ADJUSTMENT OF SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED CASTE STUDENTS M. A. BABU...
ADJUSTMENT OF SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED
CASTE STUDENTS
M. A. BABU REDDY AND B. G. SUDHA
The adjustment of students is one of the important aspects of their development. Without
proper adjustment, the development of the personality would be crippled. This is more so in
the case of scheduled caste students who suffer from certain natural limitations. This study
concerns the patterns of adjustment among scheduled and non-scheduled caste students studying
in residential schools. The analysis revealed that all the students were having unsatisfactory
adjustment in the areas of home, health, social and emotional adjustment as also in total
adjustment, as measured by the instrument. Residential students had more adjustment
problems than non-residential students, and Scheduled caste students lacked social and emo-
tional adjustment as compared to non-scheduled caste students. Socio-economic status was seen
to be affecting the emotional adjustment of the subjects, the high SES group reporting signi-
ficantly less adjustment problems than the other two groups. There is a need to guide,
help and improve the conditions of students in order to make them develop better and
healthy personalities.
Mr. M. A. Babu Reddy is a Teacher in a High School in Bangalore and Dr. B. G.
Sudha is on the Faculty of Education in the Bangalore University, Department of Education,
Bangalore.
Introduction
nisation of his psycho-physical systems for
effective and unique adjustment to the envi-
Life is a series of adjustments. Every ronment (Allport, 1962). A growing child
moment the individuals are subjected to has to successfully effect adjustment in vari-
various situations of stress or strain or con-
ous aspects of his life, like home, health,
flict which makes it imperative to seek ad-
personal, academic, emotional, social,
justment to the situation in order to release school, vocation and so on. Hurlock, (1955)
the tension. Just as biological adjustment is recognised the period of adolescence as a
needed for physical survival of the organ-
period of adjustment, and says that it is a
ism, social adjustment is needed for indi-
period of maturing.
vidual growth, gratification and success in
The extent and the mode of one's adjust-
life. It is in this sense that adjustment ment depends on one's own motivation for
becomes a process of learning. Students who a successful life in terms of his aspirations.
are continuously in conflict with parental The period of adolescence is also consider-
demands and restrictions and who encoun-
ed to be a period of day dreaming wherein
ter inhibiting situations at home and hence the students would be entertaining various
consider it to be a prison and source of types of unrealistic aspirations, which per-
frustration rather than a place of security haps adds to their adjustment problems.
and affection, will find it difficult to main-
The purpose of education is to enable a
tain their academic life and standard. child to lead a better life in the future and
Students who fail to attain a satisfactory to enjoy fully the potentialities it possesses.
level of social adjustment will have diffi-
It is very sad that a section of our society,
culties in school. As a matter of fact, the the children of scheduled caste people, come
development of a healthy personality is to school with a basic social disability due
largely determined by the way in which the to which they encounter more problems
individual is able to make adjustments in than the normal children without any so-
his life. It is in this sense that the very cial disability. In order to improve the
concept of personality is defined in terms status of these groups of people the Govern-
of the individual's process of dynamic orga-
ment and other social agencies are doing a

