N E W S A N D N O T E S reduction in the birth rate had to be frankly ...
reduction in the birth rate had to be frankly
discussed and considered as a method of
solving the problem. T h e Executive
Secretary of E C A F E , U. ,Nyun declared
that "population growth was a vital factor,
and one could ignore it only at tremendous
A. FONSECA, S. J. risk to the success of all economic
development planning".1
T h e First Asian Population Conference
was held in New Delhi from the 10—20
These keynote speeches at the beginning
December, 1963. It was jointly sponsored of the Conference appeared to imply t h a t
by the United Nations Economic Commission a strong policy of population control was
for Asia and the Far East, the Bureau of expected to be advocated by the delegates.
Social Affairs and the Bureau of Technical Indeed in their 'country' statements, the
Assistance Operation in co-operation with the official spokesmen of India, Pakistan, Ceylon
Government of India. Delegations from the and South Korea expressed great alarm at
countries of South-East Asia and a few the rapid growth of their population during
developed countries like t h e U.S.A., the the last three decades. Although the
U.K., France, the U.S.S.R., the Netherlands increase in population was mainly due to
and others participated in the Conference the considerable fall in the mortality rate,
together with United Nations experts and an imbalance of a serious nature h a d been
observers of the International Organizations created, a n d every effort at achieving higher
having consultative status with United standards of living h a d been thwarted by
the rise in population. T h e y strongly
recommended a practical policy of birth
T h e Conference was inaugurated by control and family planning by the wider
Prime Minister Nehru who drew pointed use of contraceptives and sterilization.
attention to the fact that population growth
was an urgent problem, because it effectively
However, delegates of smaller nations like
retarded a rising standard of living for the Indonesia, the Philippines, Afghanistan, I r a n
Asian masses. He expected the Conference and Thailand in their 'country' statement,
to indicate how economic development though aware of population growth, and its
could be m a d e of greater benefit to the likely consequences did not appear to
people of Asia despite population growth. In favour the urgent call to a drastic control
this matter the Prime Minister quoted the of numbers.2 T h e delegate of the U.S.S.R.
example of J a p a n , a n d hoped t h a t some in particular declared t h a t while t h e uptrend
valuable lessons in the E C A F E region could in the birth rate of the population was a
be learned from the Japanese family cause of anxiety, it was "ultimately the
planning experiment.
social and economic factors (that) constitute
the basis of demographic processes. Moreover
Mr. Nanda, the Home Minister and in a developing society the laws of population
Chairman of the Conference, in his speech are not internal and inviolable. Population
to the members, suggested that a substantial and socio-economic development are not
S t a t e m e n t by U. Nyun, Executive Secretary of the U N , ECAFE p. 2.
2 Country Statements of these respective countries.

only directly connected, but are also and the urgency was not felt equally by all.
dependent on each other.3 These opposing The economic experts at the Conference
tendencies however, were at first ignored by maintained that population growth was not
the press in India, who put out enthusiastic a major deterrent to economic growth, and
headlines to inform the public that the in some instances as in Thailand, Taiwan
Conference was completely in favour of and the Philippines population growth had
family planning, as the main plank in been accompanied by an equal measure of
any programme for higher standards economic growth.
of living.
From the statistical tables presented by
Within the first few days, it became Prof. Kuznets, it is quite clear that there
evident that the strong line taken on family has been no decline, but a slight rise in both
planning by the four delegations mentioned total gross product and per capita product
above gradually weakened in face of the in the ECAFE countries during the. last
complexities of the problem when viewed decade. The following table indicates the
from the economic, anthropological and rates of growth respectively of population,
sociological angle. Some of the delegates total product and per capita product of the
made it clear that different countries had countries of the ECAFE region and
to cope with different population situations, contiguous areas.
Prof. Kuznets considered the continuous were relatively insignificant during the first
increase in production a remarkable achieve-
years of such a programme and become
ment in view of the traditions and behaviour economically significant only at the
patterns of these ancient peoples that end of a long period of rigid popula-
inhabit these regions and a social organiza-
tion control. Hence economic develop-
tion that does not land itself as a spring-
ment should be set at a faster pace, despite
board for rapid economic growth.4
the many social obstacles of a lack of capital
It was also stressed by more than one and skilled labour, which could be overcome
speaker that the economic advantages of a through joint effort of the countries in the
lowering of the birth rate vis-a-vis the ECAFE region and other developed
resulting increase in the per capita income countries. Dr. P. V. Sukatme, director of the
3Statement by Dr. V. V. Kotenev, representative of the USSR.
