NEWS AND NOTES IN MEMORIAM On behalf of the Faculty, the Staff and ...
NEWS AND NOTES
IN MEMORIAM
On behalf of the Faculty, the Staff and excellent organiser, her co-operation was a
Students of the Tata Institute of Social contribution to the success of anything for
Sciences, Bombay, I wish to pay our tribute which she worked.
to the memory of Miss Porochisti Fardoonji
Ginwala, who joined the Institute as one of
Though meek, humble and shy, she posses-
its earliest students. The Institute heard sed that dignity of personality and ability
with deep sorrow of her sad and untimely for self-assertion which marked her out as a
death at a young age of 28 years.
person born for right leadership, where the
ideal was fundamental and had to be
Miss Porochisti, shy, unassuming and served with unswerving loyalty. Her quiet
extremely sincere, was with us not only to self-confidence and hard work compelled
prepare for a vocation, but to serve the obedience on the part of those who appeared
country and its poor people whom she loved to be stronger and better.
so much. Outwardly, her shy habits and
mild temperament gave her the appearance
She was a member of the smallest class the
of a passive young person, brought up in the Institute ever had. It was a small group of
luxury of a rich family. But during her idealists who have all made a mark in life,
studies and her work, she showed a remark-
achieved great results because of team work
able enthusiasm, energy and above all, and unity of purpose and spirit.
perseverance, which made her study every
subject with keenness and love for know-
Miss Porochisti was one of the main
ledge.
architects of that worthy and fine purposive-
ness of the group to which she belonged.
Miss Porochisti was primarily interested Friendly, genial and humorous, she was a
in "others", and she possessed that unique good and true sister to everyone in the class.
basic qualification for "service", because her Her idealism was contagious and the team
'self was not evident in anything she did or prepared itself wholeheartedly to serve their
wanted to do. Gentle, kind, and playful, country.
she easily became the object of respect and
affection at the play-centres and the nursery
The death of Miss Porochisti is a great loss
schools. She was devoted to the Nursery to the world of social service. She leaves
School idea, because she not only loved behind a chapter in the history of the
children, but felt that happiness and right Institute, and she will be remembered for
training was their first need if they were to long by those who had the good fortune to
be useful and creative citizens in the future. teach her, to work with her, and share the
Therefore, she laboured for them, irrespective light of the spirit which shall always shine,
of their class, caste and creed, and her most though she is no more with us.
valuable work was that among the children
May the work she has left behind be
of the aborigines.
continued and may it remain long to
She was ever willing and ready to work perpetuate the spirit of service which per-
for any cause which appealed to her sensitive meated her personality and her entire
nature or her refined imagination. An being!

308
N E W S AND NOTES
FOR EVERY CHILD A HEALTHY PERSONALITY
The 1950 White House Conference one who can open his mind and heart to
brought together 5,500 Americans from warm relationships with others, one who
Alaska to Florida and from California to knows he must produce his own passport to
Maine. With them were 300 foreign obser-
success, one who can meet defeat with
vers from 37 countries. It was exciting to equanimity, and one who stands for the ways
realise that all of those busy people from of peace.
all groups in the community and a great
At another general session, one of the main
variety of professions had gathered together speakers was Dr. Benjamin Spock, whose
to discuss what needed to be done to secure contribution to the Conference was an out-
the right of every child to a healthy standing one. In his address he discussed
personality.
what we know today about the development
The mechanics by which this vast number of healthy personality for children and
of people became a friendly, cooperative youth. He urged that we speak up with
group was an interesting phenomenon to conviction about those factors which con-
observe. The mechanics were by no means tribute to healthy personality and that we
simple. A full day was given to the registra-
support our beliefs with valid research and
tion of delegates and the meetings thereafter controlled experiments. He paid a good deal
were in a variety of forms: plenary sessions, of attention to the significance of the role
work groups, panel sessions, and film show-
of the family in sound development of
ings with discussion. Meetings began with children, and felt we had a responsibility
amazing promptness and the devices of work to allay the anxiety of parents which arises
groups and panel discussions divided the mainly from their inexperience and their
large assembly into small groups in which doubts about their capacities as parents in
there was lively discussion and very extensive the light of so much scientific speaking and
participation where the result of the two writing about the need of children. The
years preparatory work was clearly evident. importance of glamorizing the role of
The Conference had seven general or parents seemed important to Dr. Spock,
plenary sessions which were attended by the whose warmth and conviction in discussing
entire Conference and where we listened to the place of children in society was a forceful
addresses of both an informational and in-
reminder of his own contribution towards
spirational nature. At one such meeting, the building of confidence in parents.