52
M. A. BABU REDDY AND B. G. SUDHA
lot, by giving a number of concessions as scholars in some of these schools. The total
also by giving education, by starting resi-
sample for the study consisted of 214 boys
dential institutions for them and running and 186 girls studying in the Xth standard,
special classes for their sake. Yet the stu-
out of which 195 were residential students
dents themselves have to build up within and 205 were day scholars. The total sam-
themselves a positive attitude and confid-
ple of 400 students was made up by 35
ence; only then they would be able to make scheduled-caste, residential boys, 40 sche-
proper adjustment with the environment and duled-caste non-residential boys, 60 non-
its challenges.
scheduled caste residential boys and 79 non-
There are a number of studies that have scheduled caste non-residential boys. Like-
reported about the adjustment problems of wise among girls 35 scheduled-caste residen-
adolescent boys and girls (Kakkar, 1964; tial girls, 34 scheduled caste non-residen-
Srinivasan, 1974; Badami, 1973; Agarwal, tial girls, and 65 non-scheduled caste resi-
1960). But, not many studies have been dential girls and 52 non-scheduled caste
conducted to study the adjustment of sche-
non-residential girls formed the sample.
duled caste students. Boyd (1952) reported
The Kannada version of an Adopted
a high level of aspiration among negro form of Bell's adjustment Inventory was
groups of children as against the matched used to measure the level of adjustment of
white children. Holloway and Berreman the students. It contains 140 statements
(1959) studied the level of aspiration and providing measures of adjustment in the
future educational plans of negro and white areas of Home, Health, Emotional and So-
pupils and found no difference between the cial in addition to total adjustment. It has
groups. Lal Chopra (1969) has found among a reported reliability index varying from
his sample that the family background 0.80 for health to 0.93 for total adjustment
affects the educational and vocational aspi-
areas. It has been validated against a num-
rations of the students and the adjustment ber of instruments and its index ranges
varies with the status and aspiration. Rao from 0.72 to 0.93.
(1977) has reported that the scheduled
An Educational and Vocational Aspira-
caste students in residential institutions were tion Scale (Sudha and Satyanarayana, 1978)
having more of self esteem when compared was used to measure the level of aspiration
to the non-residential students. Sabhapathy of students. This consists of 40 statements
(1976) has found a close relationship bet-
(of multiple choice) with four alternatives
ween the social personal adjustment and for each statement that measure educational
self esteem of IX standard students.
aspiration (first twenty) and vocational
aspiration (last twenty) of students. It has
The Study
a reported reliability index of 0.83 for edu-
cational aspiration and 0.65 for vocational
The home, health, emotional and social aspiration (Poulose and Satyanarayana,
adjustment of scheduled caste and non-
1978). A Socio-Economic Status Scale deve-
scheduled caste students were compared in loped at the Department of Education
relation to their Educational and Vocational (Sudha, 1977) was used to measure the
aspiration and their Socio-economic Status. socio-economic status of the students. It has
The sample consisted of both boys and a test-retest reliability of 0.93 and has a
girls belonging to scheduled and non-sche-
validity coefficient (against Kuppuswamy
duled castes who were residing in residen-
Scale) of 0.86 (n=150). The technique of
tial schools as also those who were day t-test was used to analyse the adjustment

ADJUSTMENT OF SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED CASTE STUDENTS
53
of the students belonging to various groups. on the basis of sex, level of educational and
Q1 and Q3 were taken as cut off points for vocational aspiration, socio-economic status
getting low and high groups.
and caste.
Analysis and Discussion
Aspiration and Adjustment
It was generally hypothesised that the
groups of students do not exhibit any signi-
The following table presents the analysis
ficant variation in the adjustment problems of data on the aspiration and adjustment
when compared with one another, grouped of the students.
T A B L E 1.1
MEAN, S D. AND t-VALUES OF MEAN DIFFERENCE OF ADJUSTMENT SCORES OF STUDENTS OF LOW
AND HIGH EDUCATIONAL ASPIRATION
(* p less than 0.05)
T A B L E 1.2
MEAN, S. D . AND t-VALUES OF MEAN DIFFERENCE O F ADJUSTMENT SCORES OF STUDENTS OF L O W
AND HIGH VOCATIONAL ASPIRATION.
(** p less than 0.01)

54
M. A. BABU REDDY AND B. G. SUDHA
Both the educational and vocational aspi-
justed in home as regards to educational
ration has differentiated between the low aspiration and in health as regards voca-
and high groups in respect of the adjust-
tional aspiration. The high aspiration group
ment of the students. The educational aspi-
(educational) is found to be more malad-
ration has indicated significant difference in justed in total and also in health as
the total, home and health areas of adjust-
compared to low aspirational group. But,
ment whereas the vocational aspiration has in the case of vocational aspiration, the
resulted in variation in the health area of low group is seen to be more maladjusted
adjustment only. The low aspiration groups than the high vocational aspiration group
in both the cases were found to be malad-
of students.
Scheduled Caste and Adjustment
TABLE 2
MEAN, S. D . AND t-VALUES OF MEAN DIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTMENT SCORES OF SCHEDULED AND
NON-SCHEDULED CASTE STUDENTS
Though there was no significant differ-
were non-residential.
ence in the total adjustment of scheduled
Between the students who were residents
and non-scheduled students, there was a of school hostels and the non-residents it
significant difference in the social and emo-
was found that the residential students were
tional adjustment of these groups. It was more maladjusted in all the four areas of
found that the scheduled caste students adjustment as also in total than the non-resi-
had more problems of social adjustment dential students, as all the t-values were
and emotional adjustment than the non-
found to be significant beyond 0.05 and 0.01
scheduled caste students, as the obtained level of confidence, and the mean adjust-
t-values were found to be significant beyond ment scores of residential students were
0.05 and 0.01 level respectively.
more than those of the non-residential
students.
Residence and Adjustment
Sex and Adjustment
The following table-3 presents the analysis
From table-4 it is clear that the girls
of adjustment of students who were resi-
were found to be more maladjusted than
dential in the school hostels and those who

