NOTES AND COMMENTS P . M . T I T U S THE most unexpected and sudden...
NOTES AND COMMENTS
P . M . T I T U S
THE most unexpected and sudden death of Dr. P. M. Titus, M.A., B.D.,
Ph.D. on November 24th of this year has left the Sir Dorabji Tata
Graduate School of Social Work bereft of one of the most popular and
beloved of its faculty members. Dr. Titus left for his home town in Trivan-
drum for the October holidays and after an operation for piles was about to
leave for Bombay when he was laid up with typhoid which proved fatal. The
news of his untimely death came as a shock and a blow to the School and to
his numerous friends, admirers and relatives in India and America as well.
While receiving his training for Social Work at the University of
Chicago, he had come in intimate contact with the late Dr. Holt who, seeing
the excellent qualities of his character and scholarship, specially trained him
for work in the Tata School with which Dr. Holt himself was connected as
Visiting Professor for one term in 1937-38. Hence, when he returned to India
in 1939, he was fully equipped to fill the post of Lecturer at the Tata School
where, within a short time, through his industry, genuine interest in social
welfare, sincerity of purpose and infectious zeal in attacking socio-economic
problems, he won the admiration of students and faculty alike, and created
an abiding place for himself in the School. He was a clear, logical and
forceful thinker with sound ethical principles and sane balanced judgment.
He brought these qualities to bear not only on his duties as a lecturer but on
his contributions to the Indian Journal of Social Work. Through this medium,
he made invaluable contributions to the field of professional social work not
only through his challenging articles but also through his incisive criticisms
of current socio-economic problems. His indefatigable efforts towards build-
ing up the School Library will always be remembered.
While in America, he was elected President of the Student Council at
the International House, Chicago, and as such rendered yeoman service to the
cause of international friendship and brotherhood, and won a large circle of
friends and admirers. At the conferences of foreign students held at Brent
House, Chicago, he used to be one of the most prominent figures and promot-
ers of international goodwill. His genial personality, his irrepressible sense
of humour, his indomitable courage in fighting for a just cause, and his burn-
ing enthusiasm to set right some of the evils and injustices of our present
times endeared him to one and all. Always a friend of the needy and a self-

P. M. TITUS
357
less champion of the down-trodden, he died at a premature age leaving behind
him a vast circle of relatives and friends, both in India and America, to
bemoan his death. His loss has caused an emptiness in the Tata School which
will be hard to fill.
NEW MAGISTRATE OF BOMBAY CHILDREN'S COURT
THE appointment of Dr. Katayun Cama as The Presidency Magistrate of
the Bombay Juvenile Court in October last has deprived The Sir Dorabji
Tata Graduate School of Social Work and the Child Guidance Clinic
attached to it of a very able and efficient member of the staff; but in spite of
our loss, it was with pleasure that we read the announcement of her appoint-
ment as it is a practical expression of the advancement of social progress which
is a matter of extreme satisfaction for all thinking people. The Government
of Bombay are to be congratulated for appointing a Magistrate who is well
versed by training and practical experience in the field of Child Psychology
and Child Guidance, and who has come into intimate contact in her past work
with the problems of rehabilitation of delinquent children.
Dr. Cama's scientific training, her keen intelligence, and progressive
outlook, and her initiative and drive, and her ability to deal with problems
with scientific objectivity—all these qualities, which made her valuable as an
educationist for some years and more recently as Psychologist to the Child
Guidance Clinic, will also serve her in good stead in her new work and make her
a very suitable person for the post. Likewise, her winning manners and parti-
cularly her love of children and the friendliness with which she deals with them,
her geniune concern for the betterment of the treatment and care of delinquent
children will all ensure a high standard of Juvenile Court service in Bombay
while, at the same time, her pleasing personality will be of help from the point
of view of keeping up of the benign and informal form of discipline desirable
in a Juvenile Court and of discharging the onerous duties of a Magistrate.
Dr. Cama's training in Psychology and her experience as a teacher of
psychology and mental hygiene will make her successful also in the direction
of giving guidance to the probation officers attached to her Court, and it will
undoubtedly be a great stimulus to them to work with a Magistrate who is
well up in the principles and practice of the Juvenile Court.
Before her appointment as Juvenile Court Magistrate, there was already
a bond between the Bombay Juvenile Court and our school of Social Work as
practically all of the Probation Officers are graduates of the School and the
Court has also been referring children to the Child Guidance Clinic. It is
therefore with pleasure that we now contemplate the strengthening of that bond
by the appointment of a member of the School and Clinic Staff as Magistrate,

