NEWS AND NOTES C H I L D R E N ' S A R T C E N T E R I N U . S . T...
NEWS AND NOTES
C H I L D R E N ' S A R T C E N T E R I N U . S .
T h e Children's Art Center in Boston, in vary in size so that the tallest and the smallest
the State of Massachusetts, is the oldest fine of the young artists can work comfortably.
arts museum in the United States built and Even the picture hanging on the wall and
run exclusively for children. It was establish-
the exhibitions of art objects are placed at
ed in 1918.
the eye level of a child. T h e glass doors
open upon a garden where the children work
T h e Center's primary purpose is teach-
in pleasant weather. T h e wide stretch of
ing appreciation of beauty. Its program lawn is bordered by flowers and trees and
also guides children in the constructive use enclosed by a high brick wall.
of leisure time, helps to develop their imagi-
nation and independence, and provides en-
Miss Charlotte Dempsey has been director
couragement for both the emotionally dis-
of the Center for 20 years. She and her
turbed child and the unusually talented.
five assistants encourage spontaneity
T h e main attractions of the Center are and originality but give sound instruction
its free facilities for drawing, painting, and to children in the fundamentals of design.
sculpturing. T h e Center also maintains a T h e teachers guide by suggestion and by
permanent exhibition of art from its own helping the children to see beauty of color
collections, and loan exhibitions of con-
and line in the art work on display.
temporary art that are changed every three
No copying of other pictures or sculpture
weeks.
is allowed. T h e Center wants the children
T h e visitors to this museum range in age to express their own perceptions in their
from 6 to 20. O n e afternoon a week is own way. Each child makes his own choice
reserved for boys and girls of high-school of medium and subject. T h e n he goes to
age. All pay a small registration fee, but the teacher for help with technical problems,
materials and instruction are free.
or she comes to him with a proposal for
improving his work.
T h e Center is open every afternoon
Story-T elling Period.—To broaden the
during the week and on Saturday mornings
children's vision and stimulate their imagi-
so that the children may attend it during
nations, a regular story-telling period is held
hours when school is not in session. About
each day. Frequent talks are given by out-
50 come daily.
side lecturers. Specialists in such fields as
Creates Tranquil Atmosphere.—Through
ornithology, forestry, and dancing, as well
its physical surroundings the Center creates as artists, writers, political leaders, and
an atmosphere of tranquillity in which the persons who are familiar with distant count-
children feel at ease.
ries, have addressed the students. While
T h e building is a rectangular, one-story they listen, the children draw images that a
brick structure, simply designed. Five large speaker's words suggest.
glass doors are cut into the facade. T h e
T h e Center's collections of art represent
interior of the building is light and airy. T h e
a wide variety of styles and periods, although
vaulted ceiling is painted blue, and the walls the majority of the pieces are by modern
are cream colored. Tables a n d benches American sculptors and painters. Various

N E W S AND N O T E S
307
art galleries in Boston and the Boston to view the work being done at the Center,
Museum of Fine Arts have cooperated for and visitors to the United States from other
many years in lending the Center exhibitions. countries frequently include the Center in
Several Boston shops have also lent crystal, their itinerary.
silver, and pottery, m a d e in the United
Many children who once studied at the
States and in other countries. An effort Center are now adult artists. One such
is m a d e to have on display several objects pupil is Allan Rohan Crite, a young Negro
that the children may handle themselves. painter who has won acclaim for his inter-
Skills of the children are widely recognized. pretation of the life of Christ in twentieth-
Exhibitions of their work are held every year
century terms. In addition to designing
in Boston. On some occasions a display plan-
and executing paintings for many Catholic
ned for one day has attracted so much and Protestant churches, Crite has recently
attention that the showing has been extended.
illustrated a book of Negro spirituals publi-
Exhibitions have also been requested by shed by the H a r v a r d University Press in
other countries.
Cambridge, near Boston. Some of his works
also hang in museum. Crite looks upon the
Exhibitions in Foreign Countries.—Work Children's Art Center as his alma mater and
from the Children's Art Center has been still brings his work there for exhibition.
seen in the Museum of Pedagogy and the
T h e Center was founded by privately
Exposition Internationale in Paris; in the subscribed funds. It is now supported by
University of Moscow, U S S R ; in Melbourne,
donations from individuals and by money
Australia; and in Burma, China and Japan. collected in the city's annual Community
Teachers of art classes in schools of Boston
Chest campaign for voluntary support of
and nearby cities often bring their students nonprofit institutions.
P E O P L E P R O D U C E — N O T M A C H I N E S
H . P . D A S T U R
Department of Industrial Health, Messrs. Tata Industries, Ltd., Bombay
T h e following line occurs in a Hindi
World W a r II has left the whole world in
song: —
a queer mess. Everybody is agreed that post-
war reconstruction depends on speeding up
" T h o u g h the skill is in the finger, the production of essential articles of basic needs
credit goes to the instrument." Similarly of people, but there is disagreement over
though people produce, credit very often methods of achieving this purpose. Govern-
goes to machines. W h e n that happens ment hopes to help the production drive
people forget that the machines themselves through legislation regarding sickness in-
are products of h u m a n energy. Further, a surance and improving working conditions.
machine, however cleverly designed and It is to their credit that despite other more
whatever its productive capacity, is just urgent preoccupations they have recently
an inert mass of matter unless h u m a n energy enacted. " T h e Employees' State Insurance
puts life in it. W h a t is more important is the
Act and the Factories' Act of 1948." When
m a n behind the machine.
however legislation precedes facilities neces-

