230 K. V. KUKDAY at a concession rate to any person or body Complete...
230 K. V. KUKDAY
at a concession rate to any person or body Complete co-operation of all sections
that undertakes its distribution. Of course, will have to be secured so that none
the gawali must be in a position to assure may profiteer at the expense of the others.
his customer that the milk he is selling is Numerous instances of such decentralizing
absolutely unadulterated. Such wholesale would be quoted in respect of various
customers will also be able to prepare for industries, but we think it is unnecessary
sale curd, buttermilk or skimmed milk, and to do so.
look after butter or ghee. The need for an
Conclusion.—The first need of the milk
agency to dry cattle, and to relieve him of industry is to increase production. This
his old and unserviceable cattle has already should be done by making it easy for people
been mentioned before. The least that he of small means to undertake the trade.
should expect of any agency that removes There must be numerous centers for impart-
his dead cattle is not to ask him to pay for ing the necessary education. Co-operative
the removal, as we understand that quite a Societies will be necessary in most of its
profitable business can be worked out of branches. In the early stages at least,
dead cattle. If a big corporation or company
Government will have to take the lead and
chooses to do all these things itself, well give a great deal of guidance and active
and good. It would need an enormous assistance. What important part Govern-
capital but it would reap all the benefits ment will have to play in the matter, is
too. By decentralizing, the profits will be clearly indicated in the table. We feel sure,
divided among the various groups taking with such encouragement from Government,
part in the scheme, a circumstance for people will offer their fullest co-operation to
which there can be no reason to regret. the endeavour and all will benefit in the end.
Agricultural Workers in India
A. M. LORENZO
Analysing the various factors that have led to the disintegration of our rural economy, Dr. Lorenzo, in
the following study, establishes a correlation between village unsettlement and wider political disturbances.
Dr. Lorenzo is on the Faculty of the University of Lucknow.
T HE Present Agrarian Situation.—Pro- present academic economists, whose con-
blems of land and labour in India, clusions are almost always vitiated by

as in all the agricultural countries Western norms and notions, which hardly
of the world, are the most significant apply to Indian conditions. Although
amongst national questions. Indian agri-
political conquests have left deep marks on
culture exhibits a wide diversity of land the rural economy of India and influenced
systems and policies, each cast into its the growth of manorial estates and feudal
characteristic regional framework of types of village organisation, which repre-
economic and social life, with its distinct sent characteristic features of the rural
inevitable reactions on the status of the economy of the European countries, the
peasants. The factors which have governed time-honoured village communal organiza-
the evolution of different types of land tions still largely govern the transforma-
holdings and village communal life have tion of the relations of the agricultural
been so welded together into an organic population. The present agricultural
whole that a final analysis of them is almost
regime has not only given rise to feudal
an impossible task. The problems which holdings and absentee landlordism, but has
thus arise are, therefore, not only complex completely ignored the village communal
and difficult, but often misleading to the rights which once balanced the drawbacks

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN INDIA 231
of peasant farming. The social and econo-
the evil has been considerably aggravated.
mic history of the origin and development In the U. P . , due to the creation of perma-
of village communities, therefore, has yet nent hereditable rights, the system of taking
to cover much new ground, and the future premiums from the tenants has prevailed
of Indian agrarian reform should have and the practices of levying nasrana and
room for the introduction of some common illegal enhancements of rents in various
feature into the land policies of various guises are not unusual. In almost all parts
Provinces, with a view to safeguarding of the country the professional and moneyed
the interests of the actual tillers of the soil, classes have aspired to become small
whether they are cultivating owners, tenant landlords by buying out the original ryots.
cultivators, or landless serfs.
Their land is cultivated by hired labour or
The problems of land are intimately by uprooted tenants on share agreements
bound up with those of human labour. without any legal status. The rapid
Whenever the land has been touched, its increase of this labour class has not only
reactions have been felt deep in the roots created absentee rent-receivers and an
of the rural society. The present agricul-
inferior peasantry, but it has multiplied
tural retrogression is largely the result of
the claim of sub-infeudatories and inter-
encroachments and defective land adminis-
mediaries. Evils of this type have not been
tration ; and the Indian peasant has suffered combated as yet by legislation. The consti-
gravely from periodical re-settlements and tution of the economic holdings, prevention
praedial exactions which have left him of fresh subdivision, restriction of transfer
nothing more than skin and bone. In view and subletting, protection of the inferior
of agrarian disturbances, almost all the peasantry who obtain land or stock from the
Provincial Governments of India have been richer farmers, and the suppression of ille-
contemplating some measure of land reform gal exactions—all demand protective legis-
to stabilize agricultural conditions. But the lation. There are, then, the landless
most unfortunate feature of these reforms labourers involved in debt and hiring out
has been the entire neglect of certain broad their labour from plot to plot, to eke out a
features of socio-political discontent in miserable existence verging on starvation.