President Truman made a "report to the
In his address to a general session, Dr.
nation" speech which has had wide publicity. Leonard Mayo, well known to us as President
For this occasion, the batteries of polices, of the Child Welfare League of America,
movie and television cameras and photo-
spoke about the ways in which we should
graphers added a good deal of excitement be putting our present knowledge about
to the occasion.
healthy personality to work for the benefit
Early in the meeting one speaker defined of our children. Speaking of the various
what we meant by the healthy personality practitioners in the Children's field, Dr.
which the Conference was seeking for all Mayo described their problem as being one
children. A person with a healthy personality of applying as a whole the research that
was described as one who is free to operate at comes to him in segments. He re-emphasized
nearly peak physical and mental capacity, what most of us already accept; namely,

N E W S AND NOTES
309
that what we feel about people determines have thus been taken from the family and
what we do with the knowledge we have put into impersonal community organizations.
about them. He felt there should be much The family's most important function has
greater emphasis placed upon the recruitment now become that of an emotional hot-house.
into the professions dealing with children of
Thirdly, families have changed structurally
people who are concerned about children from large communal groups to tiny units.
and that we must bring a greater understand-
Most significant of this trend is the reduction
ing of people to all professional groups. As of the number of parents which a child has
an example he said that even now in some from own parents, grandparents, and some-
hospital clinics, doctors have more knowledge times great grandparents, to just a
of diseases than of people, yet they cannot mother and father. The security which the
successfully treat the disease because they child formerly had in the large group is now
disregard the individual who has it.
concentrated in two adults and is therefore
In a Conference panel on changing much more easily wrecked. These trends
patterns in child-family-community rela-
were thought to bring about many of the
tionships, an impressive group, including a problems current in family life today and
sociologist, an educator, and a home econo-
hence it is important to help families face
mist, had an excellent discussion on the some of these difficulties of which they are
effect of our modern society upon parent-
the victims.
child relationships. Strain on family life to-
In her presentation at this panel, Charlotte
day was thought to be in large part due to Towle described the present dilemma as one
the fact that the family has become the in which people were trying to learn to live
victim of our social institutions and is ex-
in an interdependent society with a back-
pected to make all of the adjustments to ground in which dependency in the social
those institutions. In the transfer from sense had never been acceptable. Like a
rural to urban ways of life during the last number of other speakers, she pointed up the
few generations, three converging trends fact that in America dependency in people
were noted which have had notable effects was acceptable where it was created "through
on family life. The first of these trends is no fault of their own", but much less accept-
that the local community which formerly able where it involved social difficulty for
provided the basic needs of its members has which the individual might be thought to be
broken down in the face of large-scale responsible. She emphasized the importance
urbanization. Now the thin walls of a city of conveying to children a sense of their
apartment building separate strangers. The community as a bulwark for the family
primary relationships which formerly existed group. She felt that it was necessary to
among members of the community have been develop ways in which to ease humiliation,
replaced by secondary relationships between guilt, and anxiety about having things done
specialised groups such as employer-employee with and for people. This would help peo-
and patient-doctor. As a result, the deep ple to accept as valid some dependency as
seated human need of primary relationships being part of the inter-pendency which is
must be met almost entirely by the family characteristic of our society.
group.
Because of the recognition of the Con-
A second trend has shifted the family from ference that the background of a healthy
its position of making a living to one of personality was laid early in life, and in the
earning a living. Various family functions child's own home, one of the more basic

310
NEWS AND NOTES
sessions was concerned with preparation for information to people, but emphasis must be
marriage and parenthood. Dr. Franzblau, placed on offering help, not of stuffing it
who chaired this session, stressed the fact down the throat. Finally we must help all
that competent studies indicated the marital parents to feel they do not have to be perfect.
happiness of couples was usually a direct Attention was paid by all of the speakers to
reflection of the marital happiness of their the effect which so much scientific informa-
parents, and of the happiness of each couple tion about child development was having or
in childhood. The speakers all agreed that might have upon conscientious parents. As
there was much greater need for preparation one speaker graphically put it: "This is the
for marriage in a period when marriages are golden age for parent education. It is a
not held together by social pressures and resourceful parent indeed who can evade the
social taboos but by their soundness and gnat-like waves of information going on to
unity. It was felt that the basic require-
him". It was therefore especially emphasized
ment in premarital education was the deve-
that people should be helped to make use
lopment of sound attitudes towards the of the information that is available, but that
opposite sex and toward marriage and we should continually stress that the feeling
family responsibilities. There was also con-
for children is always more important than
siderable discussion but little difference of the things parents do, and that for parent
opinion about the necessity to provide young educators and others, understanding is more
people with information about the physical important than the advice which is given to
and psychological aspects of marriage. All parents.
of the speakers in the group seemed to agree
One of the most striking aspects of the
that the marital problems which were pre-
Conference was the participation of youth
sented to them often stemmed, not from basic delegates. Some 150 young people from all
immaturity, but from basic ignorance. There parts of the United States attended the Con-
was agreement that preparation for marriage, ference and participated fully in all discus-
including the giving of adequate sex informa-
sions. They showed a good deal of maturity
tion, must begin at home where sound values and interest in the current obstacles in the
could be affectively inculcated by example. way of healthy personality development of
Though this process is begun at home, how-
children in the United States and some
ever, it must continue outside by means of idealism and determination about the steps
the school, press, radio, and even television! which must be taken to improve the situation.