308
N E W S AND N O T E S
sary for fulfilling the requirements of the and personality is a unique combination
Acts, the latter are not likely to prove an of varying physical structure and mental
economic venture or to serve their main attitudes. And how about women operatives?
purpose of increasing production. T h e em-
Their number in industries is on the in-
ployer tries to step up production through crease. T h e personality traits of woman are
rationalization and standardization of m a n u -
so different from those of m a n t h a t to treat
facturing processes. This method is good the common good of the common woman
as far as it goes, but it cannot go very far, the same way as the common good of the
for it fails to take into consideration the common m a n can only lead to disastrous
individual personality of workers. O n e can consequences both for m a n and woman. T h e
flatten out methods of manufacturing pro-
communist upholds the absorption of all
cesses into uniform patterns, but one cannot proprietary rights in a common interest. It
handle operatives the same way. T h e labour
is however not clear how the doctrine of
leader pins his faith on wages. Wages have a community of property is going to solve
of course to be commensurate with the type the problem of optimum production, and
of work done, but wages act as an incentive one grows more suspicious when he finds
to production only upto subsistence level. that the communist wants to coerce his
Beyond that emotional incentives are neces-
opponents to his way of thinking at the point
sary to draw out the latent energy of opera-
of the sword. Throughout the history of
tives. Their basic needs of self-importance, mankind there has not been a single incident
pride in their work and self-expression which can give evidence that the jungle law
through it, have to be respected if they are has ever succeeded in establishing a h u m a n
to give of their best.
order of appreciable merit. T h e policy of
might is right has been tried out ad nauseam
T h e capitalist swears by private enter-
in every part of the world, a n d each time it
prise to step up production, but private has recorded a disastrous defeat after scoring
enterprise uncontrolled by public scrutiny an initial victory. T h e right however that
often runs amok and rides rough-shod over is a moral truth has within it so unassail-
h u m a n rights. T h e editor of the British able a might that in the end it invariably
Journal of Industrial Safety characterises asserts itself. And one such moral truth is
"the nineteenth century as an industrial that people produce, not isms. No matter
Dark Age, when the advocates of laissez under what ism an industry works it will be
{aire laid up riches for themselves and misery well on the road of optimum production if
for everybody else, including their own only it realizes that people produce, that
heirs." T h e ugly traditions of this dark age production flows from the health of its
are still lingering to a great extent in the operatives—health of their body as well as
industrial life of India to-day. T h e socialists' of their mind. If anything that of the mind
panacea is nationalization of industries. It is more important. There is a Chinese saying
is however nowhere proved that everything that " I t is the mind that makes the body
else being equal nationalised industries p r o -
rich." Various causes can be adduced for
duce more t h a n those working under private the dearth of goods of basic needs in the
enterprise. T h e slogan one reads on the post-war era, but the main one is strained
socialist banner is 'Common good of the management-labour relations in industries,
common man,' but psychology teaches that and the only antidote for this is a well-
each m a n has his own individual personality, organised industrial health programme

N E W S AND N O T E S
309
working out the established principles of co-related and react on each other at every
industrial medicine.
step so too the physical and psychological
Before the advent of World W a r II the sides of an industrial health programme im-
only attention that management of indus-
perceptibly merge into one another. A sense
trial concerns in India gave to the health of fear or insecurity often causes organic
of their operatives was through a factory trouble among workers. These are known
dispensary. This is still the general routine as psychosomatic diseases. They are more
of Indian factories. Such a service at its common in industries t h a n most people have
best is no better than a charitable dispensary, any idea of, and they lower production con-
and at its worst is a make-belief and just a siderably. When such and similar emotional
sop to public opinion. It was only during tensions affect whole groups of workers they
World W a r II and after that a few far-
lead to a strike, and a lightning strike,
sighted industrialists in India began to however objectionable, is an inevitable con-
realise the importance of a comprehensive in-
sequence of the mind acting upon the body.
dustrial health programme. Even they how-
When oxygen and hydrogen come together
ever are not fully alive to what is now an they do not wait to give notice before caus-
accepted fact in Western countries that a ing an explosion. Similarly when inside
full-blooded programme of industrial health stresses of groups of workers gather enough
is an investment and not an expense. Such impetus from outside resistance of manage-
a programme by its very nature has to be ment there is no go but for such emotional
many sided, for it has to include in it every-
tension to translate itself into the physical
thing that can affect the health of workers, symptom of a lightning strike. To prevent
and so its capital expenses are rather on the the chemical explosion oxygen and hydrogen
high side, and managements fight shy of should be kept apart, and to lessen the num-
them because they find it difficult to appre-
ber and intensity of the physiological out-
ciate that they are sound economies in the burst emotional tensions should be resolved
long run. An industrial health programme before it is too late. This is the main purpose
undoubtedly leads to increased efficiency of of an industrial health programme, and
the worker and a higher rate of productivity though we shall now discuss briefly a few of
Advances in science and technology do help the main attributes of the physical a n d
production but only when h u m a n relations psychological sides of such a programme
among those working in production are separately, we must not forget that both react
smooth enough to avoid waste of effort and to each other intimately.
resources. This is particularly urgent to-day
"Men, methods and materials" are the
when the need of increased production is three main pillars of a factory. T h e study
the greatest at one end, and at the other of methods and materials comprises
management-labour relations are strained the physical side. It tries to find out and
as never before, and as the ultimate goal remove physical hazards to health, and does
of an industrial health programme is to so through what are known as industrial
improve h u m a n relations in industry it is health surveys and accident prevention cam-
the main salvation of the present mess.
paigns. Further, through job analysis and
An industrial health programme has to time and motion studies of each job it lessens
have two sides, physical and psychological, body fatigue. T h e psychological side studies
for a h u m a n being is made up of body as men and their mental attitudes and tries
well as mind, and as body and mind are to lessen mental fatigue, and resolves emo-