ADJUSTMENT OF SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED CASTE STUDENTS
55
T A B L E 3
MEAN, S. D . AND t-VALUES O F MEAN DIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTMENT SCORES OF RESIDENTIAL AND
NON-RESIDENTIAL STUDENTS
T A B L E 4
MEAN, S. D . AND t-VALUES O F MEAN DIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTMENT SCORES OF BOYS AND G I R L S
(* p less than 0.05; and ** p less than 0.01)
the boys in their social and emotional as adjustment problems than the high group.
also in total adjustment areas.
Discussion
Socio-Economic Status and Adjustment
The Bell's adjustment Inventory provides
scores on the four areas of adjustment, and
From table-5 it is clear that among it would be possible to evaluate the level
the three groups of students belong-
of adjustment of students by comparing the
ing to low, middle and high socio-
scores obtained with the norms provided.
economic status, no significant difference As the statements are negative, and an 'yes'
was noticed in their home adjustment, response to the statement is counted, the
health adjustment, social adjustment and overall picture that would emerge from the
total adjustment. But, in the case of scoring is that the higher the score an
emotional adjustment it was found that the individual gets the greater would be his
low and middle groups, though did maladjustment or adjustment problems.
not differ between themselves, had more Scores ranging from 6 to 10 would indicate

56
M. A. BABU REDDY AND B. G. SUDHA
TABLE 5
M E A N , S. D . AND t-VALUES OF MEAN DIFFERENCE IN ADJUSTMENT SCORES OF STUDENTS FROM
LOW, MIDDLE AND HIGH SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRATA
an average home adjustment whereas 11 to hostels attached to the schools seem to have
16 would reflect an unsatisfactory home 'home' adjustment problems, which may
adjustment, Any higher score than 16 would either reflect the conditions prevailing in
be a very poor home adjustment. On such hostels or it may reflect the actual
inspection of the mean scores obtained by conditions at their respective homes. This,
the students it could be seen that their in general, would reflect the findings
home adjustment generally is unsatisfactory reported by Mckinney (1939), Beevan
as the range of score is 12.13 (non-residen-
(1949), Stott, (1963), Kakkar (1964) and
tial) to 13.81 (residential). In other Agarwal (1960), in certain respects.
words, irrespective of the group difference
in home adjustment scores, the students as
Even in the case of Health adjustment,
a whole are having unsatisfactory home the students seem to be having un-
adjustment. Low educational level of satisfactory adjustment, as the scores
aspiration, and residential students were obtained ranged from 10.7 (low educational
maladjustment than a high level of aspiration) to 15.62 (low vocational aspira-
aspiration, and residential students were tion group), which fall within the unsatisfac-
having more of home adjustment problems tory range of 10 to 16 norms. Thus, irres-
than the non-residential students. Socio-
pective of the group variations the health
economic status did not bring about any adjustment among the students seems to be
home adjustment variation. There was also unsatisfactory in general. The low voca-
no sex variation in this regard. Interest-
tional aspiration group had the highest
ingly, the scheduled and non-scheduled caste maladjustment whereas the low educational
students did not differ in their home group had the lowest, though not
adjustment problems, though both had appreciably low. There was a significant
unsatisfactory home adjustment. Even difference between these two groups, the
though it is not explicit from the study, higher aspiration group having less
the students staying in the residential maladjustment than the lower aspiration

