NEWS AND NOTES HUMAN RELATIONS IN INDUSTRY Ladies and gentlemen, the...
NEWS AND NOTES
HUMAN RELATIONS IN INDUSTRY
Ladies and gentlemen, the previous manization. Man is now generally con-
speaker has covered a very wide field. sidered as a "worker". The worker is
Properly speaking, Human Relations in In-
seldom considered a man. The emphasis
dustry are an application of human relations'
is on how much we can get out of him
principles in any industrial set-up or pattern.
not on what he needs physically, psycho-
The subject of industrial relations being logically, morally, socially and so on. This
wider, is not synonymous with human has led to a very unsatisfactory and most
relations in industry which is concerned with
unfortunate situation in the industrial world.
relations within a specific organisation. It But thanks to development in Sociology,
is true that industrial relations happen with-
Psychology, Politics and other social sciences,
in, and extend beyond the bolder of the our view of man and his needs are
factory. In that regard, human relations changing. The status of the worker is
in industry also can be looked into as undergoing a perceptible transformation
industrial relations in their wider applica-
for the better. But still, managerial groups
tions and practices; but so far as the in India are annoyingly slow in recognizing
problem of human relations within industry
this change and according this new status
is concerned, I believe, it is only a problem
to their workers. The entire attitude of
of personnel management. How to manage
the management has to be changed. If
men properly and humanly? How to co-
industries have to thrive, human relations
ordinate their relations and activities so in industry have to be properly established.
that a satisfactory functioning of the indus-
trial institution can be achieved alongside
I know a very big manager who was
with the personality development of very strict. I do not want to name him.
workers?—This is the specific issue and field
He is a very influential businessman and
of human relations in industry.
known to everybody in the industrial field.
This big and rich man made it a point
Once upon a time, industries were orga-
to go round his factories every day and
nised into small units. Mr. Mehta has and visit every department, and whomsoever
well pointed out how in cottage industries he met he used to say: "Look here, you
of earlier times, there were personal relations
are not doing what is assigned to you. If
established between the management and you continue doing this, you will be dis-
the workers. But with the emergence of
missed." Evidently, somebody had told this
industrialization, such relations disappeared.
manager that men had to be goaded on
We may say that today human relations to do their work. The more you whip
in industry are impersonalized and dehu-
them the more is their speed. His motto
manized. Industrialization has gone on was "Never compliment, ever criticise". I
alongside with impersonalization and dehu-
am sure, this gentleman had not learnt

N E W S AND NOTES
141
personnel relations or human relations in first point. And the second point I am
industry or what is the same thing, the going to urge is that industry as a social
Science of Personnel Management. This institution must further accept responsibi-
attitude created amongst the workers lack lities to help workers overcome some of the
of interest in the factory. Everybody hated
disabilities and handicaps which affect them.
the management and worked under suffer-
There are several handicaps associated with
ance. Now, this is an extreme case, but
industries in India—long hours of work,
illustrates, more or less, the general outlook
bad working conditions, unemployment, low
and situation in our country as far as the wages, risks and hazards, congestion, slums
managements are concerned. There are a
and so on. There is also the problem of
few managerial groups full of understanding,
fatigue. It must be realized that the worker
sympathy and vision. But they are so few
can no longer be worked under unendu-
as to justify the axiom: "One swallow
maketh not a summer".
rable conditions for long hours. You have
to create good and satisfactory conditions
Now, if the gentleman I have illustrated
of work. Perhaps, all these handicaps, to
had known how to manage men and keep
a very large extent, can be removed by a
human relations in industry, he would have
scientifically planned and conducted wel-
patted his worker on the back and said:
fare programme.
"Hello! Good morning! How are you?
Are your children fine? Do you find your
If I go on extending the subject to
work interesting? Have you any difficulties?"
industrial relations, I can argue points on
These are questions and enquiries which strikes, arbitrations, arrests and so on. But
convey the goodwill of the management. I shall be content to speak on human rela-
tion in industry. I believe that we have
Where such goodwill permeates the not properly paid attention to the human
entire organisation, everyone feels adjusted aspect of the management problem. Work
and satisfied and behaves in a dignified is a man's calling. A man should be called
manner. To tell you frankly, in our indus-
to it by inner affinities. Then only is
tries there is complete absence of human
his work his calling. And an industrial
relations. Yet, we speak of wider issues, occupation means very much to the worker.
that is, industrial relations, strikes and so It affects his family status. It determines
on. Bad industrial relations which plague his circle of friends and defines his social
our society are only the reflections of bad
situation. It reacts on his physical health.
personnel management. How can we solve
It moulds his thinking and influences his
wider issues without first settling smaller mind in subtle ways. Therefore, we should
ones which are really at the root of the take into consideration all these factors,
problem? Establish good human relations and plan human relations in industry in
within your own industrial organization, I such a way that industrial occupations en-
guarantee, industrial relations will not be noble men instead of degrading them.
such an insoluble problem as it is. Industry
is a social institution. We have to accept
A speech by Dr. M. V. Moorthy at a
Symposium on Human Relations in Industry
social responsibilities. This is consistent organised by the All-India Manufacturers'
with efficient management. That is my Organisation, Bombay.

142
N E W S AND NOTES
PRISONS CAN BE A SOCIAL SERVICE
What is Our Attitude? You know pro-
C. I. B. methods a criminal record is taken
bably that, by an amendment in the Social into account when a sentence is imposed
Services Consolidation Act, wives of men on a man found guilty. This is probably
who have been imprisoned for more than a break with the old philosophy and will
six months are classed as widows if they are
come up again later.
over fifty or if they have a child in their
care and may receive a pension while their
You are probably wondering why no
husbands remain in gaol. Is there any mention has been made so far, of the fact
general significance in this move? It's hard
that a man may be sent to prison to be
to tell but at least it coincided roughly with
reformed. Logically this reason comes last
a growing public consciousness of the ex-
because it is the most recent and we are
istence of prisons in our midst. Mostly we still trying to evolve ways of effecting that
forget about them unless a gaol break, a reformation, rooting out at the same time
strike or riot hits the headlines. When the
the old beliefs in and demands for
disturbance is quelled we forget about it retribution.
in the comfortable assumption that God's
The Buildings.—The Quaker influence
in His Heaven; all's well with the world. in England and America was largely res-
But is all well?
ponsible for a change in the form of prison
punishment. Large buildings were erected
Ideas about Punishment.—Let us look at to house the criminals, who were solitarily
some of the reasons why people go to prison
confined,—and silently—in separate cells.
or are punished for breaking the law. In There, it was thought, they would have
earlier times, in the Middle Ages for ins-
opportunity to think over their misdeeds and
tance, there were practically no gaols but realise the error of their ways. It didn't
there was plenty of punishment. A wrong-
work.
doer was generally subjected to corporal
punishment to exorcise the devil which had
Large numbers, and it is still happening
taken possession of him. Later the attitude
today, came back again and again to serve
to the punishment was one of public venge-
other sentences for similar or different
ance and demand for retribution for the offences. Now the interesting thing is that
crime against society. At the same time most of the prisons in Australia are built
there was an idea that an offender could architecturally on the same lines as these old
expiate his crime by paying for it in pain bastille type of institutions. What is more,
and suffering. This belief persists strongly prisoners spend on an average fourteen
in countries which have a mystic conception
hours out of the twenty-four alone in cells.
of the State. Nazi Germany is a good exam-
One might easily be pardoned for saying
ple. But I don't think we have altogether solitary confinement is still the main form
given up the notion ourselves. A man can-
of punishment meted out. Why? Do we
not be tried for the same offence twice and,
still believe in the wholesome effect of con-
besides, as far as the law is concerned, a templation? It is unlikely. The reason
sentence once served eliminates, so to speak,
seems to be that administratively it is easier
the crime for which it was imposed. How-
to run a gaol if the prisoners are safely
ever with the increasing efficiency of the locked up.

N E W S AND NOTES
143
Well, what is it like to be shut up for per cent. of cases. Even in specialised insti-
fourteen hours at a time for months on an tutions like the English Borstals about 30
end? Some cells have stretchers or iron per cent. to 40 per cent. of the young men
bedsteads, some have palliasses, and blankets
are reconvicted within five years. Reform
are provided but seldom are they washed and rehabilitation are difficult problems.
or cleaned between changes in occupants We're not succeeding very well either in
of the cell. Sometimes there is a stool in protecting ourselves or in our humane
the cell or even a table. A feature in responsibility to people who are out of tune
Australian prisons is the sanitary bucket with normal society because of poverty,
which is emptied by the prisoner himself economic disturbance of the country, un-
each morning. In fact there are few prisons
happy family life, mental ill-health or a
in the English-speaking world where the deprived childhood.
sewer is connected to cells. It is here in the
cell, in most Australian gaols, that the
All this is not to say that no one has ever
prisoner eats all his meals alone. Community
thought of treatment other than simple in-
dining has been introduced only in some carceration. The Borstal has already been
prison farms.
mentioned. It is for young men who are
persistent offenders. Only one of these
While he is out of his cell the prisoner, institutions is "closed". The others are much
if he is lucky, has a job to do either about
like large country estates built in the first
the gaol or in one of the workshops. Those place by the first offenders to be committed.
on farms are the busiest. However, only This fact is almost a keystone—the places
about one ninth of the gaol population in gather a typical English moss of tradition
New South Wales and one fifth in Queens-
of good behaviour, industry, endeavour to
land are on farms. For the rest the cry learn to work and get on with
is one of deadening routine and soul-destroy-
others. The pressure is continually in
ing boredom.
this direction and it shows not perfect
but better results. Big experiments are
Reforms in Prison Methods.—Many going on in England now with this kind
people think that any suggestion of prison of open institution and different kinds of
is based on sentimental eye-wash. It offenders are having similar treatment to
might be; but let us look at some facts. that described. It is too early to assess
An offender is put into prison to protect results on the basis of reconviction because
the rest of the community. Does imprison-
a period of five years must pass before you
ment have this effect? Temporarily only. can be reasonably sure that the offender is
If a prison were a deterrent you wouldn't a better adjusted person than v hen he first
expect that many would repeat the offence. went to gaol. As for own prison farms
You may be pleased that the man who which are open institutions it seems fairly
burgled your house, hit you on the head or
certain that the effect of treatment of this
snatched your hand-bag got a stretch but kind has better results than simple imprison-
when he comes out of an ordinary crowded
ment although no official figures are
city gaol the chances are more than fifty-fifty
published in prison reports.
that he'll do it again. Reconviction of men
from bit gaols where no planned reformative
Sing Sing.—Experiments have been going
treatment is attempted occurs in about 70 on with a variety of different kinds of