310
N E W S AND N O T E S
tional stresses, through various types of in-
Colour can help in many ways. There are
terviews and schemes of training within warm colours, and cool colours, and they
industries, and helps workers to regain emo-
can be used for regulating the temperature
tional balance by listening to their grievances
of a work-room. There are bright colours
and attending to their suggestions sympathe-
and dull colours. T h e former can be used
tically.
to give prominence to work parts which are
T h e health of a worker however depends important, and the latter can help to keep
on his activities of all twenty-four hours of
less important parts in the background. This
the day. Over and above improving his way they can lessen eye strain as well as
working conditions, his whole life has to be mental strain. Colours can produce a psy-
studied and protected if his health is to be chological effect too and soothe emotional
safeguarded on all fronts. This calls for con-
upsets. Colour is so important to indus-
sideration of several other social activities tries that no industrial health programme
like housing, nutrition, education and re-
which is well-planned is without a colour
creation. It is a hopeful sign that the trend
code for machines, equipment and buildings
in Indian industries is towards increasing of a factory, and their surroundings.
attention to these activities. They however
Similarly it has been provided t h a t "music
generally fail to achieve their purpose, for while you work," if wisely utilised, is a stimu-
they are often undertaken in a patronising lant for higher effort, and a balm for tired
mood, a n d h u m a n dignity resents charity. nerves. In Indian industries however music
Such activities should be undertaken in a is still an untried quantity.
spirit of co-operative partnership, and
Charles Grant Allan has said that " T h e
workers should always be consulted in all most beautifully coloured birds are always
matters pertaining to their personal welfare. those which have h a d the most to do with
As our aim is to safeguard a worker on the production of bright coloured fruits and
all fronts, we must not forget that there is flowers." Let us then strive to do our best
no h u m a n activity which has not some bear-
by our workers in order to draw out all their
ing on health. T w o amongst the most im-
bright colours so that the country may grow
portant are colour and music. Both of these through their labour rich and attractive
can be profitably used to draw out a worker's fruit. Let us tempt them to sing their way
latent efficiency and speed up production.
through their work.
DISABLED HOUSEWIVES LEARN HOUSEKEEPING
Courses on how to simplify daily house-
work problem because of some physical
keeping chores are being given in the United
disability. A doctor can advise a m a n whose
States for women suffering from such chronic health is poor to change his job for one that
ailments as heart disease. T h e housewives requires less physical effort. Such advice,
learn how to do the same amount of work however, is unrealistic for a housewife. She
around their homes with far less physical has only one job—taking care of her home
effort.
and family.
An increasing number of American hos-
An example of the type of program offered
pitals and colleges are providing these courses in these courses for housewives is that con-
as an aid to housewives who have a special ducted in the State of Michigan for women

N E W S AND N O T E S
3 1 1
with heart disease. With the cooperation of
Their detailed observation completed, the
the Michigan State H e a r t Association, researchers then analyzed every move to
Wayne University in Detroit is offering a find out how the housewife could have done
work-simplification course for women with each task more easily. They recommended
a cardiac ailment. Methods taught in the no expensive alterations in home or labor-
course are based on time-and-motion studies saving devices. Instead, they concentrated
made in the homes of cooperating house-
on better arrangement of such kitchen equip-
wives.
ment as the stove and refrigerator and the
placing of utensils on shelves so they could
While each woman went about her day's be reached without effort.
work—such as preparing meals, making
beds, cleaning and dishwashing—the re-
Just how successful the researchers were,
searchers noted the number of steps she took is illustrated by the fact that they devised
and how often she strained to reach items a work-saving routine for one housewife that
on shelves and lifted various objects. Special reduced by 60 per cent the effort formerly
attention was given to the work done in the required to do her daily tasks. T h e new
kitchen, since t h a t is where the average routine saved her 61 miles of useless walking
housewife spends most of her time.
a year in preparing one daily meal.
LEGAL AID FOR TRADE UNIONISTS IN U. K.
Britain's trade union movement has a com-
ments on points of law arising. A side issue
prehensive structure of legal protection, aid in recent nationalisations, for instance, was
and advice for the benefit of trade unions the question of compensation for workers
and individual trade unionists.
displaced on the take-over. This has been
the subject of lengthy discussions both in
At the centre, the Trades U n i o n Congress the T.U.C. and between the T.U.C. and the
has a Standing Order permitting its General Government. The specialist committees of
Council to raise, in emergency, a special levy the T.U.C. also offer an advisory service to
on its unions to help fight any legal case unions on legislative questions and give
of general significance to trade unionists guidance on issues of legislative policy and
and which may need to be carried through interpretation.
the lengthy process of successive appeals.
This power has not recently been used, but
T. U. C. Guidance Sought.—The T. U. C.
the frequent—and expensive—necessity of has its own legal adviser to deal with tech-
taking workers' cases to the House of Lords nical questions of law, who also serves in-
to obtain a final ruling has often led the
T. U. C. to make grants to its unions to dividual trade unions on request. Questions
help them to fight important cases to that of the conduct and rights of unions rank
level.
high on a long list of items on which the
legal guidance of the T. U. C. has been
Several organs of the Trades Union Con-
sought. Such points as the legality of rules,
gress—its Research, Social Insurance and disposal of funds, meeting and organisation
Wages Councils Departments, for instance— procedure, legal forms of amalgamation,
watch all legislation affecting trade unionists' are the subjects of frequent requests for
interests and negotiate with State depart-
T. U. C. advice.