ADJUSTMENT OF SCHEDULED AND NON-SCHEDULED CASTE STUDENTS
57
group. Even though there was no sex and cant variation in this area of adjustment.
socio-economic status variation in the health But, scheduled caste students had more
adjustment, the residential students had problems of emotional adjustment than the
more health problems than the non-
non-scheduled caste students. Likewise the
residential group. Probably, the same line residential students reported more of emo-
of thought as in the case of home adjust-
tional adjustment problems than the non-
ment may hold good in this regard too. residential students. Girls were seen to have
The conditions prevailing in the residential more of this maladjustment than the boys.
facilities provided may be in wanting in Even socio-economic status appears to
many respects.
affect this area of adjustment as the higher
The social adjustment scores obtained by group reported significantly less problems
the groups indicated that they were of adjustment at the emotional level than
average in their social adjustment, neither the other two groups. This study support-
being aggressive (norms of 0 to 5) nor retiring ed the findings of many others. (Srinivasan,
(norms of 21 to 26). Though aspiration and 1974; Agarwal, 1960; Golf, 1954; Lal
Socio-economic status did not differentiate Chopra, 1969).
the social adjustment scores, the other
Even in the case of total adjustment
factors did differentiate between the social scores, it was found that the group as a
adjustment scores of the subjects. The whole is unsatisfactory in its adjustment.
scheduled caste students were having more The total scores ranged from 52.50 (non-
social adjustment problems (16.45) than the residential) to 57.77 (high educational aspi-
non-scheduled caste students, which seems ration group). Educational aspiration is
to be a natural consequence of their seen to bring about a difference in the
alienated condition. Girls seem to have total adjustment of students, the high group
more social adjustment problems (16.75) having more problems of adjustment than
than boys (14.79) which perhaps may the low group. But, the vocational aspira-
reflect our cultural milieu and its impact tion did not reveal any significant differ-
on girls' behaviour, especially in the light ence. In total there was no difference bet-
of changing values due to modernisation. ween the scheduled and non-scheduled caste
Again, the residential students have reported students, although the effect of residence
more of social adjustment problems than was significant. The residential students had
the non-residential ones.
more adjustment problems than the non-
The home environment is seen to affect residential students. Girls were found to be
both the health adjustment and social more maladjusted than the boys, which
adjustment of the students. Therefore, the may be due to more problems in the area
social adjustment problems are generally to of emotional and social adjustment. Socio-
be expected especially where there is the economic status did not indicate any sig-
problem of home adjustment.
nificant difference in the total problems of
The emotional adjustment of the students adjustment of students.
studied is also unsatisfactory as the values
were seen to be within the range of norms Conclusion
for unsatisfactory emotional adjustment viz.
12 to 19. The lowest score was for non-
Though it may not be concluded that the
residential students (14.34) and the highest scheduled and non-scheduled caste students
for scheduled caste students (16.75). The have any difference in the adjustment pro-
aspiration did not bring about any signifi-
blems they are having, the study has reveal-

58
M. A. BABU REDDY AND B. G. SUDHA
ed that the scheduled caste students do have emotional. There is no need to emphasise
more problems of social and emotional ad-
that educationists and persons concerned
justment than the other students. Likewise, about the total development of the persona-
the residential students are having more lities need to pay attention to this aspect
adjustment problems than the non-residen-
in order to help, guide and improve their
tial ones. However, irrespective of the cate-
conditions so that they may develop into
gories of students, the X standard students healthy personalities, by eliminating the
do face a number of adjustment problems kinds of problems they face in their home
in all the areas of home, health, social, and and school.
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Allport, G. W.
Personality: A Psychological Interpretation, Constable and Co.,
1962
London.
Adams, G. S.
Measurement and Evaluation in Psychology, Education and
1964
Guidance, Holt, New York.
Dunn, M.
Exceptional Children in the School, Holt, New York.
1967
Chubye, G. S.
1961
Caste, Class and Occupation, G. R. Bhalkal, Bombay.
Hurlock, E.
1955
Adolescent Development, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Jersild, A. T
1969
The Psychology of Adolescence, T h e Macmillan, New York.
Lehner, G. F. J. and
Kube, Ella
The Dynamics of Adjustment, Prentice-Hall, N. J.
1964
Schneider, A. A.
Personal Adjustment and Mental Health, Holt, New York.
Thorpe, L. &
Schomuller, A. M.
Personality-An Interdisciplinary Approach. Affiliated East West,
1965
New Delhi.