144
N E W S AND NOTES
treatment in closed institutions in America has an optimistic attitude to the treatability
nearly all this century. In Sing Sing, of of the disease — criminal behaviour.
which, if we believe Hollywood, it is hard
This is the stumbling block in
to believe any good, a trial was made in most countries. To treat prisoners as indi-
1915 with a self-governing organisation viduals, each with a separate rehabilitation
amongst the prisoners. In this body the plan, mean a big goal staff with varied
lifers and long-termers were found to take equipment for trade or work, training,
the responsible roles! The Welfare League, libraries and recreation facilities.
as it was called, was responsible for educa-
You and I have to pay taxes for this and
tion, re-employment, relief of relatives unless we know what's behind it all we'll
sport, internal discipline and some other squeal. There are not very many reforms
aspects of the life by means of separate that can be carried out in Australia with-
departments responsible to the parliament, out first of all an extensive building pro-
democratically elected. Reconviction figures gramme and that is not likely to come about
for the period soon after the League's esta-
while law-abiding citizens are without houses.
blishment are not available but it is interest-
However a hopeful sign appeared recently
ing to note that the emergency cases— in New South Wales when the Cabinet
results of brawls amongst prisoners—were approved the implementation of the Comp-
reduced from 378 in the previous year to troller's report, which included many
eighty-six in the first ten months of the sweeping reforms, amongst them classifica-
League's work. The success is attributed tion on personal grounds before treatment
to the fact that the men were kept active starts. So far as treatment itself is concerned
and out of their cells longer in order to the widening of recreational and educa-
cover the jobs. They developed some tional facilities will presumably modify the
esprit de corps and gained a little experi-
dull routine and long hours of confinement.
ence in responsibility.
What does it all mean? Are we cod-
Diagnose the Trouble.—Later on differ-
dling the offender? Many people used to
ent and more scientific experiments were think so but their numbers seem to be de-
started in other prisons. The most notable creasing under the now more or less con-
tendency is the attempt to diagnose the pri-
stant pressure of rational groups who believe
soner's trouble—it may be sociial, moral, that we should not leave those who are
mental or physical. This requires a fairly obviously unable to keep going in their
well equipped reception centre with staff proper place in the world of their own in-
qualified in medicine, psychiatry, psycho-
adequate devices but should, on the con-
logy and social work. Of course the diag-
trary, help them to get back on the road or
nosis is not much use unless treatment find an easier track whatever the reason for
according to recommendations can be carri-
their failure might be.—Social Services
ed out by staff that understands them and Journal, February, 1949.
U. S. AIDS THE DEAF TO HELP THEMSELVES
Men and women disabled by deafness or financed by the federal and state govern-
impaired hearing find help in the United ments.
States under a program of rehabilitation
In the last five years, 17,587 of these

N E W S AND NOTES
145
handicapped civilians have been especially schools, correspondence schools, and institu-
trained and placed in jobs in virtually every
tions with extension courses. Private tutors
type of trade and occupation, reports the also may be obtained for special training.
U. S. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation
(OVR). The OVR coordinates the pro-
Additional services include maintenance
gram for civilians throughout the nation. and transportation during rehabilitation,
Veterans, with hearing disabilities acquired and providing necessary occupational tools,
in service, are taken care of by the Veterans
equipment, and licences.
Administration.
Individuals who are not able to pay for
To develop and stimulate maximum these services are helped with public funds.
rehabilitation opportunities, the OVR Counsel and guidance to help the individual
cooperates with a number of special orga-
select and obtain a suitable job are given
nizations such as the American Hearing free.
Society, National Association of the Deaf,
National Fraternal Society of the Deaf,
Special Course for the Unschooled.
Convention of American Instructors of This year, a new type of service is being
the Deaf, and Conference of Executives of
added. A special intensive adjustment and
American Schools for the Deaf.
training course will be given for illiterate
or unschooled deaf men and women.
Eligibility for Aid.—Men and women of
working age with substantial hearing handi-
Michael J. Shortley, Director of OVR
caps are eligible for aid under this program.
has announced that this training will be
To qualify for help they must have a rea-
offered for a month this summer at the
sonably good chance of becoming employ-
Michigan School for the Deaf. Rehabili-
able or of getting a more suitable job tation agencies of all other States are being
through such assistance.
invited to send their clients.
At 88 centers in 33 States, the handi-
This new training will stress several acti-
capped persons obtain complete services. vities that the illiterate deaf persons must
These include ear examinations, hearing master to lead a normal life, such as under-
tests, try-out of electrical hearing aids and standing directions, using transportation
training in their use, lip-reading instruction, facilities, handling money, telling time, and
speech correction, and training in the use of
attending to personal hygiene. Community
residual hearing.
relationships and responsibilities, employer-
employee relationships, basic materials, and
Medical, surgical, and psychiatric treat-
tools and processes will also be emphasized.
ment, hospital care, and artificial hearing
devices to increase the ability to work also
The aim of the course will be to release
are provided.
these people from the isolation and depen-
dence of a non-communicative existence,
Training for clients Is obtained on a Mr. Shortley notes. They may then con-
contract basis from established educational tinue "development through paid employ-
institutions. These include universities, ment and association with educated deaf
public and private vocational and trade people."

N E W S AND NOTES
146
U. S. COOPERATES IN WORLD ATTACK ON CANCER
Private and governmental agencies in the
The Institute, situated at Besthesda,
United States are cooperating with those of
Maryland, employs a staff of 250 experts
other countries in a program of scientific in one of the World's largest cancer research
research and public education against a laboratories. The major part of the Insti-
rising tide of cancer. Dr. Leonard Scheele, tute's research expenditures, however, goes
Surgeon General of the U. S. Public Health
into grants to universities, hospitals and
Service (USPHS), says cancer "occupies a private laboratories both in the United
high place among the medical problems States and abroad.
that can only be solved by coordinating the
Grants Made to Other Countries.
efforts of medical scientists everywhere."
During the last year alone the Institute has
In the United States alone, cancer is ex-
made grants totalling $90,760 for research
pected to kill 200.000 persons this year. in other countries. They have gone to in-
During the last 25 years, it has advanced stitutions and individuals in Brazil, Canada,
from seventh to second place—behind heart Denmark, England, France and Palestine.
disease—as the leading cause of death in Making these grants, Dr. Scheele says, "con-
the United States.
stitutes a move by the National Cancer
The U. S. Congress created the National Institute and its National Advisory Council
Cancer Institute in 1937 to direct the Gov-
to assist in the mobilization of an inter-
ernment's over-all cancer drive. It co-
national attack on cancer."
operates with agencies of the 48 States,
The largest and best-known private orga-
usually the Boards of Health, and with nization fighting cancer in the United
private organizations in cancer research and
States is the American Cancer Society, esta-
education. It conducts a trainee program and
blished in 1913. While supporting cancer
extends aid to medical schools. One of its research since 1945, its major contribution
basic purposes is to coordinate cancer has been public education. The Society
research in the United States with that of
estimates that the lives of 65,000 of the
other countries.
200,000 Americans expected to die of can-
Research Objective.—The research
cer this year could be saved through early
objective of the Institute, as of other diagnosis and treatment.
agencies, is to find the cause of cancer and
To this end, the Society has helped set
better methods of prevention or cure. It up 190 cancer detection centres, 400 cancer
also seeks to cut the death toll by stimu-
treatment clinics, and 35 diagnostic clinics
lating early diagnosis and treatment through
throughout the United States. Many more
education of practising physicians and the must be established, experts agree, to meet
public.
the cancer threat. The goal for cancer
Funds appropriated by Congress for the treatment clinics alone is one for every
Institute's work have increased from less 50,000 persons.
than $1,000,000 in 1946 to $14,000,000 for
Nation-Wide Campaign conducted.—
the present fiscal year, ending June 30. Its During April 1949, proclaimed Cancer
program is planned by its National Advisory Control Month by President Truman, the
Cancer Council, composed of six experts Society conducted a nation-wide campaign
and headed by the U. S. Surgeon General. to raise $ 14,50,000 for its work. The na-