different sections of the rural community. Even more pathetic is the condition of the
The Government policy towards the varied serfs. Bound hand and foot from genera-
landed interests has suffered from a narrow tion to generation, and restricted in their
provincial outlook, and therefore peasant movements, they deserve much greater atten-
proprietorship and tenancy, recently, have tion and sympathy than as yet they have
undergone significant changes.
been able to attract.
Tenancy legislation has, so far, failed
These features of agrarian discontent
to give adequate protection to the toiling, have rendered the situation both pathetic
unorganised, long-suffering, but all-import-
and tragic. Pathetic, because the agricul-
ant factor in the machinery of Indian rural tural labourers who looked to the trustees of
life. The great mistake of tenancy reform land (Zamindars and the State) for some
has been that, in its effort to recreate measure of protection and relief have been
peasant proprietorship, it created the right betrayed to their doom; and tragic, because
of sale and purchase whereby the superior this betrayal may be the presage of the
proprietor, and sometimes the surrendering trustees' own disaster. This is the result
tenant as well, have extorted some profit of an outstanding defect of policy, an error
from the transaction. In Bengal, Bihar, of principle and method, which has marked
and the U. P . , owing to the increase of not only our relations within the country
population and the competition for holdings,
but also with other nations. The pons

232 A. M. LORENZO
asinorum of our agricultural policy is that agricultural workers towards the industrial
the State refuses to face a situation which centres set in. Agriculture has now lost
has not actually arisen, or to shape a policy, considerably to industry, and those hands
or to give undertakings, in respect of it. It which could not be absorbed by non-agricul-
prefers to deal with each issue as and when tural industries have fallen into the ranks
it arises. Acting on such a precarious of unspecified labourers and landless serfs.
principle we often change policy radically The growth of this huge floating population
and act quickly when the event is upon us, has not only weakened our rural stability,
with the result that neither is the existing but is, in large measure, responsible for the
situation controlled nor the future safe-
present industrial unrest. Labour legisla-
guarded.
tion and housing reform, and the economic
Recent Trends in the Rural Economy amelioration of the rural masses cannot be
of India.—The beginning years of the effective until the continuous cityward drift
twentieth century, which mark the present of the floating farm hands is checked by
transition from the communal type of farm-
more accommodating measures.
ing to the individual system of economic
Secondly, there is going on a silent pro-
toil, have been associated with a host of new cess of expropriation of the peasant pro-
tendencies which have intensified the pro-
prietor. Landlordism, both of superior and
blems of agrarian unsettlement in the coun-
inferior grades, has produced a land-hungry
try. The economic retrogression in India peasantry, and the small holders, over-
began with the vast migration and shifting whelmed by these circumstances, are declin-
of population within various occupational ing from peasant proprietory to peasant
zones. Between 1891-1911 nearly twenty-
proletariat. There is also the tendency for
three million people deserted rural and urban
land to concentrate in the hands of non-cul-
industrial pursuits in favour of cultivation; tivating rent-receivers. The chain of sub-
and due to a rise in agricultural prices and infeudation has often gone to grotesque
growing rural prosperity during the decade lengths and has given rise to the same
1911-21, another ten million were drawn to abuses which are characteristic of the
agriculture. This transference from various latifundia farming in the West.
industrial pursuits to agriculture continued
Peasant proprietorship in India has been
during the early part of the following decade
weakened, not merely by the decline of
(1921-31), but soon the limit was reached. village communities, which has outgrown
Unfortunately, agriculture could not offer their administrative use, but also by minute
the immigrants a position better than that fragmentation resulting inevitably from an
of petty time-serving cultivators without unchecked population pressure. Owing to
any staying power. Moreover, the pressure the free mortgage and transfer of land and
on land steadily increased, and soon its re-
the decline of subsidiary cottage industries,
percussions were felt in the rural society. the peasants have been driven off the land
The Royal Commission on Labour remarked to supplement the proceeds of their holdings
that, "over large parts of India the number by outside work, or to sell their lands to
of persons on the land is much greater than middlemen or to more prosperous peasants.