358
NOTES AND COMMENTS
And in spite of our sense of loss, we offer our congratulations to Dr. Cama on
her appointment to such a responsible post, and wish her the best of success
in her new field of activity.
LABOUR WELFARE UNDER STATE OWNERSHIP IN BHADRAVATI
IN the capitalistic regime it is almost taken for granted that industrializa-
tion inevitably brings in untold problems of congestion, slums, low
standard of living etc. Cities have grown around industrial and com-
mercial centres with neither plan nor control. The employer, wanting cheap
labour, recruits them from all and sundry, not caring whither they live and
where they eat. That is why all the world over, where profit motive is the
basis of economic and social organization, we find the anomalous sight of
castles for some and tenements for others. The real producers of wealth, who
ought to be the legitimate heirs to the wealth they produce, are the disinherit-
ed masses of all capitalistic lands. Private ownership of the means of pro-
duction has the motivation of profit and profit alone. The social consequences,
the national loss through depreciation and degeneration of human wealth and
values, are of little concern. In contrast to this, it is assumed that state owner-
ship would give major consideration to the welfare of the people since its
greatest asset is its people. The report of the social and welfare activities at
the Bhadravati Iron & Steel Works in Mysore—a State-owned concern-
shows that the State in planning and developing this industrial town has taken
pains to see that the labourers get an even break. Instead of shanties and
tenement houses, there are houses built for them by the State. The facilities
for medical care, sanitation, education of children, recreation, co-operative
enterprises are all provided.
A very interesting feature is that the Bhadravati Iron & Steel Works
Co-operative Society Ltd., has the sole monopoly of the business in the New
Town area and the Society has been able to supply provisions and clothes at
reasonable rates. The people pay no municipal, professional, trade, cycle or
entertainment taxes. The total expenditure incurred by the Works for all
welfare measures amounted to Es. 188,000/- during 1941-42. We congratulate
the State for having sponsored such a plan of work and will watch with in-
terest the growth of the New Town both in stature and in socialization.
Incidentally it may be pointed out in this connection that with the rapid
industrialization of the State, labour welfare and legislation are receiving the
special attention of the Mysore Government. The decade ending 1941 witness-
ed a very rapid increase in the number of industrial enterprises in the State.
During this period alone, eight State-owned industrial concerns, 17 State-
aided industrial concerns and 28 private industrial concerns were established.

L A B O U R W E L F A R E U N D E R S T A T E O W N E R S H I P 359
With this quickening of the pace of industrialization the problems affecting
labour naturally assumed great importance. Prior to 1941 there was no
statutory machinery in Mysore for the settlement of industrial disputes. Dur-
ing that year an important piece of legislation, the Mysore Labour Emergency
Act, was enacted which created a machinery for the peaceful and speedy settle-
ment of industrial disputes and sought generally to promote the welfare of
labour. The Emergency Act was permanently put on the statute book in
January 1942. The Act confers the rights of association on labour. It avoids
rival unions by prescribing a single association for each industrial establish-
ment employing not less than 100 persons, and confers statutory recognition
on each association immediately on registration. 57 undertakings have come
within the scope of the Mysore Labour Act. Among these, Labour Associations
have been registered in 47 industrial undertakings. Standing orders which
regulate the relations between the employer and the employees in regard to
leave and holidays, shift working, punishment for misconduct, etc., have been
settled in 51 undertakings. The Labour Department which has been function-
ing for a little over a year now has been able to bring about agreements in 16
industrial disputes. Proceedings in Conciliation resulted in the settlement of
eight cases. One case went before the Court of Arbitration by mutual consent
of parties. It resulted in clarifying the position of surface employees under
contractors in Mines, vis-a-vis the Mining Companies. Another case was re-
ferred by Government to the Arbitration Tribunal, under the rules for com-
pulsory arbitration. It resulted in the restoration of certain dismissed em-
ployees and the validation of an agreement registered by the Registrar.
Government have also extended the scope of the Factories Act, so as to
bring practically all industrial labour within its ambit. They have liberalised
Workmen Compensation Law. The Code of Civil Procedure has been amended
to ensure the exemption of wages from attachment.
The Mysore Government have sanctioned uniform work Service Rules
for all Government industrial establishments, providing annual leave with
pay, provident fund, and gratuity or bonus in respect of persons not entitled
to provident fund. They have also sanctioned dearness allowance in all such
establishments. Similar benefits have been extended in Government Aided
establishments and several private undertakings. In addition to these bene-
fits, working classes in Bangalore City have secured opportunities for amusing
themselves in Recreation Centres. The Department of Labour runs these
Centres which are open free of charge to all working classes including indus-
trial labour. A wide range of amenities, such as newspapers, periodicals,
books in different vernaculars, indoor games, etc., are available there. There
are two such Centres at present in Bangalore City, but their popularity is so