N E W S AND NOTES
147
tional drive was directed by Charles F. the NCI and the American Cancer Society
Kettering, noted industrialist and scientist, publish journals reporting the latest find-
assisted by Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby, news-
ings. They are distributed both in the
paperwoman and wartime director of the United States and abroad. Close contact
U. S. Women's Army Corps. The drive also is maintained with the United Nations
was supported by American labour, indus-
World Health Organisation in the world-
try, agriculture, educational and publicity fight against cancer.
groups.
Atomic Energy Utilized.—New forces are
Contributing to the research work against
constantly being thrown into the fight
cancer is the Damon Runyon Cancer fund against the disease. A newcomer is the U.S.
founded to honor the American writer who Atomic Energy Commission, which is pro-
died of the disease in 1946. Many Ameri-
viding free radioactive isotopes for cancer
cans have contributed to this fund. Milton research, giving research grants to schools
Berle, well-known comedian, recently raised and hospitals, and building laboratory facili-
more than $1,000,000, in contribution to ties for atomic research in cancer.
the fund during a 16-hour television broad-
While much has been done, much more
cast.
must be done before cancer can be con-
Many Private Bodies Interested.—There quered, the National Cancer Institute
are in the United States at least a score of
emphasizes. It says:
privately financed organizations interested
"The release of atomic energy came only
in cancer research. Many belong to the after many individuals from many different
American Association for Cancer Research parts of this country—as well as many
which holds a scientific conference every countries of the world—made research con-
year. Last year the Association and the tributions. Finding the cause and preven-
international group, the Union Internation
tion or cure of cancer is a still vaster pro-
ale Contre Le Cancer, jointly sponsored the blem. The wholehearted cooperation of all
Fourth International Cancer Research con-
individuals and organizations working in
gress in St. Louis, Missouri.
the field will lessen the time before the
In addition to other literature on cancer, answer is found."
MEASURES TO MAKE BEGGARS USEFUL AND SELF-RELIANT CITIZENS.
BEGGAR RELIEF WORK IN BANGALORE CITY.
Having found it necessary and expedient of Receiving and Relief Centres for beggars.
to prohibit persons from resorting to
Government were pleased to direct in
begging as a means of livelihood, the Gov-
February 1946 that the provisions of the
ernment of Mysore have introduced Act Act for the prohibition of beggary in the
No. XXXIII of 1944 for the prohibition of
State be made applicable to the City of
Beggary in the State.
Bangalore. It is therefore an offence now
The Act and the Rules framed under it to beg in the City of Bangalore.
provide not only for the prohibition of
A Central Beggar Relief Committee helps
Beggary in the State but also for the opening
in implementing the provisions of the Act.

148
NEWS AND NOTES
The Hon'ble the Minister for Education, by the Court. About 141 persons have been
Sri D. H. Chandrasekhariah, is the ex-
detained for permanent relief of whom sixty
officio Chairman of the Committee at beggars have been repatriated outside the
present and the work of Beggar Relief is State.
being carried on under his direction.
The procedure connected with the treat-
Towards the Beggar Relief Scheme public
ment of beggars is simple. The beggars are
donations amounting to nearly a lakh of arrested by the Police Officers when they
rupees have been received. The Bangalore are found to be begging and soon after
City Municipality is contributing an annual
they are produced before the Superinten-
grant of Rs. 3,000 for meeting part of the dent who is the Receiving Officer. A re-
expenses of the Beggar Colony. A number
gular detailed enquiry is held by him. The
of other Municipalities in the State have name of the beggar, his parentage, place
also come forward to help the scheme with
of birth, means of living, reasons for
their grants. But the Government are begging, and names of persons legally
shouldering the major portion of the cost entitled to maintain the beggar will be
of the relief work.
ascertained at the enquiry. The Receiving
The new colony for the use of beggars Officer has discretion to release with or
has been built on a high level on the bank
without sureties such of them as will under-
of the river Vrushabhavati on the Bangalore-
take to give up begging. Those who are
Magadi Road at a distance of six miles from
not released are produced before the City
the City. Four big dormitories equipped Magistrate, Bangalore, for enquiry. The
with light, water and sanitary fittings have Court has discretion to release the first
been constructed for the occupation of offenders with or without surety. But if the
beggars. Administrative sanction has been same beggar comes up before the Court a
obtained for the construction of a dozen second time, he will not be let off unless
more dormitories, as and when necessary. surety is furnished. Detention in the Relief
A hospital with provision for beds has been
Centre is ordered in the case of those who
constructed and it is found to be useful both
are not released if they are Mysoreans by
to the Colony and to the surrounding birth or domicile, and orders of repatriation
villages. Quarters for the Superintendent, are passed in respect of non-Mysoreans who
Doctor and other members of the Staff have
will then be sent out of the State.
been provided in the Colony.
The Department of Beggar Relief owns a
To begin with, the Beggars' Colony was motor van for conveying beggars from the
located in Sri Giddanna's Choultry next to City to the Colony and for taking them to
the Municipal Swimming Pool and a good the Court for trial and also to the Railway
deal of preliminary work connected with the
Station for repatriating non-Mysoreans.
Beggar Relief was done there. The arrest-
ing of beggars commenced for the first time
Relief is given to those persons who are
on 28th October, 1946. About 3,100 detained in the Relief Centre until they are
beggars so far been rounded up in the discharged by Court or released on parole
City and brought to the Receiving Centre. by the Superintendent on the surety of a
After a detailed enquiry, the Receiving relative or friend who undertakes to take
Officer has released 1,622 with admoni-
care of the beggar and promises not to
tions, and 1,166 persons have been released
allow him to resort to begging again.

NEWS AND NOTES
149
Comprehensive rules have been framed agious diseases are isolated and sent to the
for regulating the work in the Receiving respective hospitals for treatment.
and Relief Centres. As soon as a beggar
The present Beggars' Colony was opened
is received in the Relief Centre, he is given
by His Highness the Maharaja of Mysore
a shave, a disinfectant bath and fresh on 1st July, 1948.
clothes. Soap and soapnut powder are pro-
The able-bodied beggars are receiving
vided to each beggar to keep his clothes and
training in mat-weaving, and envelope-
person neat and tidy. Each beggar gets a mat,
making for the present. It is proposed to
a bed-sheet, a pillow and a blanket for his introduce spinning and other cottage indus-
bedding. Besides, a Khaki baniyan, dhoti tries. There is also a proposal to introduce
of 7 yards, Khadi cap and a towel are agriculture and horticulture to engage the
supplied for his wear. Young boys are beggars. Arrangements are being made to
allowed to wear chaddis (shorts) in place impart primary education to all the beggars
of dhotis. Women beggars are each given and a building is ready for the purpose. The
a saree of 8 yards, a petticoat and a towel. Adult Literacy Council have opened . a
In addition, they get coconut oil and combs
school in the Colony. Prayers are held
to dress their hair. The diet consists of 16 both in the morning and evening before the
ozs. of food for each beggar per day. It inmates take their food. Every effort is
consists of 10 ozs. of ragi flour and 6 ozs. being made to reform the beggar to become
of rice. The principal meals are served a useful and self-reliant citizen.
at 11 A.M. and at 6 P.M. daily.
Whatever may be the causes of beggary,
Beggars are given medical help in the it is undoubtedly a menace to society. In a
Colony itself. Each beggar is examined civilised society there should be no place
by the doctor daily and state of health is for begging. It is indeed a big problem
noted in a Health Register. His weight is and its ultimate success would depend on
taken once a fortnight and the variations the willing and hearty cooperation of the
are noted. Most of the beggars who come public.
to the colony are found to be badly in need
Mysore Information Bulletin, January
of medical aid. Those suffering from cont-
31, 1949.
PSYCHOLOGISTS IN AMERICAN FACTORIES
Industrial engineers and administrators in
variety of new areas in the field of human
the United States have, in recent years, relations. Many firms employ specialists
become increasingly aware of the relation-
with psychological and sociological training,
ship between production problems and who are as much a part of a company's
problems of human behaviour. Quite com-
service to employees as the maintenance of
monly to-day, American businessmen call dispensary.
upon people trained in the understanding
Like many another step in scientific pro-
of human relations problems affecting em-
gress, one of the most significant early
ployees. Large business organisations, which
discoveries in industrial psychology grew out
have had progressive personnel programs of an experiment that failed in its funda-
for some time, are extending them to a mental purpose. This fruitful failure