4Cf. "Growth and Structure of National Product, Countries in the ECAFE Region, 1960
to 1961", by Prof. Simon Kuznets, Harvard University, Cambridge, United States.

Statistics division of F.A.O. said in his paper:
private, the official Japanese delegates
"At present there is no question of solving regretted that their policy was being
the nutritional problems of the region merely misunderstood by other delegates. They too
by controlling the population. Such an were concerned with moral and cultural
approach would by itself be inadequate and values just as any other people.
unfeasible. T h e main hope lies in realizing
T h e result of these discussions introduced
the agricultural potential as quickly as a cautious approach among most of the
possible at the same time as achieving delegates to any kind of unqualified approval
general process in education and social of a large-scale programme of fertility control.
fields".5 It was clear that a . policy of The delegate of the U.S.A. pointed out that
population control h a d a 'cumulative' effect family planning programmes were not an
in the sense that changes in fertility cannot end in themselves but essentially a means to
affect, for instance, the immediate labour an end. In other words, the human factor
supply, for those who have to enter the could not be ignored. Rather the family and
labour force over the next fifteen years are its well being had to be given first thought
already born. Similarly the effort to reduce in any programme for fertility control. It
the fertility rate by 5 0 % through a planned was further suggested that workshops of
programme of sterilizing 2 million people a experts in the region should be organised
year as in India would take 25 years to from time to time and much more research
carried out on the relationship between
population control a n d economic growth.
J a p a n had from the start been held up
as a model of efficiency in regard to popula-
These suggestions were further developed
tion control and economic growth. But the by other delegates and experts at the
Japanese delegation did not attribute their Conference, who insisted that any policy of
high rate of growth of 12% per a n n u m controlling the population had to be viewed
mainly to their birth control policy. They in the full context of the economic, social,
regretted the wave of abortions that h a d psychological and moral environment that
, reached its peak of 2 millions in 1957 and impinges on the family. It was also felt that
maintained t h a t at present they were trying the programme h a d to be essentially a
to convince the people to use contraceptives voluntary one, and Catholic delegates in
rather than induced abortion as a method particular pointed out that responsible
of population control.6 Some Japanese parenthood through a process of education
observers however, drew the attention of the and guidance was the ideal to be inculcated.
Conference to the sad effects of induced Since the Catholic Church permitted only
abortion on the health of the mother the practice of the 'rhythm method' of birth
and were sceptical of the Government's control, material for the teaching and practice
endeavours to change a behavioural pattern of this method should be made available at
that had taken root after many years of family welfare clinics. Further research in
continuous propaganda. Some of the mothers the rhythm method should be encouraged,
had 4 to 5 abortions in as many years.7 In so that the welfare centres would satisfy the
5 T h e Implication of Population Trend s for Food Supplies an d Requirements for th e Fa r East
with special reference to India, by P. V. Sukatme, p p . 35 and 36.
6 " A Contribution of a series of Studies on Family Planning to moderat e Population Growt h in
J a p a n " , by Yoshio Koya.
7 "Japan' s Ambition : Birth Control withou t Abortion " by J. Sasaki, an d " T h e Influence of
Abortions upon Health in J a p a n and Survey of Contraception as related to Abortion",
by J. Nishinoiri.

A. F O N S E C A , S. J.
needs of every group in the context of their development. Technical training schemes
should be prepared in view of the increasing
numbers that would require such education.
A socio-economic problem that received
T h e Executive Secretary, U. Nyun,
keen attention at the Conference was the pointed out that the decade beginning with
rapid process of urbanization in the countries 1960 was planned to be the 'development'
of the E C A F E region and the consequent decade, and at least a 5% increase in
social effects of such a wave of migration national income was the target to be
to the cities. Was this a sign of rapid achieved. Unfortunately, the real per capita
industrialization? Or was it due to the national product in most of the ECAFE
growing poverty accompanied by acute countries in the early 1960's had just
unemployment of the rural areas? Which attained levels at best slightly higher than
was the more effective element, the 'push' those reached on the eve of World War II.
from the villages, or the 'pull' from the It was admitted however that at the heart
towns? Expert opinion maintained that the of the process of economic development was
causes of such large scale internal migrations the growth and diffusion of knowledge and
were too complex to be discovered without its application to methods of production.
further research. But there was no doubt The development of human resources by
that the impact of the cities as centres of such means as the provision of better nutri-
political, cultural and social influence was tion, health, education and training con-
quite marked.