the number required to cultivate it, and In other cases they have been forced to re-
appreciably in excess of the number it can linquish their land to the non-agricultural
comfortably s u p p o r t . " The closing years classes from whom they cultivate as tenants-
of the decade 1921-31, saw the turn of the at-will. Consequently, land has been con-
tide. From 1928 agricultural calamities centrated, firstly, in the hands of large pro-
came thick and fast, and once again a move-
prietors, and secondly, to the detriment of
ment of both small tenants and landless the whole country, in the hands of the non-

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN INDIA 233
agricultural classes. In the United Provinces sold to small owners and the big owners to
the non-agriculturists gained +654,000 big owners, the tendency of concentration
acres whereas the agriculturists (especially on the one hand, and expropriation of the
Brahmans, Tagas and Bhuinhars) gained peasant proprietor on the other, is not in.
only + 418,000 acres between 1907-1926. significant. In the United Provinces 40
The U. P. Banking Enquiry Committee in per cent. of the transferred land has passed
1930 gave the figures for land concentration on to other agriculturists notably the Raj-
in the hands of non-agriculturists at +107,000 puts and Muslims. The dispossessed land-
acres, and +179,000 acres by Brahmans owners who belonged to higher castes are
and other agriculturists. In the Punjab, usually the poor type of cultivators. In
during the quinquennium 1923-27, nearly 37 1928 in the Punjab the total number of
per cent. of the vendors (owners of land) owners with holdings of one acre or less was
sold off the whole of their land and became 625,400 against 904,000 of cultivators in the
landless. The sales of land in Jessore (in same class—the difference accounting for
Bengal) have increased by nearly 40 per over one-third of the landless cultivators.
cent. In Mymensingh district 25 per cent. The increase in the number of farm-hands
of the total agricultural area changes hands and field-workers from 291 to 407 per mille
every ten years, in Jessore 15 per cent., cultivators during 1921-31, without a corres-
and in Midnapur 7 per cent. In Birbhum, ponding increase in the actual holders of
Murshidabad and Burdwan also a large por-
land, whether as tenants or farm-hands, is
tion of land has fallen into the hands of sufficient explanation for the large increase
foreign money-lending classes. In the in the landless class. The strength of the
United Provinces during 1921-31, about 60 landless field-workers has grown immensely
per cent. of the transferred land has passed during the past decades. There are at
into the hands of non-agriculturists, who present 24,925,357 hired agricultural workers
were generally the creditors of the dis-
who have no interest in land even as tenant
possessed owners. In some parts of the rural cultivators. Including the number of un-
East the invasion of the Bania, the Marwari specified labourers, who constitute an im-
and the Dikku has been an economic menace. portant fund of labour for agriculture, the
These money-lenders gradually become number of landless workers will swell to
financier-proprietors by ousting the peasants 32,703,999. If by 'landless' is meant the
by mortgages and land alienations. Having absence of ownership, no less than 66,877,903
acquired the land as a money investment peasants were found in 1931, constituting
they seldom cultivate it by hired labour, more than two-thirds of the labour popula-
but make the old occupancy raiyat an under-
tion engaged in cultivation. Even if we were
tenant who is forced to pay a produce rent to assume that these tenant cultivators will
irrespective of the yield. Redemptions are mostly become cultivating owners as a result
few. Thus, while the money-lending classes
of the establishment of permanency of
seldom lose a favourable opportunity of tenure for them, we find that more than one-
gaining land by loan-investments, the pea-
third of the total number of agricultural
santry becomes indolent, litigous and im-
labourers are landless workers having no
poverished, and gradually vanishes struggl-
greater stake in the land than their meagre
ing impotently to regain its usurped crown. and insufficient wages.
Equally disastrous have been the results
Thirdly, the growth of the Unspecified
of the transfer of land among the agricultural
class, as distinguished from ordinary field-
classes. Small owners have to an appreci-
workers and farm-hands, presents new pro-
able extent been bought out by large land-
blems in the organization of agricultural
owners. Even where the small owners have workers in India. The relative figures of

234 A. M. LORENZO
Unspecified workers in general, and agricul-
workers has to be examined along with the
tural labourers in particular, serve to some number of the agricultural workers and
extent as an index to the prosperity of ordinary cultivators, because each class
agriculture. This class is of recent growth feeds the other at different intervals. The
and its number fluctuates with agricultural percentage of variations in the numerical
seasons, because fairly large numbers work strength of these classes is given below : —
as field-workers as occasion offers.