150
N E W S AND NOTES
occurred when engineers at Western Electric,
"moonlit" intensity did workers complain
America's largest manufacturer of electrical that they could not see their work and
and communications equipment, sought to production fell.
measure the effect of factory illumination
During the later stages of the experiment,
upon production. Science, they reasoned, Elton Mayo, a professor of industrial research
could predict with satisfying accuracy how at Harvard University in Massachusetts,
quickly machines could turn raw materials joined the investigation. The experiments
into finished products under varying con-
were carefully screened and re-assessed. It
ditions. Why not apply similar thinking was apparent that in spite of their scru-
to the effect of varying conditions upon pulous attempts to eliminate variables, the
human behaviour in running the machines, engineers had missed a key influence on
thus solving one of the troublesome un-
workers' behaviour. As Mayo and a collea-
knowns in the equation of industrial gue named F. J. Roethlisberger went back
production?
over the work, they discovered that this
Initially, three different illumination ex-
key influence was the attitude of the workers
periments were conducted in three different
towards their participation in the expe-
departments at the company's Hawthorne riment. In summing up their feelings,
plant in Chicago, Illinois. The general Roethlisberger described what the engineers
test procedure in each department, how-
had missed. "What all the experiments had
ever, was the same. After conducting a dramatically and conclusively demonstrated,"
preliminary production period to determine he wrote, "was the importance of employee
a base rate against which future production attitudes and sentiments. It was clear that
changes might be compared, the light inten-
the response of workers to what was hap-
sity in the three departments was changed at
pening about them was dependent upon the
given intervals and the production rates significance these events had for them. In
were carefully tabulated. The investigators most work situations the meaning of a
felt that changes in light intensity would change is likely to be as important, if not
be reflected in the production rates of the more so, than the change itself. Whether
workers. But it did not work that way; or not a person is going to give his services
the workers' output rose and fell apparently
wholeheartedly to a group effort depends
without any relation to the amount of in good part, on the way he feels about
illumination involved.
his job, his fellow workers, and his super-
visors—the meaning for him of what is
Puzzled by this finding, the engineers happening about him."
performed the experiment twice again,
taking utmost care to control all variables.
What, in analytical terms, was the
Periodic physical examinations of workers meaning the experiment had for these
were made. The amount of sleep pre-
workers? To answer this question, the
ceding each work day was corre-
experimenters, led by Mayo, dropped the
lated with quality and quantity of purely quantitative earlier methods of mea-
production. Lighting conditions were surement and went at the task of inter-
changed radically. Rates continued to viewing the workers who took part in the
improve throughout these experiments with-
experiments. Basically, they found that pre-
out positive relationship to light intensity. vious to the experiment, the workers had
Only when illumination was reduced to the more or less standardized relation of

NEWS AND NOTES
151
factory workers to their jobs; but later, is not able to adapt his inherited social
as participants in an experiment, they were
attitudes to his modern environment, a
involved in a novel and exciting project. variety of emotional maladjustments may
They achieved a special status as individuals
result.
whose opinions were sought by leading
Armed with these concepts, the industrial
scientists and for whom each day's work had
relations specialists at Western Electric
a special significance.
adapted what was learned during the Haw-
For Elton Mayo, the ramifications of the
thorne experiments to the needs of employees
Hawthorne experiments stretched from in a new type of program known as per-
engineering to anthropology. For Western sonnel counseling. Personnel counselors are
Electric, they suggested a new approach to specially trained people who are assigned
personnel relations. Both have worked to-
to a specific department or a group of
ward applying what was learned at Haw-
people. They are available to anyone in
thorne to concrete and industrial problems. their group or department in the assigned
One of the most interesting revelations work area. Much of their initial time is
of the Hawthorne findings for Mayo, who spent in getting to know both employees
had previously considered social relations as
and the work they do. The counselor is
fundamentally those of one individual to as interested in workers' problems as citizens
another, was their indication that consider-
or family-heads as in those arising directly
able stress should be placed on group from their jobs. Counselors do not offer
relations in industry. A worker was primarily
advice or take up an employee's problems
a member of a department or production with supervisors. The emphasis during a
team from which he derived most of his talk with a counselor is, instead, upon the
work standards and through which he worker thinking through his problems for
dealt with his employers. The relation of
himself.
the individual to the team and, in turn,
Although personnel counseling is still in
the team to the job or the supervisor the process of development at Western
emerged in Mayo's later work as the crucial
Electric, its underlying concepts and princi-
factor in industrial relations.
ples have already been widely adapted to
Changes in social attitudes and group the needs of personnel departments in
standards, Mayo holds, have not kept pace
stores, insurance companies, and many other
with the radical changes in workers' envi-
types of business. For the psychologists,
ronments in the past half century. The however, personnel counseling is but a
status and prestige, for example, of a crafts-
limited application of what they know of
man of 50 years ago, both in the factory human behaviour, particularly group be-
and in the community, often depended upon
haviour. Under the directorship of the
his excellence in practising a trade which late Kurt Lewin, a brilliant psychologist
might not change during his lifetime. His who fled from Hitler's Germany to the Unit-
descendants, however, while inheriting many
ed States, the Massachusetts Institute of
of his social attitudes, are faced with a Technology developed its now famous Re-
very different set of problems. Their search Center for Group Dynamics to study
success depends not so much upon mastering
political and industrial group behaviour.
a static set of skills as upon their ability Lewin undertook what he called "action
to charge and adapt. When a worker research", in which maximum social utility,

152
N E W S AND NOTES
as much as theoretical significance, was the
face and how they may be solved. He
guiding precept. He focussed his attention is acquainted with the plant and the people
on the new kind of group relations deriving
with whom he will work.
from the changing industrial scene in the
One of the most difficult periods for the
United States. He insisted that practical new employee, the psychologists discovered,
men—union leaders, business men, and was his initial training. Workers became
social workers—be involved in his research. discouraged as they worked toward pro-
One of his students, Alfred J. Marrow, duction goals set for the entire training
has combined in his own career the union
period. To offset this reaction to the task
of scholarly and practical endeavour which of learning, experienced workers, collabo-
Lewin stressed at the Research Center. As rating with supervisors, broke down the
president of a garment factory, the Harwood
overall training goals into a series of small,
Manufacturing Corporation, Dr. Marrow short-term goals adapted to individual capa-
deals with the problems of a typical, cities. A fear of failure is thus supplanted by
medium-sized American business. With the
a feeling of success as each daily or weekly
aid of colleagues from the Research Center, standard of production is achieved. Prac-
Marrow has investigated many of the pro-
tical results at the factory have been very
blems which contribute to and detract from gratifying. Leaving during the initial
the high morale and high productivity of training period has been greatly reduced.
the workers at his Marion, Virginia factory.
New workers striving for short-term goals
At the same time, as a faculty member of
are trained in shorter periods than were
the New School for Research in New York possible under old methods of training.
City and adviser to the Research Center
Learning, of course, is not confined to
for Group Dynamics, he maintains his new employees. All American businesses
contact with psychology on its more theo-
are sensitive to consumer buying tastes, and
retical plane.
none is more affected by changes in fashions
At Marrow's Virginia factory, the psy-
and public taste than the garment industry.
chologists have done much to relate worker New garments and new styles mean new
adjustment to production efficiency. One production methods. Workers who have
major problem, for example, which, like learned to produce one item are naturally
most American employers, he faced con-
reluctant to become trainees again. But
tinually is that of employees who take a changeovers, if they are to be efficiently
job and then leave within a short time. made, require the full co-operation of all
Study has disclosed that such behaviour is the workers involved.
only occasionally due to the fact that the
To cope with this problem, many pro-
employee genuinely does not like the work grams have been tried at the Harwood
and goes in search of more congenial em-
factory. The most promising is called the
ployment. More frequently, such early "group decision" method of setting up
quitting is a reaction against the feeling new practices. Workers to be affected by
of discouragement and the fear of failure a production change are assembled and the
which often attends the learning of a new new garment is described. The manage-
skill. To overcome this, great pains are ment explains in details why the change is
taken at Harwood to explain to the new necessary. When all the questions of the
employee the learning problems he will production staff have been answered, the

N E W S AND NOTES
153
group leader asks the group how they these meetings the problems of individual
think the change should be made. Expe-
supervisors are dramatized by having two
rienced workers are appointed to make the
or more members of the group act out
new garment experimentally in order to real-life situations. One supervisor, for
arrive at production rates and methods. example, may be concerned about a machine
From their work the re-training program operator who is chronically late. Instead
and the new rates of payment are evolved.
of discussing, in general terms, a means of
Because the workers understand manage-
correcting this behaviour without losing the
ment's problems as well as their own, co-operation of the operator, two of the
differences of opinion concerning rates of
group are chosen to act out the way they
payment are amicably settled. On several would approach the worker. When their
occasions the rate proposals arrived at little drama is finished, the group criticises
independently by workers have been iden-
the approach of the actor-supervisor. The
tical to those of management. Although critics then show what they would have
considerable working time is consumed by done. Usually when this process is repeated
this procedure, Marrow finds that decisions several times, a solution emerges which the
thus reached are accepted wholeheartedly. group can adopt as a standard procedure
in future cases. As in the case of esta-
A key to success of Marrow's group blishing the re-training program, the people
decision method has been his continual actually involved in the problem are success-
education of supervisors' in the basic prin-
fully applying techniques which not many
ciples of human relations. Whenever neces-
years ago were confined to the realm of
sary, supervisors' meetings are held to stress
experimental psychology.
the importance of psychologically sound
procedures in dealing with people. At
— J O H N JACOBS
CARE OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN POLAND.
The inhuman German policy of ruthless a decent way of life, they naturally did
extermination of human life in Poland took
not admit the right of Polish children to
a cruel toll of Polish children. One million,
grow up as human beings and so deprived
nine hundred thousand Polish children were
them of most of the experiences that are
destroyed by the Germans. This mass a child's birthright. Among the experiences
murder accounts for the present day decline
from which the Germans excluded large
of child population in ratio to adult popu-
numbers of Polish children were the learn-
lation as compared with pre-war years. ing of a personal moral code; a knowledge of
Prior to the war, children and youth cons-
the meaning of truth; the all-important feel-
tituted 42% of the population; today they
ing of belonging—of knowing the security
number 33%. More than 1,500,000 children
that comes with being loved. Hundreds of
lost one or both parents, while others were
thousands were left behind to fare for
seized for forced labour. All children were
themselves when their parents were sent to
deprived of schooling and the basic neces-
concentration camps or into Germany for
sities of life. Since the Germans did not
forced labour. Others, about 200,000 of
respect the right of the Polish people to them, were taken to Germany. The very