360
NOTES AND COMMENTS
great that Government contemplate starting some more in the not distant
future to enable a larger number of workers to have healthy recreation and
wholesome amusement during their leisure hours.
INSTITUTIONAL CARE OF DELINQUENT YOUTH
OP the various methods of child care, institutional treatment is considered
to be the best for delinquent children and youthful offenders who require
discipline and special training. One of the oldest of such correctional
institutions in India is the David Sassoon Industrial and Reformatory Institu-
tion which was founded in 1843 as a ragged school and reorganized in 1857
when it was recognized as an establishment suitable for the reformation of
youthful offenders. Until the passing of the Bombay Children Act, the
majority of the admissions were under the Reformatory Act. Now that the
majority of admissions are under the Children Act, the Institution is now
known as the David Sassoon Industrial School. In 1939 the Government of
Bombay entrusted its management to the Managing Committee of the
Children's Aid Society as it had then planned to embark on a programme of
expansion and to assume the responsibility of juvenile social welfare work in
all its aspects. It was therefore thought that such centralized administration
would lead not only to coordination but also to treatment on scientific lines
according to the special needs of each child.
The transference of the management of the School to the Children's Aid
Society with its definite ideals and sound aims was certainly a step in the right
direction. The Annual Report of the School for 1940-41 shows how attempts
are being made to transform an institution, which was originally practically a
juvenile prison, into a useful institution for the rehabilitation of the young.
While the changes made so far in the methods and curriculum of training are
encouraging, the real things that matter are the nature of the environment, the
method of approach and the details of treatment given.
The measure of the worth of an institution is to be found not in its
buildings, grounds and equipment but in the degree to which it fulfills a real
need in the correctional education programme and gives to the inmate such
care and training as will most nearly compensate him for the loss of the
spiritual, educational and emotional values of a good and normal home.
Buildings and equipment are only important means to an end. It is generally
recognized that the quality of work particularly in a correctional institution
for juveniles and youthful offenders depends primarily upon the qualification
of the staff members. The personalities and ideals of the members of the
board, superintendent, matrons, teachers and other workers create the spirit of
the institution, and upon that spirit the vital interests of the inmates depend.

INSTITUTIONAL CARE OF DELINQUENT YOUTH 361
The moral and spiritual training of children, the development of good
habits, and the exertion of right influences on their daily lives are items of
greatest importance. Therefore, a correctional institution demands a much
superior staff than any other institution. Attractiveness and convenience of
buildings are undeniably great assets in making possible a good type of service
but the quality of an institution depends far less upon the size of the buildings
and equipment and far more upon the personnel and the understanding care
the inmate receives.
The David Sassoon Industrial School has been under the management
of the Children's Aid Society only during the last three years. The School is
situated in the midst of pleasant natural surroundings. Since the existing
buildings cannot be readapted for the cottage plan, the apartment-group
system could perhaps be introduced for the purpose of giving more individu-
alized attention to the inmates. It is to be hoped that the Society would, in
course of time, thoroughly reorganize the institution, engage properly qualified
personnel and provide that type of correctional training which will turn out
the inmates much better equipped to live normally in the community with
the moral stamina necessary to withstand the unfavourable currents of every
day economic and social life, and also keep a follow-up record to assess the
value of the training given under the reorganized scheme.
SAFETY IN TIMES OF WAR AND PEACE
ORLD crises do not create new problems so much as they intensify
existing ones. The prevention of accidents is not a new problem but
the task is becoming more exacting as it grows more urgent and vital
with the speeding up of industries in wartime. In earlier times the stupendous
waste of accidents was overlooked. But now with the advancement of scientific
knowledge, there is a growing recognition that the future depends upon the
most effective and economic use of human and material resources. It is there-
fore the duty of every citizen to help in every way not only to stop this national
waste but conserve life and property both in times of war and peace.
An agency which is devoting itself to this type of work is the Safety
First Association of India and the Tenth Annual Report of its Council reveals
that despite war conditions, it has made considerable progress in its accident
prevention efforts in the home, on the road and at work. The activities of the
Association include Civil Defence, Safety Education in Schools, Training in
Citizenship, Industrial Efficiency, Poster Service, Road Safety, Town Plan-
ning, Home Safety, Film Service, Publications, etc. All these are very valu-
able but when we consider the size of our country, the ignorance of the masses
and the immensity of our social problems, the activities of the Association