tribute powerfully to economic growth. This
T h e rapid population growth in the fact, it was regretted, h a d received insufficient
E C A F E region h a d produced an acute recognition in Asian countries. A poorly
problem of unemployment and under-
educated population enervated by malnutri-
employment. It was, therefore, asked how tion and disease and inadequately sheltered
population growth h a d affected employment? had neither the vigour nor the capabilities to
Was it a spur to employment expansion? Or master new techniques. On the other hand,
did it impede economic development? Quite a healthy, educated population, under
a few delegates pressed for a wide range of appropriate institutional conditions, was alert
health services and training courses to prevent to possibilities of adopting new methods and
unemployment and to increase the producti-
capable of working out new solutions
vity of the worker. T h e general objective appropriate to particular conditions.8
should be not only mental and technical
Hence there was great need of both
skill, but also physical aptitude. Health fundamental research and action oriented
programmes should include not only research. ECAFE would only undertake
diminishing the mortality rate but greater research projects that benefited several
care of children through child welfare countries and not just one. Establishments
services, the regulation of child labour, the for training of demographers and statisticians
planning of urban development, and the to serve the region were an important
provision of marriage guidance and objective of ECAFE. With the aid of inter-
counselling. One of the most important national experts many of the smaller
functions was the education and training of countries could build up the centres and
the new members of the population. Skilled train the personnel they needed for facing
man-power was necessary for economic their problems.
8Draft Resolution Ch. III .

A positive programme of this kind was to what population policy should the
rich in content and opportunity. And it was countries in the E C A F E region follow. T h e
spelt out during the last days of the Con-
economists and the sociologists contributed
ference at the meetings of the working greatly to a deeper understanding of the
groups. It was expected that such a pro-
issues involved. It has become evident that
gramme would be m u c h more invigorating a bare policy of curbing the fertility rate is
and purposive. While changes in fertility not the right kind of population policy one
through family planning could undoubtedly could advocate without qualification for the
bring about long-term advantages, the real E C A F E region. On the other hand, it
key to the problem of unemployment seems fair to say that the mind of the Con-
was economic development at all levels, ference veered towards the direction of a
particularly in rural areas.
more positive and purposive policy of active
growth in agricultural and industrial produc-
T h e draft report and the resolutions of the tion, in the improvement and multiplication
Conference reflect this struggle of minds and of health services, and in the expansion of
opinions by their some times illogical phras-
education and training schemes for the fullest
ing and slightly contradictory statements. use of man-power resources and the develop-
For instance, the resolutions begin with the ment of research in all these fields.
declaration, "that population growth in
many countries of the E C A F E region
Some participants however, were dis-
impeding their economic and social develop
appointed with the Conference, because
ment".9 This is an overstatement of the insufficient consideration had been paid
mind of the Conference as a whole. Many to the underlying social and structural
of the participants had begun to realise that hindrances and age-long traditions that
the relationship between these two variables fettered initiative and delayed development.
was questionable and needed much more A thorough discussion of these sociological
investigation. Moreover there were strong factors was unfortunately not possible,
economic arguments against such a position. because most of the participants were
But like its parent body, the E C A F E demographers and statisticians who by the
secretariat has to satisfy all its constituent limitations of their training were concerned
governments and by means of some com-
more with figures than with springs of human
promise get them all working together.
motivation and social control. A better
balancing of the representatives of the
This First Asian Population Conference various social sciences, or a broader training
was certainly a very useful and fruitful meet-
programme for the demographer might have
ing of minds. Although essentially a meeting helped to remedy the shortcomings of the
of demographers, it was obvious from the Conference and made it much more fruitful.
first that demography by itself cannot provide
all the answers to the important question as
A. Fonseca, S. J.

T h e Alumni of Schools of Social Work in
M a d r a s , the Faculty of the Loyola College
T h e Guild of Service (Central) in and Stella Maris College, Social Work Dept.,
collaboration with the Asia Foundation and the Faculty of the Madras School of Social
the M a d r a s School of Social Work arranged Work, the post-graduate students of the
for a short-term In-Service Training Course School and others interested in the subject
for ten days in December in connection with
participated in the Panel Discussion.
the Fortieth Anniversary of the Guild of
Service ( C e n t r a l ) . T h e trainees were from
T h e School's Library was enriched with
the Guild of Service direct Institutions from a gift of 40 volumes of useful Books on
the Districts of Madras, Kerala, A n d h r a Social Welfare by the Consulate of Germany.
and West Bengal. There were 25 trainees T H E INDIAN CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK
in all. T h e Course was inaugurated by
M r s . R u t h Morris, C h a i r m a n of the Guild
of Service (Central) and the Certificates
T h e Madras State Branch co-operated
were awarded to the trainees by t h e with the Guild of Service (Central) in
Hon'ble M r . M. Bhakthavatsalam, Chief arranging a ten-day In-Service Training
Minister of M a d r a s , at the Inauguration of Course on Institutional M a n a g e m e n t at the
a three-day Seminar on 'Leadership in Social M a d r a s School of Social Work from 9th to
Work' on 19th December, 1963.