154
NEWS AND NOTES
young ones whose physical characteristics moved to Germany by the Nazis. Some
were what the Germans designated as the had been taken from their homes at a
"Aryan type", were removed to Germany very early age — with all signs of their
and there brought up as Germans. The origin erased by the Germans. Social
older ones were taken for forced labour. services concerned with reuniting families
At the same time, the Germans spread had therefore to work in Germany as well as
among children as well as adults vulgar Poland. The services in Poland tried to
literature and pornography in the theatre, obtain all possible pertinent information;
films and radio.
the Plenipotentiary of the Ministry of
These emotional deprivations, plus mi-
Labour and Social Welfare attempted to
gration, undernourishment and traumatic locate children in Germany and, if found,
nervous shocks left deep scars on Polish to return them to their homes. The Red
children.
Cross was and continues to be particularly
helpful in locating these lost children. Up
It is clear, therefore, that after liberation to the present, about. 22,000 children have
Poland faced a tremendous task of child been returned to Poland, of these 20,000
care. Two million, seven hundred thousand
from the Eastern Zone of Germany and
children needed partial aid (three times as 2,000 from the Western Zone. Thus, most
many as before the war) and 300,000 of the Polish children from the Soviet Zone
needed institutional care. However, after of occupation have been given back to
the liberation there were only 413 institutions
Poland, while most of the Polish children
that could be utilized immediately, and these
from the Western Zones are still being held
could house a mere 22,000 children at the by the Germans.
most.
The task of instilling life values in an
Supplementary Feeding and Summer
entire generation of children cannot and Vacations.—The two programs which in-
must not be underestimated. And there clude the greatest number of children and
were the 1,500,000 orphans and half orphans
juveniles are the supplementary feedings and
who needed help.
summer vacations. Supplementary feeding
is part of the program at schools, kinder-
The Ministry of Labour and Public Wel-
gartens and education and recreation centers
fare initially handled all such work, but (Swietlice). One million, four hundred and
later on children between the ages of 3-18 ninety three thousand children and juve-
were placed under the jurisdiction of the niles are fed today as compared with
Ministry of Education. The vastness of 830,000 before the war.
the task facing the Ministry of Education
becomes apparent when it is realized that
The plan behind the summer vacations
61/2 million children are under its juris-
program is to enable all Polish children to
diction. The Ministry of Education conducts
spend their vacations in resorts. Seven
its welfare activities through the regular hundred eighty four thousand and five
school administrative organs. Each school hundred children attended summer camps,
circuit has its child welfare section.
half day camps and playgrounds in 1947.
Reuniting Children with Their Families.— The figure jumped to one million in 1948,
An intricate problem that Poland faced and about 780,000 of this number attended
was that of finding and reuniting with summer camps in various resorts operated
their families, children who had been re-
by Government and voluntary agencies.

N E W S AND NOTES
155
These figures, as are shown in the table as Swietlice (Education and Recreation
below, represent great gains over pre-war
Centers). They are open to all children
years. (Please note that today's population
and are particularly beneficial to those whose
is 23,930,000 as compared with the pre-war
mothers work. Children may do their home-
35,100,000).
work here under the supervision of specially
trained social workers and there are many
No. of Camps,
No. of
Year
Half-Day Camps
opportunities and facilities open for recrea-
Children
and Playgrounds
tion. Games, discussions and entertainment
1931
1,242
124,900
provided at the Swietlice make the streets
1932
1,247
127,100
and attendants petty pilfering and vaga-
1933
1,321
154,300
bondage much less attractive to teen-age
1934
1,981
170,800
youth. A meal is also served at the Swiet-
1935
3,222
260,800
lice. Approximately 86,000 children
1936
4,249
345,600
throughout Poland attend these Swietlice.
1937
6,624
453,600
They are run by parents' associations and
1945
1,386
175,500
such voluntary agencies as the Workers
1946
8,954
750,000
Friends of Children Society, the Peasant
1947
.9,340
784,500
Friends of Children Society, the Red Cross,
Summer vacation facilities are provided the Central Committee of Social Welfare
by voluntary agencies, trade unions and and Caritas. They are subsidized by the
youth organizations. The Ministry of Edu-
government and supervised by the Ministry
cation co-ordinates all the programs, exer-
of Education. The Swietlice consist for
cises supervision over them and subsidizes the most part of only one room. Similar
them. The above mentioned agencies bear
to them in concept, but much larger and
26% of the total cost of maintenance of
better equipped are the "Jordan" gardens
all facilities, the government contributes and playgrounds Each Jordan garden and
50.8% and parents' fees total 13.6%. The playground has facilities for several hundred
rest (9.6%) is covered by local governments
children, and when open air play is not
and donations from abroad.
possible, there are suitably equipped build-
ings. Fifty-three are once more operating
The fees that parents pay vary in on a full time basis, and 125 new ones are
accordance with the income of the family being built.
and the size of the family. All children
going to and from camps are entitled to
Care of Weak Children.—Special rest
a 75% reduction on railroad tickets. The homes for weak children are among the
children are given a thorough medical innovations that have appeared in Poland
examination before entering the camps. since the war's end. Four thousand seven
Every camp has a doctor and nurse on the
hundred such children are housed in the
premises or within easy reach. All child-
55 centers that exist in Polish sea and
ren attending camps carry accident and mountain resorts today. The children
death insurance.
continue with their studies while they are
Swietlice.—Town and city life creates in the rest homes so that no lags occur
many leisure time problems for young people.
in their educational programs. Twenty-
An interesting service which attempts to help
two rest homes are run by the government
young people solve these problems is known
and the rest by various voluntary agencies.

156
N E W S AND NOTES
Care of Orphans.—The previously men-
kind of life. They all did the same thing
tioned welfare sections of the school circuits
at the same time; there was a common
have placed 73,000 children in foster homes.
bedroom which afforded privacy to no
The foster parents receive financial help child; they did their homework together
from the government, plus guidance from in large halls. Today's policy, however,
the teachers and social workers who super-
aims at making life in the Children's Homes
vise the home conditions. If the supervisor as close to family life as possible. For in-
discovers that a foster home is inadequate stance children of both sexes and various
he removes small children to Children's ages are grouped together in one home; child-
Homes and older children (generally) to ren wear individual dress, not the pre-war
boarding schools.
uniform. Today, regimentation has been
abandoned in favour of a free and varied
There are now 701 Children's Homes life which helps the children to learn self-
with a total of 46,500 children; and 282 dependence, initiative, resourcefulness and
of these Homes have been established only responsibility.
since the war's end. The government
operates 136 of these, 92 are run by local
A clear change has been made from
governments, and the remainder by social pre-war closed Homes, isolated from the
service and religious associations. Sixty-
world—often even maintaining their own
two, out of the above 701 Homes, are schools—to open Homes—in close, living
special institutions maintained for deaf, contact with schools, youth organizations
dumb, blind, mentally deficient and delin-
and adults. Thus, orphan children are
quent children. Government Homes are no longer cut off from the rest of society,
maintained by government funds, while but participate freely and normally in life
Homes maintained by local government and
outside of the home.
voluntary agencies since liberation have been
Orphans, youngsters from rural areas and
receiving from the central government a poor families, who before the war had no
uniform sum per pupil for maintenance. access to secondary schools, are now pro-
Many fundamental changes which extend vided for in boarding schools and dormi-
far beyond the mere change of name have tories. At present, there are 839 such
occurred in the character of Homes for establishments attended by over 52,000
orphans. Pre-war Homes for orphans re-
young people, and 620 of those are operated
sembled military barracks for the most part.
by the government.
Children of the same age and sex were
housed together, and they led a military
Social Welfare in Poland, March 1949.
MENTAL HEALTH INSTITUTE IN U.S.
A National Institute of Mental Health
The new institute also will work closely
has been established in the United States. with the World Federation of Mental
As part of the system of research institutes Health in the global program to eliminate
of the U. S. Public Health Service, it the known causes of mental illness and to
will co-ordinate public and private mentals find new means of curing the mentally ill.
health activities throughout the nation.
Dr. Leonard A. Scheele, Surgeon of the