There was considerable focus on the func-
tion of parents' education in the development
On the final day of the Conference there
of healthy personality. As Dorothy Baruch was a plenary session for the consideration
Miller put it; "Parent educators need to be of Conference recommendations. The parti-
belated parents to those who have been cipation in this session was an object lesson
deprived of good parents as children in in the democratic process and in skill in
order to help those parents to be better organization. Opportunity was given for
parents for their own children." She felt the discussion and amendment of all resolu-
all people working in the field of parent tions and full use was made of this oppor-
education need to understand and accept tunity. We hope the amended resolutions
the feelings which people bring to will soon be available and that they can be
their job as parents. We must also give distributed to all those who are interested
a feeling of trust by what give and because they represent in a very graphic way
what we are. We must offer ourselves and the concern of the American people for their

NEWS AND NOTES
311
children. This session, which summarized all
We will encourage you always to seek
of the deliberations which had been going on the truth.
for two years in the preparatory period and
We will open the way for you to enjoy the
for four days of the Conference, emphasized arts and to use them for deepening your
again the similarity of problems of human understanding of life.
relationships regardless of race, creed or
nationality. The factors essential to healthy
We will work to rid ourselves of prejudice
personality development in the United States and discrimination, so that together we may
do not differ from those which we need in achieve a truly democratic society.
Canada and, therefore, there was much in
We will work to lift the standard of living
this White House Conference which we can and to improve our economic practices, so
bring home and apply in our own situation. that you may have the material basis for a
At the conclusion of the discussion on full life.
resolutions the Conference made its "pledge
to children" which was presented as followed:
We will provide you with rewarding edu-
"TO YOU, our children, who hold within cational opportunities, so that you may
you our most cherished hopes, we the develop your talents and contribute to a
members of the Midcentury White House better world.
Conference on Children and Youth, relying
We will protect you against exploitation
on your full response, make this pledge:
and undue hazards and help you grow in
From your earliest infancy we give you health and strength.
our love, so that you may grow with trust in
We will work to conserve and improve
yourself and in others.
family life and, as needed, to provide foster
We will recognize your worth as a person care according to your inherent rights.
and we will help you to strengthen your
sense of belonging.
We will intensify our search for new
We will respect your right to be yourself knowledge in order to guide you more
and at the same time help you to understand effectively as you develop your potentialities.
the rights of others so that you may ex-
As you grow from child to youth to adult,
perience cooperative living.
establishing a family life of your own and
We will help you to develop initiative and accepting larger social responsibilities, we
imagination, so that you may have the will work with you to improve conditions
opportunity freely to create.
for all children and youth.
We will encourage your curiosity and your
pride in workmanship, so that you may have
Aware that these promises to you cannot
the satisfaction that comes from achievement. be fully met in a world at war, we ask you
to join us in a firm dedication to the building
We will provide the conditions for whole-
of a world society based on freedom, justice
some play that will add to your learning, to and mutual respect.
your social experience, and to your happi-
ness.
SO MAY YOU grow in joy, in faith in
We will illustrate by precept and example God and man, and in those qualities of vision
the value or integrity and the importance of and of the spirit that will sustain us all and
moral courage.
give us new hope for the future,"

312
N E W S AND N O T E S
U. N. SURVEY OF SOCIAL WELFARE ADMINISTRATION
AND TRAINING
T h e nature and concept of social work social welfare measures enacted by the
has undergone a revolutionary change during various governments and their administration
the last fifty years. In the past, it was as well as the variety of definitions of social
associated mainly with individual charity and work obtaining in each country. T h e r e are
volunteer service. But with the advance of changing trends in these definitions as new
industrialisation in several countries and with situations arise, consequent on the increasing
the increasing economic and social malad-
complexity of social problems, especially in
justment in its wake social service assumes the post-war world. As a result, the Social
the character of a profession, requiring Commission finds new tendencies in the
specialised training. Hence, institutions have methods of training adopted by the schools
come into being, in the last four or five of social work. T h e r e is found a fresh
decades, in many countries of the world for insistence on the study of social sciences,
the professional preparation of social workers. which have grown in bulk and importance in
And as wars and economic depressions recent times and an attempt is m a d e to
create complicated problems of unprecedent-
achieve correlation between the theory and
ed magnitude, various social welfare measures
practice of social work.
are enacted by Governments, in the
In this connection, the Social Commission
administration of which the State plays a has made a study of the curricula of 373
leading role.
schools of social work in the fortysix countries
In view of these developments, the Social which it has covered. Dealing with the new
Commission of the United Nations Economic trend of achieving a harmonious blending of
and Social Council was authorised to under-
theoretical and practical instruction in these
take an international survey of social welfare institutions, the Commission recognises the
administration and training. T h e Commis-
T a t a Institute of Social Sciences, India, as
sion has just brought out two reports, one of the foremost and says, " T h e I n d i a n
after a survey of about fortysix leading Schools, particularly the T a t a Institute of
countries, their social problems and the Social Sciences, have apparently already
methods they have adopted to solve them. achieved this kind of harmony by requiring
T h e Commission's study is based on reports all students to devote a
and supplementary information received specified amount of time in the training
from the Governments, Universities and period to "pre-professional courses" drawn
Institutions of Social Work of countries from the general area of social sciences but
like Argentine, Australia, Austria, Belgium, presented in such a m a n n e r as to underline
China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, those aspects that are of importance to
Finland, Germany, India, Japan, Poland, social workers".
Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Switzerland, United
T h e report on Training for Social Work
Kingdom, United States and others.
contains an appendix in which the Commis-
O n e of these reports deals with the sion gives descriptive summaries of fortyone
methods of social welfare administration, renowned schools of social work, d r a w n from
while the second described modes of training fortyone countries; and the T a t a Institute
for social work in the countries surveyed. of Social Sciences from India finds a place
T h e reports contain a general review of the among them. These summaries give an

N E W S AND NOTES
313
inkling into the methods of training adopted Research Assistants, etc. Some of these
by the various countries in providing educa-
graduates hold responsible positions in social
tion for professional social work.
welfare administration.
In this context, it may be mentioned that
In its reports, the Commission does not
the Tata Institute, now fifteen years old, has make any recommendations but only presents
sent out 198 graduates, trained in social background information to the recent
work. Most of these are now employed developments, essential for any long range
throughout India in Government and private planning in the field of social work. As such,
agencies as Personnel Officers, Labour Wel-
the reports should prove invaluable to all
fare Officers, Factory Inspectors, Hospital those who are interested in the reorganization
Social Workers, Family Case Workers, Relief
of administration of and training for social
Organizers, Probation and Parole Officers, welfare work.
SOCIAL FACTORS IN CRIME
The early students of crime believed that criminals as a group. On the other hand,
the criminal was a backward human being criminals and non-criminals showed greater
in the evolutionary scale, an undeveloped similarity of traits than dissimilarity. Hooton
or partial human being having some physical further analysed his material on racial and
and biological stigmata or anomalies like genealogical bases and concluded that the
small capacity of the skull, retreating fore-
blond, long-headed Pure Nordic type is an
head, asymmetrical development, various easy leader in forgery and fraud, a second
deformities, exaggerations of facial bones, in burglary and larceny, and last or next to
long lower jaw, flattened nose, hairiness, last in all crimes against person. The brunet,
insensitivity to pain, etc., as suggested by the roundheaded Alphine type ranks first in
extensive measurements of prison population robbery but last in forgery and fraud. The
by the Italian criminoligist Lombroso, and blond, roundheaded East Baltic type is first
his disciple Enrico Ferri. Criminals, accord-
in burglary and larceny, but is low in offence
ing to them, were born to be such.
against the person, except rape.
Quite recently, again, the Harward An-
However, there are many weaknesses in
thropologist, Hooton, made a three-volume Hooton's conclusions here. Being a physical
report based on measurements and observa-
anthropologist, he failed to note other
tions of nearly 141/2 thousand prisoners, in factors, viz., the social and psychological.
which he concludes that although there were Again, prisoners were compared with a non-
no physical stigmata among these criminals, criminal group, many of whom were firemen
they were biologically inferior. For example, and military men and so the latter was a
the criminal had comparatively a smaller select group having better physical
size, straighter hair, broader face, more standards. Also, many of the physical defects
prominent nose, narrower jaws, and smaller in the criminals may have been due to
but broader ears than non-criminals in malnutrition and environmental factors
general. But, there was no single distinguish-
rather than hereditary ones. It has been
ing physical trait or mark or combination pointed out, for example, that to conclude
of traits common to all criminals. Criminals that criminality is inherited, racially or other-
as a group showed a higher percentage of wise, merely because it appears in successive
individuals with these traits than non-
generations would be as absurd as concluding

314
NEWS AND NOTES
that tie-wearing is an inherited behaviour civilian group with which the prisoners arc
because certain groups of men have worn compared is usually not a matching group
ties for generations.
with the latter in all the other circumstances.
For any good comparison, the two groups
A study made by four specialists in the must be matching in all other variable factors
U.S.A., a physician, a sociologist, a physical excepting the suspected differences. But, two
anthropologist and a statistician,—of 4000 things are obvious from all these studies:
boys in two delinquency areas where delin-
First, all delinquents show mental deficiency,
quents were compared with non-delinquents and in fact quite a number are mentally
concludes that there was no significant even superior; and second, not all mentally
difference between delinquents and non-
defectives turn criminals, for there are many
delinquents among whites but some difference mental defectives who are leading non-
was found among Negroes. What is more, criminal lives. Therefore, mental deficiency
delinquent Negroes showed fewer of that cannot be the one or unaided cause of crime.
so-called physical stigmata than the non-
delinquents, and also were superior to the
With the development of endocrinology,
non-delinquents in health. And, there was some investigators have concluded that cri-
no difference in intelligence between them. minality is the result of disease or malfunc-
toining of the glands which affected
The psychologist's approach to the criminal emotional reactions and therefore behaviour.
