understanding formal education for social work. The
of the causes of individual and social Indian Journal of Social Work has thus
problems. The understanding of the causes strived all these years to be "a quarterly
has led to a hope and faith that these causes devoted to the promotion of professional
can be removed. At the same time, an under-
social work, scientific interpretation of social
standing of what at least seem to be the problems and advancement of social
real causes of our problems has led to an research."
R E F E R E N C E S
1. Nanavatty, Meher. "Development of Social Work Profession in India." Indian Journal
of Social Work, December 1952.
2. Manschardt, D r . Clifford. "Education for Social Work." Indian Journal of Social Work,
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3. Chatterjee, Pranab. "Social Work and Community Development." Indian Journal of
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4. Dasgupta, Sugata. "Rural Welfare through Community Projects." Indian Journal of
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Also: Little, Roger W. "Literature of Social Case Work." Social Case Work, 1954.
The Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. XXV, No' 4 (January 1965).