312
N E W S AND N O T E S
Several larger unions maintain their own a structure of special tribunals from local to
legal departments, while a number of firms national level, which include employers' and
of solicitors, often because of some original workers' assessors and where an individual
sympathy of their partners with labour, have claiming compensation can be accompanied
become specialists in questions of trade by a trade union official.
union law and of labour and social legis-
lation. T w o of these firms each service as
Unions still assist their members in pre-
many as 20 or 30 trade unions apiece.
paring their cases before these tribunals,
however; in. fact, the relations with the
With the adoption of a "no-strike" policy structure of semi-judicial tribunals deve-
and the acceptance by the trade union loped in connection with recent social legis-
movement of compulsory arbitration in in-
lation has become an important new respon-
dustrial disputes, questions of the rights and
sibility of trade unions. T h e right to take
responsibilities of members under such laws common law action against "negligent"
as those governing picketing, persuasion and employers still exists, moreover, and is
intimidation in industrial conflicts, and con-
exercised.
spiracy, are now only a minor part of the
work of trade union lawyers. "Unofficial"
Besides this type of legal protection, many
strikers have no claim to legal assistance unions also help workers to defend them-
from their unions.
selves in charges made against them in con-
Even before World W a r I I , however, the nection with their jobs. An outstanding
major part of the day-to-day legal work of example of this occurs in the road trans-
trade unions sprang not out of industrial port industry. T h e transport unions defend
disputes but out of protective social and or help their members every year in literally
industrial legislation. T h e old Workmen's thousands of cases under the R o a d Traffic
Compensation Acts especially, and the com-
Acts and on charges ranging from minor
mon law right to claim damages from technical offences to manslaughter.
employers whose "negligence" contributed
Wide Range of Queries.—Legally, unions
to accidents, were a principal source of trade
can only give direct aid to members in issues
union litigation. U n d e r the Workmen's arising out of their employment. But the
Compensation Acts the legal department of legal advice which unions provide covers
one union recovered over £500,000 in six many other questions: one union legal officer
months on behalf of its members, and claim-
says that he has advised members on every
ed from the formation of the union in 1922 possible legal issue except divorce.
to the outbreak of World W a r II in 1939 to
have secured over £3,000,000 in compen-
A particularly wide range of legal queries
sation.
arises out of the activity of t h e 500 local
New Responsibility.—With the new Na-
trades councils—councils of local branches
tional Insurance legislation—and particu-
of unions recognised as district agents of the
larly the Industrial Injuries Act, which pro-
T. U. C. to act in questions of common in-
vides for both temporary benefit and com-
terest to all trade unionists in the area. These
pensation for permanent disability to indus-
can and do concern themselves with such
trial casualties—the necessity for legal action questions as housing, town-planning, local
to be initiated in every individual case has medical services, educational facilities, local
gone. Compensation is now assessed through
employment questions, recreational and cul-

N E W S AND NOTES
313
tural services, and the T.U.C.'s legal ad-
The legal cover which is extended by
visor answers a stream of enquiries on the British trade unions in social and industrial
legal aspects of such issues.
questions is, therefore, fairly complete.
I. L. O.'S TECHNICAL AID PROGRAMME
The International Labour Organisation the funds that have been made available
has begun to provide technical assistance to under the new United Nations Specialised
its member countries as part of the com-
Agencies programme, however, the possi-
bined United Nations-Specialised Agencies bilities of increasing the Organisation's work
programme for the economic development of this kind have been considerably enlarged.
of underdeveloped areas.
Countries which have requested assistance
The I.L.O.'s contribution to the pro-
within the I.L.O.'s area of responsibility
gramme is being co-ordinated with the con-
under the new programme include Burma,
tributions of the other agencies through the Ceylon, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Indo-
Technical Assistance Board which was nesia, Iran, Israel, Lebanon, Pakistan,
established by a resolution approved by the Thailand and Turkey.
Economic and Social Council and the
Preliminary work has been started on
General Assembly of the United Nations. The some of the projects proposed by these coun-
equivalent of $20,000,000 has been pledged tries, and others are under consideration by
by 54 Governments to finance the pro-
the Technical Assistance Board. Certain of
gramme up to December 31, 1951. Of this the projects will be undertaken by the I.L.O.
sum, roughly $2,000,000 will be allocated in co-operation with one or more of the
to the I.L.O.
other international organisations partici-
The fields in which the I.L.O. is provid-
pating in the programme.
ing assistance include vocational guidance
Steps are now being taken to implement
and training, employment service organi-
an agreement providing for various forms of
sation, migration, labour statistics, co-opera-
assistance, which was signed with the Gov-
tion and handicrafts, industrial welfare, ernment of Ecuador by a joint UNESCO-
labour inspection, labour legislation, indus-
ILO mission which recently visited that
trial relations, agricultural working and country.
living conditions, social security, industrial
safety, and industrial hygiene. Assistance
Several projects to assist the Iranian Gov-
will also be given in the solution of specific ernment to carry out its Seven-Year Plan
problems relating to particular industries or are under consideration.
categories of persons.
A joint UNESCO-ILO technical adviser
Assistance is being supplied by missions is leaving shortly for Lebanon to assess that
composed of experts, and in the form of country's needs for assistance in education
seminars, training institutes, meeting for and vocational guidance and training.
exchange of information and in various
It has been decided to appoint a resident
other ways. The I.L.O. has provided tech-
technical assistance representative in Paki-
nical assistance to its member states since stan to help in formulating requests for
the earliest years of the Organisation. With technical assistance and to co-ordinate the