18th December, 1963 in which Staff of the
Guild of Service direct organisations were
T h e Fourth Batch of Officers from the given training. This was done in collaboration
Approved Schools Department, 10 in with the Asia Foundation. T h e M a d r a s
number, was deputed by the Chief Inspector State Branch also participated in the
of Approved Schools and Vigilance Service Seminar on 'Leadership in Voluntary
to undergo a three-month In-Service Organisations' conducted by the Guild of
Training in Correctional Administration at Service (Central) on the 19th and 20th of
the M a d r a s School of Social Work. This December.
course was inaugurated on 8th J a n u a r y by
T h e M a d r a s School of Social Work which
Mrs. Helen Sirkin of the U.S.I.S. Besides is run under the auspices of the ICSW
the 10 Officers of the Approved Schools is now engaged in the training of the
Department, two Police Officers from Madras, fourth batch of Officials of the Approved
one from Andhra Pradesh and two Officers Schools Departments, and Police Department.
from Punjab have been deputed by the Besides 10 students from the Approved
Government for this course. Observational Schools Department, there are two Officers
visits and lectures on Crime and Correction from the Police Department, Madras, one
comprise the course.
from the A n d h r a Pradesh Police Department
and two from the Punjab Government;
T h e M a d r a s C h a p t e r of the Indian
T h e Juvenile Guidance Bureau is
Association of Alumni of Schools of Social maintaining its standard of work with more
Work arranged a Panel Discussion at the and more cases being referred to it.
M a d r a s School of Social Work on 23rd
November 1963 on 'The Role of Welfare
T h e regular function of testing, inter-
Officer in Industry' under the chairmanship viewing and recommending to the Juvenile
of Sri M. Gopal Rao, Regional Director, Court, regarding the rehabilitation of the
National Productivity Council, M a d r a s . juveniles referred to the Bureau is being

continued. T h e case load averages- between Indian Conference of Social Work held in
twenty-five to thirty cases per month
Delhi in November 1963, it was decided to
T h e Government suggested a study of hold the National Conference in Varanasi in
normal children from the same Socio-
December 1964. T h e U t t a r Pradesh
economic background as Juvenile who come State Branch will be the host for the
through the juvenile courts. T h e Committee National Conference. The Central Executive
of the Juvenile Guidance Bureau has Committee appointed a Central Working
approved it and sent a detailed proposal to Group to consider the role of the Indian
the Government.
Conference of Social Work and voluntary
T h e Pilot Welfare Extension Project organisations in relation to the Fourth Five-
( U r b a n ) , C h e t p u t T h a n g a l , inaugurated in Year Plan.
August 1958 has successfully completed 5
years and caters to more than one group in
Social Welfare Day.—Social Welfare Day
the community such as women, children and was celebrated this year as usual on 20th
youth and covers more than one aspect of February 1964. T h e theme was Family
community life such as health, education, Welfare Services (Emphasis on Family
recreation, co-operation for economic better-
Planning). T h e Directorate General of Health
ment, etc. It gets aid from the Central Services co-operated by helping to distribute
Social Welfare Board. T h e past five years all publicity material related to Family
have been a period of steady progress and Planning and directing State Family
the response of the members of the Planning Officers to help with the celebra-
Community to self-help and mutual co-
tion. T h e Day was enthusiastically
-operation has been evoked. T h e Nursery celebrated by the State Branches, Schools of
School attached to this Centre has a Social Work and Voluntary Welfare Agencies.
strength of 115 children this year. There is
Research Projects. namely—
a Youth Club and Vocational Centre for
the youth of this area where young men and
(i) Employment Position and Function
women are trained in mat-weaving, cane-
of Professional Social Workers in
work and carpentry. There is also a
I n d i a ; and
Tailoring Section for the women of the slum
area. Sewing and embroidery are taught. T h e
(ii) Evaluation of Institutional Programme
aim is to start a Co-operative Tailoring
in Relation to After-Care of Released
Unit in this area with an opportunity for
Children under the Bombay Children's
'work and wage'. There is a M a t h a r Sangam
Act, 1948, and its co-relation with the
functioning and demonstration classes in
Social Background and the Behaviour
Cooking are also held. It is the intention of
Pattern Groups at the stage when
the Indian Conference of Social Work
they were referred to the Juvenile
Madras State Branch which has sponsored
this Project to start a Family Planning
Centre there very soon and efforts arc being have been approved by the Ministry of
made in that direction.