1911-21 1921-31
The demand and supply of Unspecified Ordinary cultivators - 1 8 . 0 6
workers is very largely regulated by seasons. Agricultural labourers--. - 8 . 1 + 2.2
During the sowing and harvesting seasons Labourers and workmen,
openings for them are fairly plentiful when
Unspecified ... +12.4 +30.8
the demand for and the price of agricultural
During 1911-21 the increase in the-
labour rises. On an average, their labour number of ordinary cultivators was due to
on the fields is required for not more than the decrease in the number of field-labourers,
three months ; therefore, for nine months in but the increase of 12.4 per cent, in the
the year they keep on the move in search of Unspecified class is due to the fact that a
employment in urban industries. If the large number of villagers had abandoned
Census were to be held in July, November their hereditary industrial pursuits in the
or March, a large number of persons would face of machine competition. During 1921-31
be shown as agricultural labourers, but if it the decrease in the number of cultivators
were taken in May and June the ranks of is chiefly due to the significant decrease in
agricultural labourers would be thinned out owner-cultivators and marginal cultivators
proportionately in favour of the Unspecified who had set up during the period of the
class.
agricultural boom of 1914-20. This floating
The sudden increase of non-cultivating population expelled from actual cultivation,
rent-receivers is responsible for excessive plus a sufficiently large number of depen-
subletting, especially in the permanently dents who found no avenues of employment,
settled areas where sub-infendation has account for the swelling up of the number of
grown to a far-reaching degree. In such labourers and workmen of the Unspecified
cases the sub-tenants, with faint hope of class.
rising in prosperity, are enlisted only among
In 1931 there were 7,778,642 labourers
the unsettled raiyats, temporary and sea-
and workmen who were Unspecified in
sonal, but they do not altogether give up India,—an increase of about 31 per cent.
former occupation in suburban mills, mines, since 1921, and nearly 45 per cent. since
and forests, and adopt agriculture only as a 1911. During 1911-21 there was a general
subsidiary means of livelihood. This class fall in the number of Unspecified labourers
of sub-tenants is always unsettled, and in nearly all the provinces of India owing
although one member of the family may to the apparent increase in the number of
permanently look after the family holding, ordinary cultivators, but once again there
the rest of the members (of both sexes) set in a "flight from the l a n d " movement,
move about in the capacity of Unspecified which swelled the ranks of Unspecified
workers—unskilled, seasonal and unorgan-
workers and landless serfs during the
ized. During 1921-31 the actual workers decade of 1921-31.
occupied in pasture and agriculture decreased
The Present Labour Force.—In 1931
by 2.4 per cent., but it is certain that there were in India 93,884,003 agricultural
this supplanted force of workers strength-
labourers as against 103,287,706 in 1921.
ened the ranks of the Unspecified class. The These figures indicate a decrease of about
variation in the number of Unspecified eight per cent, If we take into account only

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN INDIA 235
the field-workers and farm-hands according cultural workers, judged by the amount of
to the definition of the Census, we would wealth and sources of income, social position
find that their number during 1921-31 rose and the mode of living, is indeed a matter of
from 21,676,107 to 24,925,357, or by nearly concern both for the statesmen and social
. fifteen per cent. These groups of labourers reformers. There is no denying the fact
are, however, of less economic importance that the wealth and income of the rural
than the tenants and owner-cultivators, working classes are for the most part lower
forming as they do only 21% of the total than those of their industrial confreres.