N E W S AND NOTES
157
United States, points out that mental illness
says that by close proximity to other health
is responsible for the hospitalization of clinics, "the mental health program will
thousands of patients and for the partial be able to take full advantage of the exten-
incapacitation of many others. It is also,
sive investigations being made into other
he says, a basic cause of many of man-
diseases as well as the programs of basic
kind's great social problems—delinquency, research in the various laboratories and
crime, divorce and alcoholism.
organizations of the National Institutes of
Health." The solution to human illness, he
Aims of the Institute.—The broad aims says, "requires the co-operative skills of many
of the new mental-health organization are scientific disciplines."
to gain more knowledge of the cause, pre-
vention and control of mental illness, to
The American public is showing a greater
train research and other personnel in interest than ever before in mental health,
greater numbers and to help develop com-
Dr. Howard A. Rusk, associate editor of
munity mental-health programs. The the New York Times, indicates in an article.
institute is supported by Federal Government
Rusk notes that in the last two years
funds.
community mental-health services have been
established in 27 additional states and
The institute will co-ordinate Federal-
territories. As a result, all states and terri-
state-local mental-health programs, including
tories now have such services on the
those already in progress. It also will train
community level. During the last year, 36
workers in the methods of research and new clinics were established in 36 states,
treatment and make cash grants for expe-
and 67 clinics in 26 states were expanded.
rimental work by universities and individual
scientists.
Under the national Mental Health Act
passed by the U. S. Congress in 1946,
Funds will be granted to the various research projects have been carried out to
states for state and community mental-
study the causes, diagnostic methods and
health programs. The Federal Govern-
treatment procedures for all types of mental
ment will provide $ 2 for every $ 1 spent
diseases and diseases of the nervous system,
by the states for research.
including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy and
The main research clinic of the new insti-
cerebral palsy. In addition, many indivi-
tute is under construction at Bethesda, Mary-
duals have been trained in psychiatry,
land just north of Washington, D. C., near
social work and psychiatric nursing, to make
the other national health institutes.
the benefits of modern methods of treating
Advantages of the Location.—Scheele mental illnesses more widely available.
LABOUR WELFARE
Welfare implies faring well. We say that
Now, labour welfare mean generally the
one is faring well when he enjoys good assurance of these amenities to our working
health and reasonable amenities of life. population. The provision of these consti-
These are: nourishing food, comfortable tutes the minimum conditions of good living.
clothing, decent living place and facilities
It is well-known that our workers dwell
to appreciate the arts of life. Everyone amidst horrible circumstances of squalor
knows, that all these follow a good income.
and congestion. Not only is infant mor-

158
N E W S AND NOTES
tality highest amongst the workers but the conveniences. Most of these are prescribed
span of life of the average worker is very by the Factories Act of 1948 which pays
short. The health of our workers is very more detailed attention to welfare mea-
poor due to various causes. Yet they sures than similar acts in any other country.
normally work a minimum of eight hours This is so because most of the managements
per day, earning about Rs. 80 all-told per
in our country were slow in recognising and
month. Further, hardly one per cent of providing for the needs of the labourers.
them is able to read and write. Altogether And Government, therefore, had to enforce
it is a fair statement to make that our these regulations. The Factories Act also
worker's life is a brief and un-
prescribes the appointment of welfare
relieved biography of poverty, leisureless officers in every factory wherein 500 or
work, ignorance, superstition and ex-
more workers are ordinarily employed; and
ploitation. Their environment and wherein more than 50 women workers are
condition of life are such that they employed, it further prescribes the main-
perpetuate their handicaps in their children
tenance of a Creche.
with the consequence that the same wretched
Most of these regulations are reasonable
situation has continued through generations.
and the Government has done well in
It may be asked; who is to be blamed legislating along these lines. It may be
for this state of affairs? I shall not em-
said that when these provisions are en-
bark on the futile quest of the culprit. forced, the welfare needs of the workers
We are, every adult one of us, directly or
in their work places will have to be taken
indirectly responsible for this situation and care of. Not only in factories, but in
hence, should help bring about socially mines and other industries as far as possible
desirable conditions of living to our workers.
similar measures are being planned to
It appears that certain hardships are in-
minimise the employment hazards of workers
herent in modern large-scale industrial and also to provide human amenities. And
enterprises. When a person works in a for these the burden is rightly placed on
modern factory, he works in highly artificial
the management. Also the Workman's
conditions of noise, light, temperature, dust,
Compensation Act and the Women's Mater-
smoke and so on. These definitely affect nity Benefits Act further take care of the
his health and mental outlook. Also, since workers' need for assistance.
he works with a complex power-driven
When we come to the scope and extent of
machine, the worker is liable to get hurt,
labour welfare activities, we enter into a very
sometimes fatally. Since man's bodily interesting but highly controversial field.
mechanism has limited capacities for ad-
What is the limit of labour welfare activity?
justment, adjustments have to be made in
Does it end by the taking care of the
the environment itself to meet the human
needs of labourers in their work places, or
needs of the workers. Such adjustments does it extend beyond the borders of the
constitute a part of the welfare activities, plant? The worker is a social being. He
and this is legitimately a function of the has his wife and children, and may be,
management. There are also other needs old parents, for whom he has to have a
of the workers to be satisfied, such as, house of his own. After the day's work
need for water and washing, . first-aid,
he returns to his house for rest, peace
shelter and rest, lunch and several other and recreation. There are the complex

N E W S AND NOTES
159
economic, social and cultural needs of the medical attention, recreation, education and
family to be satisfied. Perhaps, household economic security of the worker and his
articles have to be bought. Where shall family. Clearly, the provision of these by
he go? Should the manager of the factory the employer cannot be legislatively en-
provide markets for his buying? Perhaps, forced. Yet, a few big industrial groups
the worker is ill, or his wife is sick, or have undertaken of their own accord, the
may be, his child or parents. Again, should
housing of a part of their labour force,
the management have a hospital for the and have also introduced medical and
care of the worker and his family? The hospital care, recreation programmes, schools
worker's children need to go to a school. and other educational and cultural activities,
Is it management's function to maintain a and economic security schemes like savings
school? Sometimes the worker finds it hard
fund, co-operative enterprises, bonus and
to find even a home. In that case should provident fund schemes and so on. Some
the owner of the factory build houses for of these maintain considerable labour wel-
his houseless workers? These are some of
fare personnel. Such comprehensive wel-
the questions which it is difficult to answer. fare schemes keep labour contented, in
Yet the welfare of the worker is closely good spirit and health, reduce absenteeism
involved in all these considerations. If the and turnover, and improve productive
working conditions of the factory are ex-
efficiency. But a plan of welfare compri-
cellent and yet the home conditions are sing the economic security schemes, educa-
miserable, the worker's morale and effi-
tion, recreation, medical attention and
ciency are bound to break down. How housing of workers—and all these well
can the labourer work with concentration related to the maintenance of good working
when his wife is ill, and needs medical conditions,—is very costly. But if the plan
attention? Can he be happy at his job is worked with vision, understanding and
when he had no sleep yesterday because leadership, it will yield such beneficial re-
his house was leaking?
sults as will reduce the ultimate costs of
production for industry, apart from the
Home conditions and work in the factory good citizens it will create. It will also
are intimately related. Therefore attention to
definitely bring about better industrial
the worker's handicaps and needs only with-
relations. In the long run, labour welfare
in the factory is but a part of labour welfare.
is a sound investment for all.
If the worker's welfare has to be fully
planned, his complete life, as also that of
Many employers in our country are un-
his immediate relations has to be taken able to undertake comprehensive welfare
into account. Living is a total phenomenon.
programmes of which I am talking. Even the
Continuous influences appear and reappear amenities that are provided for within the
in all its spheres. Persons are like plants factory are done grudgingly. Sometimes,
which, despite water and good soil, wither they cannot afford to introduce an elabo-
away when remote breezes and stars do rate programme. More often, they lack
not bring their timely blessings.
knowledge, leadership and foresight to do
it. Some even evade obligations to workers
It is now generally conceded that labour
for want of the sense of social justice. The
welfare measures, to be adequate and com-
good ones are so few that their welfare
prehensive, should also consist of housing, activities touch but a bare few of the

160
N E W S AND NOTES
labouring population.
They would like to be self-dependant,
But who should bear the cost and res-
dwell in their own homes, play their own
ponsibility of labour welfare? There can games, have their own medical assistance,
be but one answer to this. Those who and send their children to any school they
benefit by the programme should bear the like. They would feel humiliated by some
cost, and since the entire society is bene-
of the welfare measures by which our
fited by labour welfare, the costs of it workers would be pleased. Thus for ins-
should be charged to the account of tance, if free cloth is given to workers, or
society. Even to-day, where the employers free milk provided to their children, or
sponsor welfare schemes, they shift a part free schools built by the employer, the
of the costs on to the consumers and to workers in the U. S. A. would feel insulted.
the workers. To the consumer they transfer
They would like all these to be embodied
it in the shape of high prices; and to the in their wage packets, rather. This shows
labourers in the shape of wage cuts, or how much independent minded they are.
by keeping the level of wage down. Thus The workers prefer to have their welfare
a part of labour welfare costs are borne taken care of by themselves through their
involuntarily by the employees and by the unions. This, I feel, is the right approach
public. Welfare is really a type of addition
to labour welfare. And our labour unions
to the wage; and more welfare measures should bestow more attention to this
mean more real wages. It has a tendency to
problem.
keep down nominal wages. But, as far
But the creation of this attitude in the
as the public is concerned, I feel that if minds of our workers will take a long time.
by paying higher prices to articles produced,
Moreover, the conditions in our country
the welfare of the workers is assured, we are different from those obtaining in the
should not grudge paying higher prices. U. S. A. In view of the very low incomes
National welfare is bound up with labour which our workers earn and the lack of
welfare and it is worth making some sacri-
leadership amongst them, it is absolutely
fices for it. The employers should similarly necessary to institute well-organised labour
realize their responsibility to the nation, welfare activities, but the objective and
and in the light of their capacity to make technique employed should be to make the
the sacrifice, they should bear their share workers self-reliant in course of time; so
of the cost of labour welfare. When the much so that they would be able to run
costs are well distributed, nobody would their own welfare activities instead of being
be complaining.
dependant on the employers or the Govern-
But there are several dangers and dis-
ment. Any other attitude or objective or
advantages involved in ill-conceived plans technique adopted would perpetuate the
of labour welfare. By doing everything for disability of our workers, and therefore, is
the worker we take away his self-reliance, treacherous to their cause and progress. Till
and make him more and more dependant such time as the workers are not able to
on the employer. This is the greatest psy-
take care of themselves, labour welfare will
chological disadvantage of all employer-
be a necessary burden of the industries and
financed welfare measures. In the West, the Government. Where the employer is
particularly in the U. S. A., workers frown unable to provide all the amenities needed,
on the welfare activities of their employers. the Government and the public bodies