was originally directed to connect criminal Others used psycho-neurotic inventories and
tendency with feeble-mindedness and low concluded, particularly in the field of juvenile
intelligence, as for instance, in the famous delinquency, that delinquents differed from
studies of Charles Goring in England and of non-delinquents in emotional reactions. One
Henry Goddard in America. But, with the of the most frequently ascribed causes of
new and fairly dependable tools available crime is "psychopathic personality" a good
studies between prisoners and civilians have catchword, because it possesses a variety of
lately been possible on large scales; and on traits, often contradictory, and therefore is
the strength of one such study, Car Murchi-
so vague, that it is relatively easy to find
son concluded that, on the whole, criminals some or the others of these traits in many
showed better intelligence than the non-
prisoners. Indeed, there are some who would
criminals, and that the proportion of consider that criminal behaviour itself is the
feeble-minded was less among the criminals prima facie evidence of psychopathic con-
than non-criminals. Adler found in his dition even if no other symptom of mental
groups of study that the proportion was disease is noticeable. But this would amount
about the same in both criminals and non-
to saying that a man is criminal because he
criminals. One or two things must also be is a criminal.
further remembered in such studies, viz., that
the more intelligent criminals have probably
The psychoanalysts seem to offer a variety
been successful in evading the clutches of of explanations, though they all agree
the law, and therefore, the average intel-
generally that the roots of criminal behaviour
ligence of the criminals studied in the prisons and delinquency lie in a person's inner emo-
is likely to be lower than the actual average tional urges, impulses and needs of his early
of all criminals, imprisoned and not im-
childhood, which have remained unfulfilled
prisoned; and secondly, studies of intelligence and unresolved because they have not found
among prisoners have not been able to control socially acceptable outlets. Such unsatisfied
the various socio-economic factors, and the drives seek various outlets of self-expression,

NEWS AND NOTES
315
and crime is one of them. Crime may would not have been guilty. Criminal
represent rebellion or revenge upon society's behaviour is learned by contacts and by imita-
restraints, or a way by which the individual tion in the same way as politeness, tennis or
proves to himself that he is not inferior to speculating on the stock market are learned,
his rivals, or some other way of getting over and the motives are also same, viz., com-
childhood's frustrations.
panionship or participation, or approval of
Some have suggested, taking their clue the group, etc. The question still remains,
from Marx, that crime is rooted in the however, why, in the same environment and
capitalist system, class distinctions, and with same or similar contacts, some people
unequal distribution of wealth and privileges. become criminals and others do not.
The sociological investigators conclude that
Home conditions and marital status of
criminal and delinquent behaviour is found parents are found to be the cause of criminal
closely associated with low economic con-
behaviour in a very large number of cases.
ditions, and with physical and social disinteg-
The physical, social and psychological con-
ration of the individuals concerned. But it ditions at home may be so uncongenial for
is still a question whether low economic and an individual that he may seek satisfaction
deteriorated social conditions cause crimes, elsewhere, and this increases the possibilities
or whether low economic conditions as well of association with undesirable elements, and
as criminal behaviour have both a common may then lead to criminal behaviour. There
cause. It is possible that in a number of have been cases of young people running
cases, both may be the result of poor intel-
away from home and turning criminals.
lectual capacity, unstable emotional life, and Sometimes over protection and over caring
so on. Not all poverty-stricken people are for the child leave it untrained in the art
criminals! Some other sociologists have of making its own decisions, and later the
suggested social contacts of the individual individual finds it difficult to make due
with criminal groups as the cause of criminal adjustments with the outside social world.
behaviour, in many cases at least. As Sometimes, lack of sufficient general discipline
Sutherland would say, "systematic criminal and training at home results in the same
behaviour" is acquired through the same difficulty. Broken homes by separation or by
processes as "systematic lawful behaviour". death, more former than the latter, are
Factors like family disorganisation or per-
associated with a number of cases of crimes.
sonality deficiencies are influential in leading In all probability, it is not the legally broken
to criminal behaviour, not by themselves but home but the psychologically broken home
when the individual comes in contact with that is more responsible for leading to cri-
criminal groups and criminal patterns of minal behaviour.
behaviour, rather than with law-abiding
groups and behaviour. And, the prospective
The cinema is found to be yet another
criminal has not to go far to seek them; he cause of several crimes. In one investigation,
actually comes in contact with criminal and it was found that deception scoures of
unethical practices even in apparently law-
children attending movies more than four
abiding groups, e.g., in the commercial times a week were higher than those of
circles, in the various professions, and so on, children attending movies once a week. In
though these are not declared as "crimes"! some studies it was found that the particular
Today, for instance, black-marketing is a crimes or methods of executing them were
crime of which many would be guilty but suggested by certain movies; but it was not
of which in ordinary circumstances they found that these movies or any others were

316
N E W S AND N O T E S
the original cause of turning the individual cause or first cause in one case may be
into a criminal. However, it is found by-
auxiliary in another. Only a proper appraisal
other experiments, though not related to of the case in its own context, will enable
criminal behaviour, t h a t motion pictures us to judge what methods could be employed
possess a tremendous potency in moulding to cure or to prevent it, whether by a p p r o -
the attitudes and outlook of the young and priate punishment, corrective, parole, pro-
the adult.