314
N E W S AND NOTES
assistance programmes of the various parti-
sation and administration of national voca-
cipating organisations in the country.
tional training programmes, (b) the orga-
A mission composed of four experts on nisation and administration of apprentice-
education and vocational training will be ship, and (c) the organisation and adminis-
sent jointly by UNESCO and ILO to pro-
tration of vocational instructor training. The
vide assistance to Thailand.
techniques necessary for introducing and
spreading the "Training Within Industry"
Training Courses for Asia.—An Inter-
system of job instruction will be taught in
national Labour Organisation programme the fourth institute.
designed to assist in the development of
vocational training in Asia got under way
The course on the organisation and ad-
during October 1950 in India and Ceylon.
ministration of national training programmes
began early this month with Dr. S. S. Dhami
The programme comprises four institutes, an Indian expert on the staff of the I.L.O.,
each dealing with an aspect of training as the instructor. The course will last twelve
under the direction of an I.L.O. expert. weeks.
The programme is one of the operational
activities the I.L.O. is carrying on as part
The institute on the organisation and
of its general programme of technical assist-
administration of apprenticeship was sche-
ance to its member governments in the field duled to begin mid-October with Mr. Svend
of manpower.
Pedersen, Director of the I.L.O.'s Bangalore
Office, as instructor. Mr. James Dowie, an
Three of the institutes will be held at the English expert, is conducting the insti-
I.L.O.'s Asian Field Office on Technical tute on the training of instructors, which
Training at Bangalore, India. The fourth is scheduled to start at the end of October.
will be repeated four times—in Ceylon, Mr. Sven Grabe, an I.L.O. expert, is con-
India, Pakistan and the Philippines.
ducting the four T.W.I. institutes, which got
The three institutes being held at Banga-
under way early in October and will extend
lore will deal, respectively, with (a) orgni-
over five months.
FATIGUE & EFFICIENCY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
The progress of industry, the well-being great deal of experimental and systematic
of the working man, the attainment and study in countries industrially advanced.
maintenance of secure and rising standard
Besides, industrial fatigue is a subject that
of living, economic self-sufficiency in the interests both the employer and the
national sphere, all call for an increase in employed. Since a decline in production is
productivity. Efficiency can only be ensured often associated with the workman's fatigue,
if output increases without impairment of the employer is keen to check this decline by
quality or heavy increase in costs of produc-
eliminating fatigue. The employee also wants
tion. Decreased output is attributed, among to eliminate fatigue since, it is for him, a
other things, to fatigue in industry, both feeling of tiredness or pain—something in-
psychological and physiological. It is, there-
trinsically unpleasant.
fore, natural that despite its elusive nature
The field of systematic investigations into
fatigue should have been the subject of industrial psychology being relatively new

NEWS AND NOTES
315
in this country, a report like that of Shri worker in all the shifts in the last hour of
Kali Prasad, should stimulate efforts at the first spell and in the middle of the
investigating the causes of fatigue and second. (4) The point of maximum effici-
suggesting ways and means to counteract its ency is reached in the second and third
effects.
hours of work in all the shifts. (5) Night
work adversely affects the capacity of the
Fatigue in industry, according to the worker and the quality of the work. (6) The
author, is "a condition caused by activity efficiency is higher in winter than in summer.
in which the output produced by that (7) Rest pauses and changes in postures
activity tends to be relatively poor and the delay the onset of fatigue and counteract it.
degree of fatigue tends to vary directly with (8) The high degree of muscular steadiness
the poverty of output." The definition, and co-ordination required in the spinning
in his opinion, is sufficiently objective to processes makes spinners perceptibly affected
admit of experimental and quantitative by fatigue. (9) Distance from mills seems
treatment of the phenomenon of fatigue.
to be a significant contributory cause of
The report of the investigation, which was fatigue. (10) Poor nutrition lowers resis-
conducted under the auspices of the Indian tance and hastens fatigue.
Research Fund Association, attempts a study
The investigation in the Weaving Section
of the condition and the decrement in reveals (1) Gradual rise in production from
efficiency of the workers in the spinning and the first day of the week to the last day
weaving sections of the Swadeshi Cotton except for Friday when it approximates to
Mills, Kanpur. The author has employed Tuesday level, (2) Maximum production is
output as the main index of fatigue. In recorded in November, December and Jan-
later studies, it is proposed to deal with the uary after which decline sets in. In July
other indices of industrial fatigue, namely, and August, there is a slight spurt.
consumption of power, industrial accidents,
absenteeism and labour turnover.
It is proposed to extend the investigation
to other sections in the Mills such as Ring
The report embodies certain tentative Spinning, Warping, Drawing, Sizing, etc.
conclusions from the enquiry which can be To evolve methods of counteracting fatigue,
utilised for experimentation. In the Spin-
experimental work is to be undertaken on
ning Section, (1) the morning shift shows (i) Rest-pauses, (ii) Postural adjustment,
better performance on the whole. (2) (iii) Regulation of work-hours and (iv)
Compared to the morning and day shifts, Modification of lighting arrangements.
there is a steep rise in the output in the
first spell of the night shift. But this is
It is welcome news that the programme
soon counterbalanced by a comparatively for future work includes collection of parallel
poor rate of work in the second spell data in the different sections from other
(3-30 a.m. to 6-30 a.m.). (3) Boredom is textile mills at Nagpur, Ahmedabad,
characteristic of the mental state of the Bombay and Madras.
FACTORY CONTROL IN SOVIET UNION
Factory control agencies in the Soviet hensive system of control, which is exercised
Union are integral components of a compre-
by four distinct sets of agencies: govern-