N E W S AND NOTES
161
should take up the planning. And here gramme of the workers run for the workers
is a field for our labour unions to make their
by the workers. Then there will be a real
contribution by uniting with others, irres-
functioning of Industrial Democracy. Along
pective of their political ideologies.
side of welfare planning, wages have to be
raised to enable workers to participate more
The success of labour welfare depends on fully in the activities. Social work means
proper leadership and attitude. Welfare helping the handicapped individual help
administration is a scientific process and himself; and welfare is best administered
needs qualified personnel. Programmes where workers help themselves to overcome
have to be conceived in relation to the their limitations and organise to achieve the
needs of the workers and all the activities best good of themselves and of all.
have to be carefully integrated. Partici-
pation of the workers has to be secured in
Radio Talk by Dr. M. V. Moorthy.
all the activities and as far as possible they
By permission of Station Director,
should be made to feel that it is a pro-
A. I. R., Bombay.
NON-PROFIT NATIONAL AGENCY HELPS PREVENT BLINDNESS
Mary had always had weak eyes. By the a non-profit, voluntary agency supported by
time she was ready to start school in the membership fees and contributions. Its aims
United States, it was obvious she would not are to learn the causes of blindness or
be able to keep pace with children having impaired vision, to advocate measures that
normal vision. However, Mary was for-
will eliminate such causes, and to spread
tunate. There was a school in her commu-
knowledge concerning the care and use
nity with a "sight-saving" class.
of the eyes.
There, Mary found special lighting, books
One of the Society's first undertakings
with extra-large type, pencils with thick in 1908 was a successful drive to have pro-
black lead, and many other things to help phylactic drops put into the eyes of babies
her see and learn. Yet, in oral recitation, at birth to prevent blindness caused by
singing, and other activities she was able ophthalmia neonatorum. At that time, this
to join in with the normal children. Now disease was responsible for 28 percent of
Mary is growing up like all the other all blindness among pupils in American
children in her community.
schools for the blind. The Society's cam-
Forty years ago, before the formation of paign of public education brought about
the National Society for the Prevention of laws making use of the eye drops mandatory.
Blindness, Mary would not have done as As a result, the number of babies losing
well—there were no "sight-saving" classes their sight from this disease has been
then. Today, there are 635 such classes in reduced 90 percent.
all sections of the United States. The
Society hopes that eventually there will be
Today, the Society is campaigning to
enough special classes for all children with reduce eye hazards in industry. It also
defective vision.
is urging that the eyes of pre-school child-
Encouraging teachers and school autho-
ren be carefully tested and is sponsoring
rities to set up "sight-saving" classes is research in the causes and treatment of
one of the many, activities of the Society, eye diseases.

N E W S AND NOTES
162
The success of the Society in the United recognised as a non-governmental affiliate of
States led to the formation of an Inter-
the United Nations World Health Orga-
national Association for the Prevention of nization. The American Society is helping
Blindness in 1929. This organization sus-
the other American republics develop sight-
pended its activities during the war but saving programs.
now is at work again. It recently was
YOUNG CHILDREN NEED GUIDANCE TOO.
In the modern elementary school the relationship in child behaviour is most im-
teacher is vitally concerned about the needs portant. Once this relationship has been
and the problems of her pupils. She knows clearly established much can be done to help
that learning is largely determined by the the maladjusted child. To discover such
child's interests, motives, capacities, matu-
causes and to suggest ways of overcoming
rity, and readiness. She recognises that them is the function of guidance. In this
the child is a person with assets, liabilities, program the classroom teacher is the key
and potentialities that must be studied, person.
understood, and guided. Child study is
In introducing any program, objectives
indeed the key to a successful guidance must be clearly formulated and commu-
program.
nicated to the entire staff. Perhaps the
Some children are rebellious, unhappy, major objective of a guidance program is
submissive, over-aggressive, destructive, gaining the confidence and the friendship
fearful, and negativistic. At one time these of those children whom we are seeking
emotionally and socially maladjusted child-
to help. The classroom teacher is in a
ren were considered inherently "bad". This unique position to understand the basic
theory has been long discarded by educators.
needs of children—physical needs, a sense
Undesirable pupil behaviour has an under-
of security, recognition, need for affection,
lying cause or causes. Anti-social conduct, and new experiences.
failure, introversion, indifference, insecurity,
delinquency may be caused by disabilities,
Discovering minor adjustments at an early
conflicts, and frustrations. Among these age so that major maladjustments can be
negative factors are: malnutrition, defective possibly averted in the future is another
speech, impaired eyesight, faulty motor significant aim of a good guidance program.
co-ordination, a broken home, a sarcastic Why wait until the child enters junior high
teacher, an over-indulgent parent, reading school in order to get the benefit of guidance
disability, and unwholesome environmental if the maladjustment manifested itself in
influences. In other words, a maladjust-
the second grade of the elementary school?
ed child has a problem that he can not Effective guidance should be a program
solve. Instead of mastering the problem, of prevention and should be applied as
he has become its slave.
soon as the symptoms of maladjustment
appear.
Therapy (and many of our children are
in dire need of it) must be based upon
The question is often asked: which
the causes which produce symptoms of a children need guidance? A suggested list
mal-adjusted child. To discover such causes follows:

N E W S AND NOTES
163
1. Those non-participating in school of an interested friend rather than that
activities
of a judge, can do much in establishing
2. Those displaying anti-social and nega-
rapport between himself and the child.
tive traits of social behaviour
This attitude increases the child's confidence.
3. Those lacking in self-confidence
Tactfully and sympathetically, the inter-
4. Those invariably seeking the center of
viewer should ascertain as much as possible
attraction
during the interview about the attitudes
and feelings of the child. The child should
5. Those doing school work far below be encouraged: (1) to tell about his activi-
their abilities and capacities
ties outside-of-school hours; (2) to talk
6. Those showing irrational or excessive about his hobbies and special interests; (3)
fears and anxieties
to describe his friends and why he has
7. Those indulging in excessive day-
chosen them; (4) to indicate his interests
dreaming
and dislikes at school; and (5) to discuss
8. Those being irritable and tempera-
his problems, needs, and difficulties. As
mental without apparent cause
the result of the interview the child should
9. Those feeling a sense of rejection at feel that he has a friend who is interested
school or at home or at both places
and is willing to help. Let him feel that
10. Those belittling their own achieve-
he can come to you to talk over his pro-
ments and over-emphasizing their short-
blems.
comings
Descriptive records should not be made
11. Those manifesting moods of being very
during interviews, but after the child has
unhappy and depressed
left the room. The purpose of the parti-
12. Those showing traits of being over-
cular interview, the information ob-
shy, timid, and introspective.
tained and the results of the interview
should be indicated. Suggestions made
One fruitful guidance technique in the during the interview, any plan of action to
elementary school is the interview. Here be undertaken, plans for future interviews
is an opportunity for the teacher to find with the particular child, should also be
out the possible cause for the child's mal-
included in this descriptive record.
adjustment, to help the child understand
himself better by talking things over, to
By means of the interview, an attempt
evaluate the child's feelings and attitudes, may be made to give maladjusted children
and to develop with the co-operation of a measure of security, recognition, belong-
the child a plan of action resulting in ingness, and affection denied many of them
better personality adjustment.
in their daily lives. Understanding child-
ren and assisting them to meet their basic
During the interview the most important needs are the primary objectives of a worth-
principle is the establishment of a friendly, while guidance program in the elementary
informal feeling between the child and the school. The all-important goal is each child's
interviewer. The interviewer should have adjustment to all phases of living—physical,
objectivity, sympathy, understanding, and a emotional, and intellectual.
sincere interest in the child's problems and
needs. Looking for causes for the child's
By Edward Dangler from Understanding
maladjustment, the interviewer, in the role The child. April, 1949.