362 NOTES AND COMMENTS
though excellent as far as they go, are quite inadequate.
No doubt, the Association hopes, as its name implies, to cover the entire
country in course of time. However, at present it has branches only in Ahe-
medabad, Bengal, Bihar, Bombay, Madras and Surat. These are co-operating
in some form or other in spreading the message of safety and efficiency. But
unfortunately all these branch organizations with the exception of Bombay
show a very small membership. It is rather disappointing to note that no
thought has yet been given to conditions in rural areas and to spreading the
message of safety and efficiency there. It is, no doubt, true that the incidence
of accidents is comparatively low in rural areas but there are many problems
which agriculturists face and which come within the purview of the Safety
First Association. Branches therefore should be formed not only in industrial
cities but also in rural areas.
The Association has to its credit a number of publications—handbooks
and pamphlets—including its recent ones on air raid precautions. The official
organ of the Association is Safety News which at present is giving consider-
able attention to the vital problems of civil defence. It is a valuable paper
and we hope government would give adequate financial help to enable the
Association to distribute free copies to schools and welfare agencies that cater
to the poor. Unfortunately, practically all the publications of the Association
are in English. In a country where English is spoken only by a small pro-
portion of the population, would it not serve the best interests of Safety if the
paper is published in all provincial languages and its important books and pam-
phlets translated into different languages? When the branches are so few and
their membership so small, this may be one way of reaching a larger number
of people and spreading far and wide the idea for which the Association stands,
A SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEME
SIR "William Beveridge's plan for social security, drawn up at Govern-
ment's request and published on 1st December, proposes a programme to
guarantee "freedom from want" to every man, woman and child in
Britain by a single scheme of State Social Insurance. He proposes this
assurance as of right and not charity, but on condition of service and contri-
bution. His plan would ensure a basic minimum income to everyone in need,
irrespective of the cause of the need, with adequate benefits for unemployment,
sickness, accident, widowhood or retirement through age. This "national
minimum" income is designed to encourage not to stifle individual incentive
to earn more than the minimum social security. And the benefit must
be associated with measures to enable the people to regain normal earnings as
goon as possible—training of the unemployed and treatment of the sick and

A SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEME
363
disabled in order to make and keep men and women fit for service to the
community.
Sir W. Beveridge's recommendations include big increases in the
weekly payments to unemployed and disabled people (56 shillings weekly for
a man with wife and two children compared with the existing rates of
38 shillings for unemployment and only 11 shillings for disability), children's
allowance of 8 shillings weekly up to the age of 15 or up to 16 if in full time
education, free medical and hospital treatment of every kind for every citizen,
retirement pensions reaching eventually 40 shillings weekly for husband and
wife compared with the present old age pension of 20 shillings, funeral grant
of £ 2 0 and a "wives' c h a r t e r " including marriage grant, increased maternity
benefit and widows' pensions.
The "means t e s t s " would in general be abolished. The scheme covers
all citizens without the upper income limit and, irrespective of their pro-
ductive status, all are entitled to its benefits without investigation of their
private means. Every gainfully employed citizen, employee and employer
alike must pay weekly premium contributions by stamps on an employment
book or occupation card. The general weekly contribution rate for a male
employee will be 7s. 6d. (4s. 3d. for the employee and 3s. 3d. for the
employer) compared with the present 3s. 8d. and for women six shillings
(3s. 6d. from the employee and 2s. 6d. from the employer) compared with
3s. I d . Children's allowances will be paid as a birthright.
Sir W. Beveridge describes the plan as partly a "British revolution"
but mainly a natural development from the past. Britain, he says, is already
making social security provision "on a scale not surpassed and hardly rivalled
in any other country of the w o r l d " . The present average expenditure of in-
dustrial households on purposes covered by the Beveridge Plan is 5s. l0d.
compared with 4s. 3d. in the proposed scheme, but the scheme would give far
more than 5s. 10d.—it would be worth roughly "a shilling for three p e n c e " .
Sir William emphasises that his plan is primarily a method of redistributing
income, that social insurance is only one part of a comprehensive policy of
social progress and that the attack must be not on want but on disease, squalor
and idleness. The abolition of want is a practical post-war aim, and planning
for peace assists the war effort. He urges that a plan for social security must
be prepared during the war. The cost of the scheme—which is in effect a
programme for a new order of general social security—would be £697 millions
in 1943 rising to £858 millions in 1965.