Education and the grant sanctioned by the
Welfare Administration, U.S.A. and the
operations would start soon.
National Conference.—At a meeting of
Seminars.—Seminars on the 'Role of
the Central Executive Committee of the Volunteers in Social Work' were jointly

organised by the Indian Conference of it. Altogether 52 students, who are all girls
Social Work and the Cleveland International have been admitted into the course in the
Programme. T h e Maharashtra State Branch current session. Col. Chatterjee mentioned
was the host in Bombay. T h e Seminar was that the present two-year course h a d been
held from 9th to 13th March 1964 at the started by the Institute at the instance of
Institute of Social Service, Nirmala Niketan. the State Health Department although in
The Seminar was inaugurated by Shri Homi 1957 the course was started first as a six
J. H. Taleyarkhan, Minister for Food, Civil months' course and later on made into a
Supplies, Housing, Printing Presses, Fisheries, two-year one. T h e State Health Department
Small Savings and Tourism, Government of have been taking active interest in the
Maharashtra. Smt. Mary Clubwala Jadhav, course from the very beginning and out of
President, Indian Conference of Social Work 166 social workers trained by the Institute
was Chairman.
in the course of last seven years, 37 were
T h e Madras State Branch was the host sponsored by the H e a l t h Directorate. Of
for the Seminar on the same subject held at the remaining 129 social workers sponsored
the Rajaji Hall, Madras, from 23rd to 27th by voluntary social welfare institutions, 22
March, 1964. It was inaugurated by were subsequently absorbed by the State
Shri M. Bhakthavatsalam, Chief Minister of Health Department. In the field of social
Madras. Presiding over the inauguration was welfare adequate arrangements have been
Smt. Jothi Venkatachalam, Minister for m a d e in the current Five-Year Plan of the
State, Col. Chatterjee added.
2nd January 1964
" T h e importance of social welfare has
In his inaugural address, Mr. P. L.
been well recognised in our Constitution and T a n d o n (Hindustan Lever) explained the
accordingly in the State of West Bengal we selection procedure and methods and the
have made adequate arrangement for social evolution thereof from simple direct selection
welfare work and I am confident that, as after an individual interview to the present
in the past, the students, who are now day elaborate methods of preliminary tests,
admitted to the course, will also play an psychological tests, selection board interviews,
important role for the welfare of our society" group interviews and final selection, involving
observed Sri Prafulla Chandra Sen, Chief sifting and elimination all through.
Minister, West Bengal and President of the
He also spoke of the attributes and
Indian Institute of Social Welfare and weaknesses of the present system of selection.
Business M a n a g e m e n t in his message to the Its merits are that (i) it eliminates individual
Institute which started the Ninth Two-year biases and favouritism; (ii) it facilitates the
Post-Graduate Diploma Course in General estimation of future needs and requirements
Social Welfare on the 4th January, 1964. of the organisation in respect of man-power
The Hon'ble Smt. Purabi Mukherjee, the members of the Selection Board being
Minister of Health, West Bengal, was to experienced persons in the field; (iii) it also
inaugurate the course but as she had to leave gives a good sense of comparison for the
the town, Col. N. C. Chatterjee, Director of members. There are, however, according to
Health Services. West Bengal, inaugurated Mr. Tandon, certain demerits in that it

involves wastage, of nearly 2 5 % to 3 0 % (in personnel department is to keep close touch
his organization) both monetary and with the line departments who actually assess
otherwise in terms of training etc.; delay in the man-power needs, in order to be able to
the selection itself which takes not less than plan systematically.