164
NEWS AND NOTES
INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE: ITS RELIGIOUS ASPECT
"Everybody has forgotten religion, that zine. The affairs of the association are
is why everything is going wrong every-
governed by boards composed of the elected
where," was the lament of an illiterate representatives from amongst its members.
Indian worker dissatisfied with his working These boards are reconstituted every two
conditions as well as with affairs of his years, and they have to maintain a paid
trade union. A world under the grip of staff of 236 persons to carry on their work.
a philosophy of hedonism cannot but be
How did the Mahatma achieve so
divided against itself, and such a division much from so little? One hears a lot of talk
must create more and more emotional about freedom now-a-days. Political free-
stresses amongst individuals and nations. The
dom is most in the air but hardly any spiri-
industrial worker cannot escape his share tual freedom. You cannot talk to a labour
of them, and the industrial psychologist leader without hearing a sermon from him
is fighting heroically against them with on the freedom from want, but what a hu-
objective methods of experimental science, man being wants most is inner peace. The
but is not succeeding half as well as an industrial physician's panacea for increas-
Indian saint working subjectively through ing production is freedom from illness, but
a religious philosophy of life.
mental and religious attitudes have so much
Mahatma Gandhi was the founder and to do with bodily health. There is however
father of the Ahmedabad Textile Union. one freedom which covers all other free-
He picked up a rotting mass of the hum-
doms—freedom from self. The Mahatma
blest and most depressed humanity and succeeded with the industrial worker of
remodelled it in a shapely cast of human Ahmedabad, because he taught him to strive
dignity. He taught a down-trodden people for the freedom. He needed lieutenants for
to stand erect again. This union has to-day his work. He looked for only one qualifica-
a membership of 65,000 textile workers, and tion in them. They must be reformers who
has an annual income of 2
want to reform themselves before others. He
1/2 lakhs of
rupees. The association maintains about 20 placed before them a higher philosophy of
centres which cater to the intellectual and life, a religious creed of truth, non-violence
social needs of its members by setting up and service, and he succeeded because he
libraries and reading rooms and facilities for
lived it in his own life with them and for
physical culture and recreation. It conducts them.
6 day-schools and 2 night-schools, and one
The East dreams, the West acts; the East
nursery school. Scholarships are made is passive and other-worldly, the West is
available to working-class students receiving dynamic and practical. Such are the slogans
education in secondary schools. The asso-
which a type of occidental thought deve-
ciation also runs a well-equipped dispensary loped through objective methods of experi-
with an average annual of 75.747. A pro-
mental science fling against oriental philo-
gramme of opening ante-natal and post-
sophies of subjective methods. Upto a point
natal clinics, and medical examinations of there is truth in the slogans, but there is
the workers and their dependents is making fallacy too. What motivates each end is the
satisfactory progress. The association has its
search for happiness in life on this earth
own press and publishes a fortnightly maga-
and not in any other life elsewhere, and

NEWS AND NOTES
165
one of the main instruments of research the
with their employers; and when they do
oriental mind uses is meditation. But medi-
fight, they do so non-violently, and to teach
tation is not an end in itself. It is an their employers a bit of religion; and once
attempt at integration of mind and its func-
started there is no going back and there are
tions in order to evolve action on a higher
no blacklegs.
plane and of a higher type to make life
The West has its own methods of experi-
fuller and richer with a more lasting happi-
mental science, and the East cannot help
ness, freed from the fears, frustrations and admiring, appreciating and even imitating
maladjustments of modern civilization based
them, for amongst the four main paths ad-
on a hedonistic philosophy of life.
vocated by oriental philosophy for realising
Nor is meditation the only instrument of
a man's own divinity, one is "Gnyana-
oriental research for attainment of happi-
Yoga",—realisation through knowledge.
ness. There are at least four such main But what confounds the East is the absence
ones, and they are adapted to the different in the western methods of any serious
natures and temperaments of men. Any attempt at an approach to the concept of
one or combination of them can lead a the wholeness of life. The four main paths
person to attain his natural goal of happi-
of oriental research are known as Yogas
ness in this world, and the instruments that
and Yogas mean methods of union. So
Mahatma Gandhi used whereby he achieved
when science picks up a particular func-
so much from so little, are Karma-Yoga,—
tion of the body or of the mind and studies
realisation through work and duty, and it apart from all the rest, oriental thought
Bhakti-Yoga,—realisation through devotion trained to look out for unity amongst diver-
and prayer. He woke up a vegetating mass
sity cannot help asking, to what purpose?
of humanity into action by placing before to what end? Nor can it help concluding
it a religious ideal to live and die for. He that science divorced from religion is hu-
gave the industrial worker of Ahmedabad manity mortgaged to Satan. The last world
inner peace if not material prosperity. This war is proof thereof, and the growing fear
worker is an exact prototype of the indus-
of an approaching third war is another.
trial worker anywhere else in India,—illite-
rate and ignorant, eating the same un-
Science dissects and interdissects and has
balanced diet, and living in unhealthy slums.
now reached the stage of splitting the atom.
But all the same he is imbued (thanks to The bewildered oriental mind wonders how
Mahatma Gandhi) with a bit more of the long it will take them to split up the world
spiritual idealism, the abiding heritage of in six tiny atoms as to make it
his land. Whereas most of the trade unions
unfit for human habitation. But
of the land have a shifting membership and
when we read of achievements of
a changing leadership torn with party poli-
their industrial nurse we feel reassured
tics and personal jealousies, the Ahmedabad
that she will not allow any such devilish
Textile Union is steady and progressive development of science. Her religion, not
with a religious concern for amelioration of
of her birth or her rituals, but the religion
the condition of its members. To-day illegal
she lives daily in her work-a-day life and
strikes are the order of the day all over the
imparts to others is mightier than their
country, but they are an unknown quantity science.
to this union. Its members have given up
A sick workman is a piece of humanity
liquors and it is not often that they quarrel
broken into bits. The physician picks up

166
N E W S AND NOTES
one to study it under his stethoscope, the find that there is far more cheerfulness in
bacteriologist wants another for his micro-
between the staff and the children.
scope, the psychologist a third one and so
It is acknowledged all over the industrial
on. And each of them brings his own world that the most successful leader of
particular knowledge to bear on the parti-
the safety first movement in industry is not
cular bit, and draws particular inferences one who has the highest scientific training,
from it, sometimes right, sometimes wrong. but one who can best impart to others the
But in the end it is the nurse who gathers divinity within himself, and thus bring out
up the various bits and reconstructs a whole
from them their own.
from them with the virtue of her mother-
Psychotherapy is a creditable advance
hood and the alchemy of her smile. While western science has made in treatment of
scientists keep busy sharpening their intel-
psychogenic neurotic conditions. But it
lects in this or that particular direction the does not go as far as it should and never
nurse enlarges her heart to include in it will unless it is supplemented by a sound
the whole of humanity.
philosophy of life. Merely to relieve the
McGrath has said in her book "Nursing pain of a mental conflict through release of
in Commerce and Industry" that industry emotional tension is like relieving renal
needs a superior nurse. It is better if she colic with an opiate. It does not cure the
had used the word religious in place of disease permanently. For this the colic
superior, for only such a nurse as lives reli-
needs a surgical operation and the change
gion in her life can be a superior one. I cite
in diet and other daily routines, and the
an experience.
mental conflict integration of the mind and
We are responsible for the running of its functions, and a new orientation on the
two creches. The matron of one is a quali-
meaning of life. That however is only
fied intellectual type well up in English, and
possible by replacing the philosophy of
of the other an unqualified religious type hedonism with something higher. Swami
hardly knowing any English worth the Akhilananda in his book "Hindu Psychology"
name. Last year an American professor has said "the real removal of the disease
started in Bombay a training class for women
can only take place when psychiatry and
in child guidance clinics. Though the lec-
religion in the broadest sense of the term,
tures were to be given in English we were amalgamate, co-operate, and co-ordinate
yet anxious that the unqualified matron properly."
join the class, as we felt that she was more
Mere absence of illness or release of
likely to capture the spirit of the training, emotional tension is not positive health.
through the practical work if not the To realise a true concept of positive health
lectures. She herself was suffering from of an industrial worker the physician has
an inferiority complex and brought up half-
to supplement curative first aid with indus-
a-dozen excuses, but she was overruled and trial hygiene, and the psychologist has to
practically coerced into joining the class. practise psychotherapy in a religious back-
The professor was kind enough at our ground. The West has achieved wonderful
request to supply her with case-taking forms progress in industrial hygiene. The East has
in her own mother-tongue. Within a fort-
much to learn from the West for advancing
night it was reported that she was one of
industrial health on the physical plane. All
the best pupils of the class, and to-day we the same it has a definite contribution to

NEWS AND NOTES
167
make towards its progress on the mental appears as right, and are more and more
plane.
particular to devise guards on machines
The progress of science at the mechanical
that will protect a worker against such evil
end of industries is simply marvellous. The moods also. This is the only way to solve
disturbing element however is that side by-
successfully the burning and most taxing
side there is a great increase in the number
problem of industry to-day—strained
of strikes all over the world. Evidently a management-labour relations. Human re-
purely mechanistic theory of life cannot lation can only improve through fusion of
advance human relations. For this some science with religion, and it is most natural
humanizing of the system is necessary. The that such a fusion takes place at the indus-
need of the hour is increased production, trial medicine end.
—more goods, and still more goods, but
The literature of industrial medicine is
'people produce—not machines." What replete with thoughts on morale, motivation,
is more important is the man behind supervision, group psychology, human factor
the machine. It may be said to management-labour relations, etc. But they
the credit of science that there is no are all pawns on the chess-board of indus-
mechanical problem it cannot tackle success-
trial medicine which move to the dictates
fully, but it has yet to learn how to use of ancient and eternal verities of life like
its discoveries to advance the fundamentals 'do unto others as you would have them do
of life. Hopeful signs are however visible unto you.' Modern industrial psychology
on the horizon of the post-war era. It lends support to this view. This science is
was exactly through the objective methods more and more for proving the ultimate
of scientific investigation that a psychologist goodness of human nature, and that co-
like Henry Link staged "The Return to operation, not conflict, is its inner aim, and
Religion." Such a happy transformation through upholding the true fundamentals
is now apparent in several other directions of life, it makes a very near approach to
too. Manufacturers of machines are now Swami Vivekananda's definition of religion,
more and more for incorporating humanics
—as "manifestation of the divinity that is
in the designs and techniques of their already in man." Truly industrial medicine
machines, and the recent trend of colour-
is religion rediscovered by science, or, at
conditioning machines is a laudable move least, should be.
in the right direction. Manufacturers are
—By H. P. Dastur, from The Journal of the
realising more and more that human nature
Indian Medical Association, Vol. X V I I I , No. 8,
is subject to moods when what is wrong May, 1949.