bation, institutionalization, change of social
and economic conditions, mental treatment,
It should be obvious by now from the rehabilitation, education, reeducation, or in
preceding survey that each school of inves-
other ways. There is no one general method
tigators, the biological, psychological, social, of prevention or cure for all crimes, just
psychoanalytic, marxist, etc., is anxious to because there is no one single cause for all
find out one single cause as the cause of crimes.
all crimes. It is this naive tendency of men
to search for one sole cause for every event
In this matter as in many others, preven-
that is often responsible for not giving us a tion is better than cure. Bearing in mind
true picture of the situation. But must we all the possible factors, causative and
insist on the sole cause, when life itself is so auxiliary, to crime, it is society's duty to see
complex and its manifestations are also likely that these factors are eliminated or reduced
to be rooted in complex situations? Each in operation or counteracted. For, as the
case of criminal behaviour must be examined
above survey shows, criminals are not born;
on its merits to find out which one or more they are made.
of the so many possible causes are responsible
for the same; some one or more of these
(This is a talk broadcast by Dr. Pandhari-
causes may be principal causes, others may be Nath Prabhu on the AIR, Bombay, on Aug.
auxiliary causes. And, what is a principal 10, 1951. By Courtesy AIR, Bombay).
SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR WORKERS
Summer schools for trade unionists in has brought together m e n and women from
Britain are now an established institution. all branches of the coal industry, along with
M a n y of them are held every year under the 50 or more colliery deputies and overmen.
auspices of various educational bodies,
T h e young miners attending the school
which include the education department of have been finding college life at Oxford
the British Trades Union Congress, the somewhat tough. But they are gaining
Workers' Educational Association, the happy compensation in mingling on the
National Council of Labour Colleges, the College quadrangle with the heads of the
Labour Party, the Co-operative Union's nationalised industry and their tutors and
Educational Department—and latterly, the special lecturers in the summer school
governing Boards of Britain's nationalised sessions.
industries.
T h e mineworkers' summer school, now in
Between 400 and 500 mineworkers, for its third year, is attended mainly by students
example, are currently attending a summer drawn from the senior ranks of the industry,
school organised by the National Coal Board but including also many drawn from the coal
in one of Britain's oldest university colleges. face and the underground workings. At the
This school, at Magdalen College, Oxford, school they form themselves into 30 or 40

N E W S AND N O T E S
317
groups for the study of a dozen subjects.
University Courses.—These industrial edu-
They attend also general and specialised cational schemes fit into the general pro-
lectures. This is the programme being gramme of educational advance which is
followed this year with happy results.
developing very widely under the direction
Essential Aim.—Similar summer schools of the T . U . C . General Council's Education
are running now under the auspices of the Committees. This body not only itself pro-
British Electricity Authority. T h e course of vides summer schools and week-end schools,
education follows much the same lines. T h e day schools and tutorial classes covering
interest of students is concentrated on the many subjects of special concern and value
most important problems of administration to trade unionists, but also links up with the
and management, as well as its problems of
established Workers' Educational organi-
distribution and commercial practice.
sations, the movement's own Ruskin College,
T h e essential aim the summer schools of and numerous technical colleges and cer-
both the mining industry and the electricity tain universities.
supply industry are designed to promote, is
Arrangements have been m a d e with Glas-
the training of workers in the industry for gow University, Nottingham University, the
positions of responsibility and service. In University of Manchester, Southampton
the mining industry, regulations for the University College, and the London School
training of young mineworkers and adults of Economics for special courses in trade
too, were framed by the Minister of Fuel union study on both a full-time and a part-
and Power as long ago as 1945, and have time basis for trade unionists actually work-
since been extended.
ing at their job, as well as for union officials.
T h e scheme for education and training
begins with a preliminary course for youths,
Relations with National Technical Col-
and connected with it are residential train-
leges for these purposes are developing. T h e
ing establishments and centres, supervised T. U. C. General Council, for example, re-
by training officers, who have themselves cently appointed two of its members to
attended special courses before undertaking serve on the governing body of a National
their supervisory work.
College for the Leather Industry, and con-
A separate p a r t of the scheme provides nections of this nature already subsist with
for the training of gifted men or boys with other technical colleges which have origi-
good prospects of promotion. For them a nated in other industries.
comprehensive range of technical training
It is entirely consistent with the T . U . C .
is provided, including mechanical engineer-
educational policy that the Production Com-
ing, electrical engineering and mine survey-
mittee of its General Council has been active
ing and connected studies. From this source in promoting courses of study at technical
will come the industry's future deputies, colleges, on work study, and industrial re-
colliery technicians, surveyors and under-
lations. This development, which owes its
managers. There is a third course of edu-
origins to the initiative of one of the great
cation provided for men in the industry general workers' unions—the National Union
with high technical qualifications to qualify of General and Municipal Workers—now ex-
for managerial positions.
tends to eight centres throughout Britain in
In future no small proportion of the the form of courses of instruction in these
colliery managers will be men who have subjects lasting about a month. O t h e r unions
worked their way up in the industry through are being actively encouraged to institute
this educational system.
similar courses for their own industries.