4 to 8 months and also the tendency in such
Speaking of selection techniques, Dr.
selection to throw off a good mediocre, who Parukh pointed out the defects that are
really may fit into the organization well.
found in the actual practice, viz. the
As regards group interviews, Mr. Tandon interviewer's habit of advising and lecturing
opined that they do not always help in instead of questioning; asking loaded
selecting the right person, particularly for questions which suggest the answers and
executive posts, where the "ability to project absence of listening to the answers given by
one's ability" is essential. Towards the end the interviewee on the part of the members
of his speech he suggested that (i) the of the panel, who are often m u c h absorbed
personnel m a n should be a generalist, having in formulating questions. In this connexion,
experience in the operational field as well; he felt that individual interviews would be
(ii) that a systematic follow up of the better than Board interviews in assessing
individual selected both during the training what the interviewee is (rather than what
period and for at least 10 years thereafter; he knows) which the interview should aim
(iii) that the training should aim at at. He also spoke of psychological tests as
development of the individual with emphas's tools of selection and their validity. These
on inculcation of values regarding the tests could be used for two purposes—(i) for
policies of the Company rather than clinical interpretation of responses and
techniques and skills; and (iv) that merit-
objective evaluation of the individual—often
rating and appraisal should be regular, and sought to corroborate the interviewer's own
a constant follow up should be maintained assessment of the candidate; (ii) as
with the person's progress, at least at higher psychometry, in order to test the skills and
proficiency of the individual—this is a better
use of the psychological tests.
Dr. M. S. Gore, Director of the Institute,
who presided over the inaugural session
Broadly these tests cannot make individual
welcomed Mr. T a n d o n and the participants predictions and also they are not in them-
of the Seminar at the outset. Before the selves 'good' or 'bad' but the use thereof
conclusion of the inaugural session, Mr. L. S. has to be decided with reference to any
Kudchedkar, H e a d of the Department of particular organization concerned.
Labour Welfare and Industrial Relations,
He suggested that a periodic review of the
thanked Mr. T a n d o n for his stimulating and selection methods be made. He emphasised
thought-provoking address. He also explained the need to assess what the individual 'will
the objectives of the Seminar and the plan do' (motivation) rather than what he 'can
of its proceedings.
do' (capacity). In this connexion the
person's past record, references and contact
with the previous employer would be very
Dr. S. K. Parukh (Beam Services) stressed
the need for continuous man-power planning
Continuing the above trend, Mr. Songad-
which is lacking in a majority of Indian wala stated that no one selection technique
industries. Here, the function of the is fool-proof. Selection should be of right

m a n for the right job. For this purpose, INDUCTION
the interviewer should be thoroughly The first Speaker of the session,
conversant with the job description for Mr. J. V. M. P. Goutts (Esso) stressed the
which the person is being selected as well importance of a formal induction programme
as the person's qualifications, abilities, etc. and explained the nature of it in his own
A fairly good idea of the man-power require-
organisation, viz., the Esso. He described
ments of the present and future should be it as the "process of initial introduction,
kept in mind at the time of selection.
orientation and adjustment of new employee
Proper advertisement for posts is an in the organisation". Esso has an induction
important step in selection and this also programme which is the dual responsibility
requires some thought and planning. Once of the Personnel and the Line departments
the applications are received they should and the programme varies between 3 and 6
be screened carefully and with discretion, as months, depending on the level of employ-
far as possible, by the person who will ment. T h e supervisors are specially trained
conduct the interviews. T h e interview itself in the induction procedure. T h e next
should be well planned and should follow Speaker, Mr. S. M. Roy Chowdhury (Air
a particular pattern. Past records of the I n d i a ) , stated that there was no formal
interviewee are important and have to be induction programme in his organisation and
checked and verified.
he opined that it is the responsibility of the
Supervisor concerned to induct the employees
Speaking of psychological tests, he stated of his department.
t h a t they should be used as adjuncts to
Dr. A. V. R a m a n R a o (Industrial
other methods of selection, mainly for Relations Consultant) who was the third
elimination of unqualified candidates.
speaker of the session saw the need for
In the discussion that followed, the need co-operation of T r a d e Unions in evolving
for man-power planning was further a proper induction programme which should
elaborated by the Speakers.
be combind with a constant review of the
employees' progress in a suitable manner.
Psychological tests, it was once again
T h e C h a i r m a n of the session, M r . S. V.
stressed, were better applied for finding out Utamsingh (A.C.C.) summed up the
proficiency, patent and latent rather than proceedings by reiterating the value of a
locating values of the individual. To a proper induction programme in every
question in respect of Board selection, it was organisation. Here the role of the personnel
suggested that the members of the Board department is advisory, the main responsibi-
can interview the candidate individually lity being that of the Line departments-
followed by a joint discussion by the "The personnel department informs, inspires
members. Questions were also raised with and acts as a Leaver to the management",
regard to the desirability of the interviews he stated.
focussing on w h a t the person "can be" and
the overemphasis that is laid generally on DEVELOPMENT TRAINING
experience on the job as a condition
precedent for selection.