agricultural labour population in India. Though rural wealth is more evenly distri-
Nevertheless these are the people who, when buted, and there are no great contrasts of
agricultural disasters occur, feel the pinch the exceedingly rich and exceedingly poor
first for they have no reserve and are the individuals, the level of incomes is, in
first to be thrown out of employment. general, on par with the basic expenditures
During the past decade the field-labourers for bare existence. Our investigations in
have increased enormously, and in many several parts of the country have shown that
parts of the country this change has been the proportion of the budget used for non-
only for the worse. In four districts of the physiological expenses averages less in the
Punjab, i.e. Bahwalpur, Attock, Suket and country than in the city; hence the propor-
Kapurthala, there is an increase of over tion of the budget' expended for items of
200% ; of over 100 and below 200% in five current consumption other than so-called
districts; between 50-100% in seven districts, basic requirements is the best index of the
and 20-50% in the three contiguous districts. higher level of living in urban areas. The
In the U. P. the greatest proportion of field average rate of wages of unskilled industrial
workers to tenants occurs in Jhansi, where workers in the U. P. before the outbreak of
there are 2 to every 3 tenants and in Meerut, the War was Rs. 18/- per month, whilst it was
where the proportion is 1 to every 2 tenants. only Rs. 8/-per month for unskilled agricul-
Similarly, in the districts of Shahabad, tural workers. There is also a wide dis-
Champaran and Hazaribagh in Bihar, the parity in rural and urban incomes in Bom-
ranks of this class of labourers have con-
bay, Bengal and the Punjab. Moreover, the
siderably been swelled.
size of the family also tends to reduce the
If we include the Unspecified class of amount of spendable income per adult unit
workers and farm-hands, it would give the in the rural family. The average number
number at 32,703,999 labourers in 1931. of children per family in India is 4'2 against
But this again cannot be taken as final for 4.4 in rural families and 4.1 in urban fami-
our purposes, as it constitutes barely one-
lies ; and the proportion of the total number
third of the labour power under considera-
of children surviving, per mille born, is
tion. We, therefore, arrive at our final figure appreciably higher in rural areas, i.e., 702
by taking into account the labour of all against 695 in urban areas. The ultimate
workers directly employed in cultivation, result of this growth of dependents is that
whether in the capacity of owner cultivators, the proportion of the budget expended for
tenant cultivators, field-workers and farm-
items of basic necessities is increased at the
hands, and the Unspecified labourers. Thus expense of non-physiological expenses.
we find that of the total number of Thus a lower income, a larger size of family,
agricultural labourers no less than one-third and a growing number of non-working
are floating farm-hands, and more than dependents in rural working-class families
two-thirds are landless.
tend to keep their standard of living on a
very low level. Our studies have further
Problems of Economic and Social Rela-
disclosed that a large majority of agricul-
tionships.—The economic status of agri-

236 A. M. LORENZO
tural labourers all over the country cannot suffer from diseases and can find no comfort
afford to consume energising foods. Most of
or rest, and the home that should radiate
them live in indigence and suffer from mal-
noble social and aesthetic influences
nutrition and ill-health due to a deficient becomes a den of misery and disease where
protein intake. The effective consumption people breed and die like fruit-flies. It
of energising foods in the case of field-
hardly needs to be pointed out that the
workers in the U. P. hardly exceeds 18 per economic, social and moral regeneration of
cent. of the total amount of food consumed, the rural folk will depend on the extent to
while it is almost nil in the case of agricul-
which we are able to improve their living
tural serfs like the Sewaks of Oudh and the conditions.
Kamias of Chota Nagpur.
Allied to the problems of poverty,
The problem of rural housing in India malnutrition and poor housing, are the un-
has hardly attracted the attention it de-
healthy conditions and long hours of work.