318
N E W S AND NOTES
BHARAT CHILDREN'S CONGRESS
So long as our Country was under foreign We can no longer be and remain content
domination, our attention was entirely con-
with vague ideas such as entertainment,
centrated on making all-out efforts in a battle education, and development. We have to
to destroy that domination. Now that the define and give shape to these abstractions.
said foreign domination has been destroyed
The aim of this organisation will therefore
and we have attained complete independence be to make children attain maximum
since August 15, 1947, the scene of the battle strength of body, mind and soul so as to be
has changed-the battle nevertheless persists. able to contribute their utmost for creating
For, after all is not the entire life a battle? conditions of the highest prosperity—ma-
We have now to fight the battle of resur-
terial, moral and spiritual—in our country.
rection and renaissance. We have to remove
To achieve this aim, the organisation in-
the darkness of ignorance, poverty, and vited all the existing child welfare institutions
superstition into which so long we were kept and training schools and Associations to form
immersed by the events of time. We have a federation on a countrywide basis and shall
then to march in discipline on the road to also start centres under its own auspices and
lighted and ordered progress, both material direct management. While regulating and
and spiritual. We have to so develop our controlling high level office and adminis-
Country's life as a whole and its entire trative work, the organisation will encourage
resources and wealth that there shall be children to form and develop their own cen-
plenty of everything for all and that each tres and their own lines of activities. While
one of the living beings is able to express approaching the Governments of the day to
and live the life in fullness.
help the organisation evolve a standard and
While recognising this self expression and uniform curriculum and training, both for
fullness of life in case of Children, it is uni-
children and child welfare workers, it shall
versally acknowledged that a child is inno-
agitate to bring consciousness in parents,
cent, blemishless, pure and tender. Its poten-
teachers, and society in general with a view
tial capacity is limitless and given opportu-
to focussing their attention in an ever increas-
nities and proper surroundings, its develop-
ing degree towards making the children grow
ment can reach marvellous proportions. In on the above lines. This should not be mis-
developing therefore the country's life to understood as regimentation or creating of
the desired end, we have to attempt to so mere automatons, for while planning deve-
construct a human being from a mere child lopment with a purpose and towards a
that its physical energy is unbounded, its specific end, we have admitted freedom and
mental prowess penetrating and illuminating self expression as essential for the growth and
and its heart full of nobility, love, warmth happiness of children.
and tolerance for its fellow-beings.
It will encourage children by organising
How shall we respond to this call of duty? province-wide training camps and moving
theatrical squads and volunteer bands to
We believe, there is now an urgent need participate in manual labour movements for
for a country-wide organisation which will developing the country, such as growing
supply this basic positive motive relating to food, rearing gardens, building roads,
the question of the growth of our children. digging wells, running consumers' co-opera-

N E W S AND NOTES
319
tive shops, and working in factories, mills and
We desire, this organisation of and for
workshops and shall also, undertake the children to develop on an all India scale
preparation, compilation and publication of and fight the Country's battle of resurrection
the necessary literature.
and renaissance.
DR. WALTER C. RECKLESS—U. N. EXPERT
Dr. Walter C. Reckless, who has come out and provision is made for observational visits
to India under the auspices of the Technical of trainees to juvenile, police and other
Assistance Administration of the United allied institutions.
Nations has been assigned to the Tata Insti-
Three members of the Faculty of the
tute of Social Sciences as Visiting Professor Institute, the Inspector General of Prisons,
in Criminology and Correctional Administra-
Bombay State, Commissioner of Police,
tion. He arrived in Bombay, accompanied Bombay and the Chief Inspector of Certified
by Mrs. Reckless, on Sunday, October 21 Schools, Bombay State, will participate in the
1951.
lecture work and organise observation visits.
During his first fortnight's stay in Bombay Fourteen States of the Indian Union have
and Delhi, he visited juvenile institutions deputed about fortyfive of their jail officials
and prisons in order to acquaint himself to undergo this new training in Criminology
with their work. Dr. Reckless also met the and Correctional Administration, which will
Chief Minister, the Home Minister and other be formally inaugurated at the Tata Insti-
officials of the Bombay Government, and tute of Social Sciences, by the Hon'ble
discussed with them problems of crime and Mr. Morarji R. Desai, Home Minister,
rehabilitation of offenders. Later, he paid Government of Bombay.
courtesy calls at the Secretariat, New Delhi,
On November 4, 1951, Dr. Reckless left
to meet some of the officials of the Govern-
Bombay for Madras on the first lap of his
ment of India.