316
NEWS AND NOTES
ment offices, Communist Party, public out of administrative orders. It operates
organisations, and voluntary groups.
through an elaborate system of Controllers-
General and their staffs of senior controllers,
Government Offices.—The Soviet factory controllers and junior controllers. Co-
is owned by the state and administered by operating with these agencies are senior
the government. Accordingly, it is not only and junior inspectors. Junior controllers
an economic organisation but also a part are established in all important enterprises
of the government: it is the smallest unit and act independently of factory manage-
in the hierarchical structure of state indus-
ment. Their control is two-fold: prelimi-
trial administration.
nary and terminal. The first consists of
The Central Board of Industrial Manage-
checking on the legality of estimates, plans
ment of a factory issues directives for the and expenditure allotments before any pay-
organisation or reorganisation of individual ments have taken place. Its function is to
establishments, introduction of technological forestall any possible deficiencies. The
innovations, implementation of cost-account-
second consists of auditing factory books for
ing provisions and related functions.
the purpose of unveiling unwarranted expen-
ditures and hidden reserves.
Trusts determine the annual 'industrial
and financial plan' of each subordinated
The State Planning Commission is an all-
factory and decide upon its change. They important body empowered not only to
also issue directives for the procurement of draw plans for current and future economic
raw materials and credits, fix prices of activities but also to control individual
finished products, and decide upon the enterprises.
variety of management. Control exercised
The Control-Inspection Board of the
by trusts is direct and daily.
Finance Ministry is a highly centralised con-
Management consists of the Director of trol agency, operating through its own con-
the factory appointed by the Minister. He trollers-inspectors. It has the right to audit
is an indisputable master of the enterprise; the books of any industrial enterprise and
he has the first and final word in all decisions to report all deficiencies to District Attorney.
concerning the details of production. Under
District Attorney exercises control over
him are the chiefs of shops who indirectly the observance of the general laws, decisions
manage within their departments, all the 'and orders by both management and trade
activities pertaining to the organisation of union organisation.
production and technological processes, and
State Arbitration is assigned the task of
who employ, dismiss, and transfer workers. ironing out disagreements emerging in
Directly subordinated to the chiefs of shops contract negotiations between various enter-
are foremen who provide direct contact prises. It is fully empowered to supervise
between management and workers. All the fulfilment of contracts and plans.
orders are channelled to the workers through
The Organs of State Security.—This special
foremen who are also empowered to impose police is to combat sabotage, political un-
punitive measures upon the violators of conformity, and "counter-revolutionary"
labour discipline.
forces in general.
The Ministry of State Control exercises
The Workers' and Peasants' Militia is
minute control over cash expenditures, cost-
assigned the task of preventing disorders
accounting, and, in general, the carrying and safeguarding socialist property.

NEWS AND NOTES
317
The Communist Party.—Party control is of public control. It is an effective
centered on the fulfilment of production medium for unveiling deficiencies in the
quotas, proper expenditures of funds, protec-
application of relevant laws and decisions.
tion of socialist property, and administration
Voluntary Groups.—The factory is inter-
of social insurance. In its control of the spersed with various voluntary groups which
work of the plant administration the party work as adjuncts of government and Party
organisation must strengthen the principle control agencies. As a rule, these specific
of one-man management. It must enhance voluntary groups are not components of any
the authority of the manager by seeing that mass associations but operate on a purely
his orders and directives are strictly fulfilled. local basis. The most popular voluntary
Public Organisations.—These are semi-
agencies are special control boards of repre-
official mass associations assisting govern-
sentatives of both management and labour
ment agencies in performing their routine which are appointed under the authority
work and helping the party in its role of of the Ministry of State Control.
a mobilising, recruiting and controlling force.
Distinctive Features of the Control Systems
Their decisions are mandatory only for .—Government agencies constitute the most
their own members. Only two public systematic and thorough branch of the
organisations operate in the factory: the over-all network of control agencies; they
primary trade union organisation and the are vested with the right to undertake
Young Communist League.
legal measures against the individuals
The factory trade union committee is deviating from the existing orders, norms,
commissioned by the stipulations of the and plans. The control exercised by these
standardized collective agreement to watch agencies is professional-bureaucratic and
over the conformity of the applied wage specialised. Its agents are specifically
scale to legal provisions. It also controls trained and technically equipped to handle
expenditure from the Director's Fund, and the minutiae of very specialised control
internal factory order. Other functions of subjects.
the committee consist of checking on
Party control is first of all universal.
managerial observances of those provisions of
There is no phase of the political, ideological,
the Labour Code which deal with the well-
or socio-economic "front" which is not
being of workers, sanitary conditions, and wide open to Party control. It is an intra-
safety techniques. This control is performed factory control and therefore it is continuous.
by special public inspectors who are elected It is unilateral; it controls all other control
by trade union organisations.
agencies but is not subject to control by
The Young Communist League, acting them. Management, trade union organisa-
under the immediate supervision and under tion, police, and all other control forces are
the direct guidance by the Party, looks permeated by Communists, who are "the
after the correct application of government eyes and ears" of their respective Party
and Party decisions by both management organisations.
and primary trade union organisations.
The directing body of the factory Party
The Press, although not considered as organisation is subordinated to triple
a public organisation, has been entrusted intragroup control. It is controlled by
with an important assignment in the system (a) primary Party organisation, that is, by