Development training is nothing but the
utilisation of man-power in the highest sense
Prof. R. D. Choksi, Director, T a t a of the word and hence the philosophy of
Industries, presided over this session.
training of the employees has to be

accepted—so stated Dr. M. V. Moorthy evident in less labour turnover a n d
(Andhra University) opening the session on absenteeism, better job satisfaction and
Development Training. Further, "training better h u m a n relations. T h e need for
must be viewed as a continuous process of constant review was also emphasised.
development depending on individual's Dr. K. S. Basu (Hindustan Lever) who
conceptual ability and the risks he takes in presided, wound up the discussion by
the adventure of learning". Dr. Moorthy pleading for the acceptance of training as
enumerated various methods of training the basis for better management, the
open to the employees in different organisa-
techniques thereof being ancillary. He stated
tions. However, proper opportunities and that motivation for achievement was
placement after training were essential, in invariably followed by higher economic
order that training might be effective and development.
meaningful. T h e costs of training should be
reduced compared to w h a t they are at MERIT-RATING AND APPRAISAL
Mr. T. L. A. Acharya ( M a h i n d r a a n d
Mahindra) doubted the value of any formal
Prof. K. J. Shone ( I . L . O . Consultant) merit-rating procedure, for according to him,
laid open a new line of thought by saying it amounted to assessing the capital value of
t h a t each organisation must examine its a human being. The entire procedure
internal conditions and try to eliminate those became rigid and mechanistic. Further, in
causes which necessitate training. He felt the absence of job specifications and proper
that training programmes must specially wage structure, merit-rating would be of
aim at the development of the job and the little use. The next speaker of the session,
organisation. Quantitative targets must be Mr. V. S. Bhave (Mukand) stated,
fixed in order to judge the results of "merit-rating helps in assessing the promota-
training. T h e third speaker of the session, bility of the employees. The real methods
M r . S. E. Songadwala (P.P.S.) highlighted of merit-rating that are being followed
the methods of training. T h e first step is in Mukand Iron & Steel Co. and the
"performance appraisal" of the employees attributes of the employee in his job that
in order to assess the need for and advise are evaluated according to a laid down
suitable ways of training the employees. " T h e procedure. The purpose of merit-rating is
willing co-operation of the employees is salary administration, proper placement and
essential in such a programme. T h e also development of the employees. The
counselling interview which follows the personnel department is represented through-
above mentioned appraisal should be held in out and any element of bias on the part of
an atmosphere of m u t u a l confidence and the raters is to a large extent eliminated by
trust. T h e personnel department has to take involving two persons in the procedure."
an inventory of entire man-power in the
organisation and devise a suitable training
Mr. J. V. M. P. Coutts (Esso) explained
programme based on factual data. Besides, the detailed procedure of merit-rating for
on-the-job training, job-rotation and under-
all the employees in Esso. He stated that a
study methods are quite effective. T h e systematised and formalised approach was
entire programme," he stated, "should be necessary. He said, "ratings must be periodical
need-based and specific." During the and must be reviewed constantly. The
discussion, it was, pointed out that the co-ordination of the line and staff depart-
success of any development training would be ments is essential. Any adverse appraisal of

an employee is brought to the notice of the appraisal h a d yielded good results, especially
employee concerned and the job (not the at the middle management level. There could
person) is discussed frankly with reference not be any appraisal for unskilled posts as
to the specifications and requirements as also the top managerial positions. Merit-
well as the performance. T h e raters are rating was a modern technique for better
trained for the purpose. T h e 'job progress performance and should not he treated as an
review' leads to active co-operation between end in itself.
the employees and the supervisors and forms
the basis for future performance." Rating,
T h e Seminar concluded with a vote of
he specifically mentioned, was not linked to thanks by Mr. L. S. Kudchedkar, Head,
Department of Labour Welfare and
Col. L. Sawhny ( T a t a Industries), the Industrial Relations of the T a t a Institute of
Chairman, stated that merit-rating and Social Sciences, Bombay.