serves. Though rural houses are in some The field worker grumbles that the working
respects better than industrial slums, they day is excessively long and the conditions of
represent neither a cottage nor a house work akin to 'sweating'. In the industrial
known to European farmers. The rural huts, areas the eight-hour day is becoming
which are made of mud walls with thatched common, but this is not possible on the
roofing, consist only of one room and have farm due to the absence of regulated employ-
one entrance. Often these houses are ment and the seasonal nature of
built on land belonging to the landlord, and agricultural operations. In the rush of
it can be understood what power a landlord season the long day field-work entails much
wields over an agricultural worker settled fatigue and wastage of energy. Not
on his land in the event of any dispute. unoften women and children are forced to
Our investigations in Northern India have work from sunrise to sunset with very
brought to light the congestion of rural little afternoon leisure, and the plight of
houses and the overcrowding of small the agricultural serf is always lost sight of
rooms by both the family members of in view of the fact that he is a twenty-four-
agricultural workers and their livestock. hour servant of the landlord master. The
According to Misra, " I n Jaunpur (U.P.) unhealthy conditions of work considerably
the huts generally consist of only one dingy increase the liability to sickness and
room with kitchen, dormitory, parlour and mortality, particularly amongst women and
in many cases cattle-shed combined." In children. Illness in whatever form, whether
Gorakhpur, Mathur found, that a hut measur-
due to overwork or unhealthy conditions of
ing 7 X12 X 7 ft. was occupied by five persons work, is both pathetic and tragic in the
and a goat ; and in village Sheikhdhir case of field-workers' families. It is
(District Bahraich, U.P.) we found that a pathetic, because even one day's absence
pair of puny bullocks, fishing tackle, and from work leads them to starvation; and
four members of a Guriya-easte labourer-
tragic, because the absence of medical
family were huddled up into a dark, unventi-
aid and the means of procuring it most
lated and stinky house measuring 14X20X9 often result in untimely deaths. Therefore,
ft. To many peasants the houses are simply not only should working hours be reduced
places where they can stretch their legs and and the conditions of work improved, but
sleep at night, and in several instances the adequate protection should be given to
labourers' privacy blunts all sense of shame agricultural workers against sickness,
and decency. When men and women, young accident or unemployment. An important
and old, healthy and sick are packed step in the prevention of exploitation of
together with cattle in winter—the inmates landless workers and the protection of

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN INDIA 237
farm—hands from degeneration would lie in tion. These dismal changes, taking place
the direction of regulation of employment with somewhat bewildering rapidity, have
by legislative measures and social control.
been fraught with struggles and sufferings
The employment of women and children of a magnitude unknown in the annals of
in agricultural pursuit presents new socio-
any country. They have disrupted the in-
logical problems. The family solidarity dustrial and social fabric of the whole Indian
is often broken by the employment of child-
life, and have produced an array of problems
ren of tender ages and of women in distant of socio-economic nature which are an index
fields. Since the income of the male to the present agrarian chaos and political
earner is inadequate for the support of the unrest.
average rural family, both women and
Serious difficulties, associated with
children are driven to work at low wages. agriculture, persist in the economic sphere,
In the absence of any protective legislation, and the solution of outstanding economic
they are almost always exploited by their problems would be largely helped or hindered
cruel masters. The removal of the mother by political circumstances. The faint rum-
from the home, and the weaning out of the blings of peasant class consciousness already
child from the home-atmosphere at an early audible in some parts of India, challenge the
age, lead to serious social consequences. present regime. We see already the signs
The family of the working classes not only of peasant awakening in the growth of rural
cannot grow into a perfect social organiza-
socio-political organizations such as the
tion, but loses all the charms and potencies Mazdur Sabhas, Kisan Sanghs, the Peasant
that go to make a social personality of its Unions, and active combinations against the
individual members. Economic needs of absentee landlords. There has grown a
the rural workers, therefore, which seem universal contempt for the zamindar class
to be given preference over social needs, which is accused of exploiting the poor and
tend in the long run to disintegrate the rural ignorant labourers by levying abwabs and
family and disrupt rural social solidarity.
extracting begar (forced labour). Agrarian
More alarming is the persistence of crimes have taken the form of grain riots,
agrestic serfdom and the growth of praedial strikes, arson, and bazar looting, and kisan-
exactions. No less than fifty million persons zamindar clashes have become things of
in the country, belonging to the depressed everyday occurrence. This mass point of
and exterior castes, are reduced to the status view is articulated in the country's social
of serfs and begars, and they toil night and and political programmes under the present
day on a dole of food on the fields of their regime, and the whole structure of the
masters. They are crushed under a huge village life is being moulded on new found-
burden of hereditary indebtedness from ations of social and economic relativity.
which there is no escape. A section of the
The alarming growth of the landless
people, thus enslaved and exploited calls for and unspecified class of labourers, and the
immediate remedial measures. Agrestic decline of actual tillers of the soil, has
serfdom, forced labour (begar), and prae-
created a dangerous situation in rural
dial exactions cannot be defended on econo-
society. There is no denying the fact that
mic or moral grounds, and must be abolished over large parts of India the number of
forthwith.
persons on the land is much greater than the
Retrospect and Forecast.—The kalei-
number required to cultivate it, and appre-
doscopic changes which have taken place in ciably in excess of the number it can com-
the rural economy of India in the course of fortably support. This floating population
the past decades, have brought the country is increasing at a rapid rate, and is not only
into the vortex of a mighty economic transi-
seriously disturbing the man-land ratio in