tour in India. During the two months of
Dr. Reckless held a special conference at country wide travel, he will tour important
the Tata Institute with members of the States of the country and visit jails and
Faculty and three top-ranking officers of the other allied institutions, in order to gain a
Bombay Government, who are co-operating first-hand knowledge of prison conditions
in the training programme. A tentative and treatment of offenders in India. He
schedule of training has been drawn up will also contact and hold conferences with
which will operate from January 1952 for a ministers and other officials of the various
period of six months. The scheme of work States on the problems of control, prevention
includes lectures on topics, such as, Introduc-
and treatment of crime. Mrs. Reckless
tory Criminology, Correctional Administra-
accompanies him in his tour in India.
tion, Control and Treatment of Crime,
Terminating his itenerary in Calcutta in
Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Police the last week of December 1951, Dr. Reck-
Science and Administration, Administration Jess will participate in the fifth annual Session
of Penal and. Correctional Institutions in of the Indian Conference of Social Work,
India and Abroad, Case Work Interviewing, from December 28, 1951 to January 1, 1952.
Group Work and Psychiatry in the treatment He will preside over the deliberations of the
of Offenders. The schedule also includes r,ection on "Planning Social Defence" during
special hours for study in the Institute library, the session.

320
N E W S AND NOTES
PRESS CLUB OF TATA INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
At a meeting of the Faculty, Staff and all the students who had an aptitude for
students of the Tata Institute of Social research and writing, to become members
Sciences, held in September, 1951,
of the Club and contribute articles on current
Dr. J. M. Kumarappa, Director, declared social problems.
open the Press Club of the Institute. In his
Since its inception, the Press Club has sent
opening speech, Dr. Kumarappa said that out six articles on such topics as, Squatters,
the objective of the Club was fourfold; first Orphans, Education of Hospitalised Children,
to disseminate knowledge about the existing Hospital Social Work, etc., all of which have
social conditions in India; second, to stimu-
been published in the Bharat Jyoti.
late interest and educate the public in modern
The Club is open to all students and
scientific methods of social work; third, to Alumni of the Institute. Every member is
provide students of the Institute with oppor-
required to write at least one article a month.
tunities for improving their talents for Contributions should not exceed 1000 words
writing; and last, to learn to keep themselves in length (three typed foolscap pages) and
in touch with the Press after graduation from should be as far as possible illustrated. It is
the Institute. Continuing, Dr. Kumarappa hoped that our students and Alumni will
said that the Bharat Jyoti of Bombay had make full use of this opportunity to propa-
offered to reserve one column every week for gate and popularise professional social work
the articles of the Press Club. He invited in India.
INDIAN CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK—FIFTH
ANNUAL SESSION
Social Workers from all over India will planning, such as, Rural Community
muster in large numbers in Calcutta from Development, Welfare in Industry, Adminis-
28th December 1951 for a five-day Session tration of Social Work as well as Training of
of the Indian Conference of Social Work. Social Workers and Social Defence.
This will be the fifth annual Session of the
Each of these four sections will be presided
Conference, which is an All-India organisa-
over by a Chairman and learned papers from
tion to promote the study of social problems experienced social workers actively engaged
and to guide the progress of social work in in these respective fields of work will be
India on scientific lines. The Session will contributed for the consideration of the
be help under the distinguished presidentship Conference.
of Pandit H. N. Kunzru.
Planning is in the air and the Conference
Dr. Walter C. Reckless, who will be
has rightly given the first priority for planning visiting India as United Nations Technical
as the theme of the Calcutta Session. In Assistant under the auspices of the U. N.
view of the recently published report of the Technical Assistance Administration and the
National Planning Commission on the deve-
Government of India, to organise a six
lopment of social services in India, the months' training programme in Criminology
Conference will set before itself the main and Correctional Administration at the Tata
theme of National Planning for Social Institute of Social Sciences from January
Welfare which will be discussed in four 1952 as Visiting Professor, will preside over
sections dealing with different aspects of the deliberations of the Section on Planning

NEWS AND NOTES.
321
Social Defence. Dr. J. F. Bulsara, Far Chief Adviser to Government (Factories),
Eastern Representative of the U. N. Division Government of India.
of Social Activities at Bangkok, will be the
The Conference will offer many splendid
Chairman of the Section on Planning Ad-
opportunities of sharing experience and
ministration of Social Work and Training of knowledge with social workers from all parts
Social Workers. The other two sections will of India and abroad, and the Session is ex-
be chaired by Sardar Tarlok Singh, Deputy pected to make useful and practical recom-
Secretary, Planning Commission, Govern-
mendations for National Planning of Social
ment of India and Shri N. S. Mankiker, Welfare.
ANNUAL CONVOCATION
The Eleventh Convocation of the Tata Jayakar, Vice-Chancellor, Poona University,
Institute of Social Sciences, Andheri, has kindly consented to deliver the address.
Bombay, will be held on Sunday, the 2nd Dr. John Matthai, Chairman of the Sir
December, 1951 at 5-30 p.m. at the Insti-
Dorabji Tata Trust and Governing Board,
tute's Premises. The Rt. Hon'ble Dr. M. R. will preside.