518
N E W S AND NOTES
the members who have elected it (horizontal been devised primarily to serve as an
control); (b) the territorial Party organisa-
auxiliary of the Party and government
tion to which it is directly subordinated and systems of control.
accountable (vertical control); and (c) the
Voluntary control is specialised but non-
special agents of the Party Control bureaucratic.
Commission, a central office subordinated
(From an article entitled The Structure of
directly to the Central Committee of the Factory Control in the Soviet Union by
Communist Party (diagonal control).
Alexander Vucinich, Hoover Institute,
Control exercised by public organisations Stanford University, U. S. A., American
is for the most part non-specialised and has Sociological Review, April 1950.)
SPECIAL PROJECTS TO AID MIGRATION
The International Labour Organisation signed to facilitate the matching of emigrants
is about to embark on a number of projects with immigration opportunities.
as part of its special programme of activities
Manual is Planned.—Preliminary work
designed to facilitate the migration of has been started on a related project. This
workers from labour surplus to labour is to make available a technical manual on
deficit countries.
occupational analysis, description and classi-
This programme is being financed by fication, with a view to facilitating the
a $1,000,000 fund which was placed at the establishment of national systems and the
ILO's disposal in July by a number of its international comparison of one national
European member countries. The fund is system with another.
in addition to the Organisation's regular
budget.
The need for work of this kind on occupa-
tional nomenclature was stressed by the
The programme will comprise a series of Preliminary Migration Conference held
special projects to be carried out by officials under the auspices of the ILO in April and
on the staff of the ILO and by specially May.
engaged outside experts.
At this conference agreement was reached
Most of these projects are still in the on a division of responsibilities in the field
planning and development stage, but some of migration among the various inter-govern-
of them have already been launched.
mental agencies. In September a meeting
Julian Baer, a United States consultant, of representatives of the organisations con-
has been engaged to analyse the most effective cerned was held at ILO headquarters to
international approach to the problem of review the work accomplished since the
classifying occupational characteristics for spring conference.
migration purposes. The purpose of this
Another project that is being carried
planning project is to develop the most through under the special migration pro-
satisfactory methods for classifying into broad gramme is the preparation of a Guide to
international groupings the occupational Employment Service Organisation. E. Ganz
characteristics of potential emigrants and the Wilson, a British Labour Ministry expert,
occupational requirements of immigration has been loaned to the ILO for two months
countries. This classification would be de-
to assist in this project.

NEWS AND NOTES
319
SPECIALISTS FIGHT DISEASE IN INDO-CHINA
United States health specialists are join-
recently authorised the purchase of 60,000
ing in a co-operative campaign against the one-dose tubes of aureomycin ointment in
principal disease problems of the Associated the hope of giving relief to victims of this
States of Indo-China. Supplies and tech-
disease. Trachoma is highly contagious and
nical assistance are given on the request of frequently leads to blindness. Preliminary
local governments which have cooperated tests in the Hanoi area showed that the
in working out the health programs.
drug had alleviated suffering.
Principal efforts are directed toward com-
U. S. health specialists are organizing
bating malaria, tuberculosis, veneral diseases, teams staffed with native personnel to deal
affecting maternal and child health, and with health problems locally. Some of the
those caused by impure water supplies. The teams will spray about 400,000 dwellings
U. S. Economic Cooperation Administration with DDT in an effort to eliminate malaria
(ECA) is coordinating this assistance from carrying mosquitoes. Sanitary engineers are
the American people with aid projects of the supervising other groups in the drilling of
French Government and of United Nations wells that will insure safe water supplies for
agencies. The U. S. Public Health Service villages. Medical teams work through local
is furnishing doctors, entomologists, sanitary authorities and village dispensaries to
engineers, and other technical personnel.
eliminate diseases.
Physical supplies are now being shipped to
Indo-China by ECA. Mobile hospital units
Emphasis in the program is on self-help
and prefabricated hospitals, both with full and the continuation of health and sanitary
equipment, are being furnished. DDT, practices introduced by the teams. When
penicillin, and other drugs are being sent. persons receive medical treatment, members
The first shipment of medicines reached of their family are given preventive treat-
Hanoi by air in July 1950.
ment and instructed in personal hygiene.
Acting on reports that aureomycin has Poster displays and other visual aids also are
been beneficial in treating trachoma, ECA used in the educational program.
NO FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION IN VENEZUELA
Freedom of association in Venezuela "is progressive and conceived in such a manner
far from being complete", according to a as to ensure the effective protection of the
report just published by the International workers."
Labour Office.
The report was compiled by a mission
The report said the Venezuelan unions of high International Labour Office officials
"do not at present enjoy a freedom of action which visited Venezuela for seven weeks
and organisation comparable to that enjoyed in 1949 at the invitation of the Military
by countries in which the functioning of Government Council which has been in
workers' organisations is protected from power since a coup d'etat on November
legal or administrative restrictions."
24, 1948.
At the same time, the report described
Under the terms of this invitation, the
the social legislation of Venezuela as "very purpose of the mission was "to secure