N E W D I P L O M A E D S 1964
1. Abbas, (Miss) N., Maharashtra
15. Gohain, M. K., Assam
B.A., Aligarh , University 1962 B.A., Gauhati University 1961
2. Bhatt, P. I., Gujarat
16- Golam, G. R., Maharashtra
B.A., Gujarat University 1958 B.A., (Hons.), Bombay
3. Bhende, A. U., Maharashtra
University 1962
B. Com., Bombay University 1962 17. Golpelwar, V. M., Maharashtra
4. Borkar, R. K., Maharashtra
B.A., Nagpur University 1959
B.A., Poona University 1960 M.A., Nagpur University 1962
M.A., Poona University 1962
18. Gore, M.G., Maharashtra
5. Chakravarthy, S. S., Maharashtra
B.Com., Bombay University 1948
B.Sc, Bombay University 1959
LL.B., Bombay University 1955
LL.B., Bombay University 1962
19. Hussain, M. M., Mysore
6. Chati, (Miss) U. D.,
B.A., Mysore University 1959
M.A., Bombay University 1962
B.A., (Hons.), Bombay
20. John, A. W., Gujarat
University 1962
B.A., Bombay University 1944
7. Dalai, G. P., Maharashtra
21. Kashyap, U. B., Punjab
LL.B., Bombay University 1960
M.A., Punjab University 1961
8. Das, J. L., Assam
22. Khandwala, K. M., Maharashtra
B.A., (Hons.), Gauhati
B.Com., Poona University 1962
University 1959
23. Khilari, M. N., Maharashtra
9. Date, R. R., Madhya Pradesh
B.A., (Sp.), Bombay
B.A., Vikram University 1960 University 1961
M.A., Vikram University 1962
24. Majumder, (Miss) K. W.,
10. Dave, (Miss) U. N., Maharashtra
B.A., Bombay University 1962 B.A., Calcutta University 1958
11. Desai, (Miss) F. R., Maharashtra
25. Malhotra, D. D., Punjab
B.Sc, Bombay University 1961 B.A., Punjab University 1960
12. Dowerah, J., Assam
LL.B., Punjab University 1962
B.A., Gauhati University 1961
26. Mayashree Devee, (Miss), Assam
13. Ghikey, (Miss) S., Maharashtra
B.A., Gauhati University 1961
B.A., Nagpur University 1960
27. Nadkarni, (Miss) S. A.
14. Goel, (Miss) U., Maharashtra
B.A., Agra University 1959
B.A., Bombay University 1960
M.A., Agra University 1961
B.Com., Bombay University 1962

28. Nair, K. A., Kerala
41. Shanta Devi, (Miss) N., Andhra
B.A., Travancore University 1951
LL.B., Aligarh University 1955
B.A., Andhra University 1956
29. Narialwalla, (Miss) F. M.
B.L., Madras University 1958
42. Sheth, (Miss) S., Maharashtra
B.A., Bombay University 1962 B.A., Poona University 1959
30. Pandey, (Miss) U., Uttar
43. Singh J. P., Bihar
B.A., Bihar University 1953
B.A., Allahabad University 1953
M.A., Patna University 1955
M.A., Allahabad University 1955
B.L-, Patna University 1956
L.T., Allahabad University 1957
Dip. in Edn., Patna University 1958
M.Ed. Allahabad University 1958
F.W.O.E., Govt. of Bihar 1959
31. Pathik, M. K-, Uttar Pradesh
44. Singh V., Rajasthan
B.A., Lucknow University 1962
B.A., Agra University 1953
32. Ramalingam, R., Madras
45. Srivastava, K. K., Uttar Pradesh
B.A., Annamalai University 1962
M.A., Agra University 1955
33. Ramteke, S. S., Maharashtra
46. Somaya, (Miss) P., Maharashtra
B.A., Nagpur University 1960 B.A., Bombay University 1962
M.A., Nagpur University 1962
47. Syeda, (Miss), A. J., Andhra
34. Rochlani, M. G., Gujarat
B.A., Bombay University 1945 M.A., Osmania University 1961
35. Sajan, B. I., Bombay
48. Tait, (Miss) M. E., Australia
B.A., (Hons.), Bombay
B.A., Melbourne University 1959
University 1959
Dip. of S.S., Melbourne
LL.B., Bombay University 1962
University 1961
36. Sardesai, (Mrs.) N. A.,
49. Taak, K. S., Punjab
B.A., (Hons.), Bombay
M.A., Bombay University 1962 University 1959
M.A., Bombay University 1961
37. Saxena, H. R., Andhra Pradesh
B.A., Osmania University 1959
50. Telang, (Miss), S., Maharashtra .
B.A., Nagpur University 1956
38. Shah, (Miss) J. H., Gujarat
B.A., Bombay University 1962
39. Shah, (Miss) M. R., Gujarat
B.A., Gujarat University 1952
LL.B., Gujarat University 1955
1. Shah, M. P., Madhya Pradesh
Dip. L. W., Gujarat University 1959
B.A., Saugar University 1960
40. Shahani, (Miss) D. V.,
2. Shah, (Miss) P. R., Gujarat
M.A., Bombay University 1950 M.A., Gujarat University 1959