320
NEWS AND NOTES
complete and impartial information con-
Recommendations Listed:
cerning social problems, general conditions
The mission suggested, however, "in the
of the work in the different industries, the light of the situation" it had reviewed,
scope of the benefits and protection afforded that the Venezuelan Government "give the
to workers under the legislation in force fullest and most earnest consideration to
and the National Government, and the the following steps designed to permit the
development and functioning of trade normal functioning of healthy trade
unions."
unionism."
Mission Headed by Rens:
1. Removal of the bar against the re-
The mission was headed by Jef Rens, election by the trade unions of former
senior Assistant Director General of the members of their executive committees.
International Labour Office. The Office
2. Lifting of the obligation to obtain
is the permanent secretariat of the Inter-
prior Government approval for the holding
national Labour Organisation.
of trade union meetings.
The report said that in the field of living
3. Re-establishment of the liberty of the
conditions and conditions of work, certain unions to form national federations and
Venezuelan laws generally conform to— confederations.
and sometimes go beyond—ILO standards.
However, it added, this legislation was not
4. Restoration of the right to strike and
applied everywhere with the same degree lockout within the limits of the labour law.
of effectiveness.
5. Encouragement of collaboration in the
economic and social field between free,
Revisions Suggested:
strong and independent organisations of em-
To consolidate the legislation, certain ployers and workers.
revisions appeared necessary, the mission
The report also suggested measures to
suggested. It said, however, that it would improve Venezuela's social security legisla-
be difficult for the Government to under-
tion and its labour inspection services.
take these revisions without the active
The report suggested that the workers'
collaboration of the workers and employers and employers' organisations could them-
concerned, and it emphasised that a return selves contribute to the re-establishment of
to freedom of association appeared to be normal industrial relations in the country.
a condition for this collaboration.
It said the mission considered the em-
Certain measures taken by the Military ployers should "endeavour without delay to
Junta since the mission's visit indicated a set up free representative organisations, the
new trend in the Junta's attitude toward absence of which constitutes a regrettable
the right to organise and other fundamental gap in the social structure" of Venezuela.
freedoms, the report said.
The mission also considered, the report
The mission said it had carefully refrained declared, that "the trade union officials
from expressing any judgement with regard might, to such a degree as is possible, protect
to questions which did not fall within the the unions from the vicissitudes of political
terms of reference of the Venezuelan invita-
life and enhance their prestige and the
tion.
effectiveness of their action by drawing a

N E W S AND NOTES
321
clearer demarcation between their purely which it has put forward a secure founda-
trade union activities and their political tion would be laid for the gradual develop-
activities.."
ment in Venezuela of a free trade union
"The mission is convinced," the report movement and a body of social legislation
concluded, "that if the Venezuelan Govern-
corresponding to the needs and aspirations
ment were to adopt the recommendations of the Venezuelan people."
INDIAN CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL WORK
(FOURTH ANNUAL SESSION)
The Indian Conference of Social Work of the Conference is a Posters and Photo-
will be holding its fourth annual session graphs Exhibition on various themes of
between December 22 and 26, 1950, at social work and public welfare in the country.
Jamshedpur. Dr. Jivraj N. Mehta, Minister Artists and photographers from all over
for Public Works and Housing, Government India have been invited to participate in
of Bombay, and President of the Conference, this Exhibition.
will preside over the session. The Conference
In conjunction with the session of the
will be attended by delegates from all parts Indian Conference of Social Work, there
of the country, who are actively associated will also be a special conference, in co-
with social work agencies and organisations. operation with the Government of India,
After inauguration by the President, the from 19 to 21 December, 1950, of experts
session will be split up into four sections: from the United Nations and the United
(1) Rural Reconstruction and Welfare, (2) Nations Educational scientific and Cultural
Health Services and Social Welfare, (3) the Organisation on the "Problems of Physically
University and National Social Services, and Handicapped Children", with special re-
(4) Public Welfare. The proceedings of each ference to the needs of India and other
section will be guided by a chairman. Dr. countries in South East Asia. Representa-
Ralph Keithahn of Gandhigram, South tives of international agencies, like the
India, is the chairman of the first section United Nations International Children's
and Dr. P. V. Cherian of Madras of the Emergency Fund, have been invited and
second, while Dr. V. K. R. V. Rao and are likely to attend.
Dr. K. C. K. E. Raja of Delhi are in charge
of the third and fourth sections respectively.
This year's session of the Indian Conference
of Social Work will, therefore, not only
Papers by specialists will be read on afford opportunities for exchange of views
various aspects of social work, such as, and sharing of experience and knowledge in
Women and Child Welfare Services, Health the field of social work, but will also open
Insurance and Medical Services, Social up new avenues of establishing contact with
Services and University Students, Public experts in India and abroad. The papers
Welfare at the National, State and Municipal read and discussed will also aid professional
levels, etc. There will then be discussions social workers in the country to evaluate
on the papers by delegates in each section. their past achievements and plan their future
An attractive feautre of this year's session programmes.