NOTES AND COMMENTS ADULT EDUCATION THE problem of adult education in...
NOTES AND COMMENTS
THE problem of adult education in India received a good deal of attention
when the Congress governments were in power in the provinces. In
India adult education programmes follow two main diversions. On one
hand there is an attempt to increase the percentage of literacy, on the other
attempts are made to provide University extension lectures to those who
could not afford or who were not fortunate in receiving College education.
Adult education presents very complex and difficult problems and requires far
more systematic and scientific approach than has been the case upto now.
A recent pamphlet, "Suggested Studies in Adult Education" published
by the Institute of Adult Education Teachers' College, Columbia University,
New York, 1942—though brief and concise in its contents, gives a very good
idea about the fundamental consideration and planning of adult education
before efforts are translated into action.
The Institute of Adult Education came into existence in 1941. It was
a part of the Teachers' College at Columbia, and it was entrusted with the
task of "Conducting an intensive study of the opportunities, problems,
materials and methods of adult education, and for assistance in the training
of leaders and writers in the field". The Institute further contemplated a
programme of basic research along sociological, psychological and educa-
The Institute of adult education is a central body for the purpose of
conducting research and for the purpose of guiding and training the leaders
of adult education. It cannot be denied, that in spite of the complexity of
the problem in India on account of the existence of many languages, a central
body of experts is necessary to act as pioneers and determine the best
methods that will contribute to the spread of knowledge and literacy and the
increase of intelligence amongst the people of India.
It is unfortunate that the work of the Institute, which we should have
liked to follow with great attention, has to be postponed during the duration
of the war as the Institute has now to study problems of adult education that
are closely related to the successful prosecution of the war. However, the
small pamphlet is adequate at least to show in what manner the problem has to
be tackled in this country, If during the war and during the absence of popular
286 NOTES AND COMMENTS
governments it is not possible for the governments concerned to organize a
systematic approach to the adult education problem, it is quite possible for
educationists and the public to think of better ways for serving the most
urgent cause that will help to uplift the country and prepare it for the efficient
performance of important national tasks.
The pamphlet makes several interesting suggestions regarding funda-
mental problems like the production of printed materials for adult education
including a manual for teachers and several manuals at different levels for
students, materials for discussion, illustrations and pictorial representations,
cinema lectures, etc. The adult education drive that was carried on in Bombay
demonstrated the complete lack of preparedness in these directions so far as
local conditions are concerned.
More instructive are the references to the administration of adult edu-
cation, even though these are in the nature of questions that the Institute
evidently desires to answer in detail later.
The American view of adult education covers a far wider panorama than
is permitted by the circumscribed Indian horizon. It includes education in
arts, consumer education, family education, health education, museum edu-
cation, music education, political education, radio adult education, recreation
education, religious education, vocational education, and a list of subjects so
intimately connected with human life.
An interesting revelation of this pamphlet is the fact that the initiative
for adult education is not left to a few societies created for the purpose, nor
is it taken so much by the State, but the initiative is taken by all sorts of edu-
cational, religious, economic, political, welfare and other agencies that include
adult education as a part of their programme. Such wide spread recognition
of the need of adult education speaks of an awakened public consciousness
which has yet to be created and developed in India.
India has not yet touched the fringe of an adult education programme.
There is a lack of leadership and a dearth of teachers. Plans and methods
have yet to reach maturity. There is a vast population to be dealt with,
especially in the villages. In spite of the war, it is hoped that adult education
will receive its due attention especially by the owners of industries and by the
rural development department and a large number of public agencies catering
to human welfare will introduce adult education as a part of the programme.
A vital need is the creation of a central research and direction organi-
zation for the whole country which can provide a meeting place for all thinkers
on adult education problems and a laboratory for active workers who mean to
devote their time and energy to the intellectual awakening of the masses of
WORLD AGENCY FOR EDUCATION 287
WORLD AGENCY FOR EDUCATION
AMERICAN and British educators have unofficially agreed that a United
Nations bureau for educational reconstruction must be a permanent part
of future world government. American educators recently examined a
report on "Education and the United Nations", prepared by a Joint Commission
of the Council of Education in World Citizenship in London and published in
the U. S. by the American Council on Public Affairs. They found the conclu-
sions in substantial agreement with a similar report made in America by the
Educational Policies Commission, a body appointed by the U. S. National Educa-
tion Association and the American Association of School Administrators. Both
groups said that the shaping of the minds of men must be just as much a
matter of permanent international concern after the war as political and economic
machinery, if world peace is to be established.
Prompt Action Needed.
—The reports of both organizations recommended
a permanent international organization for education. They agree that such
an organization should advance educational standards, promote education for
world citizenship and international co-operation, appraise teaching materials,
foster exchanges of teachers and students, encourage international broadcasting
and further research on problems of international significance. Both agree
that education for the understanding of international affairs and world citizen-
ship must begin " a s soon as possible in order to develop comprehension of the
common purposes of the United Nations and to preserve their unity through
the trying years a h e a d . " On two major points, the educators have not reached
agreement. One group recommends that subsidies be used to help the less
wealthy nations attain an educational minimum; the other group proposes that
only advisory assistance be provided.
The Joint Commission favours compulsory control of education in post-
war Germany to overcome the effects of Nazi mind-poisoning; the Educational
Policies Commission does not. Commenting on publication of the Joint Com-
mission's report, John W. Studebaker, United States Commissioner of Educa-
tion, said, " I t presents in bold strokes a sketch of the problems which will
attend the restoration, extension and improvement of education in postwar
Europe. It invites discussion looking toward a clarification of proposals which
may merit official collaboration by the United N a t i o n s . "
Eight Major Proposals.
—Principal proposals of the Joint Commission
are as follows : —
" 1 . That the Governments be asked to recognize that the urgent tasks
of educational reconstruction in the occupied countries, as soon as' they have
been set free, must be one of the chief responsibilities of the United Nations.-
" 2 . That, for this reason, a United Nations Bureau for Educational
288 NOTES AND COMMENTS
Reconstruction should be appointed now to prepare, and so far as possible put
into operation, the necessary plans for meeting those needs which are too
great for any one nation to bear alone.
" 3 . That, in any period during which Germany may be occupied, the
occupying powers should exercise their control over education through a High
Commissioner for Education who should be appointed in advance by the
United Nations and be ready to start work at the moment the occupation begins.
" 4 . That the principal duties of the High Commissioner for Education
should be to insure that the Nazi and militarist influences are utterly eradicated
from German education, and to inspire, facilitate and supervise the re-educa-
tion of the German people.
" 5 . That in order that the United Nations may remain united after the
war, their peoples must be inspired by a dominating motive to provide greatly
extended educational facilities, subsidized where necessary, by the community
of nations, and education in the principles of world citizenship.
" 6 . That for the advancement of education generally and for the pro-
motion of education in world citizenship, it is urgently necessary that the
United Nations should agree to establish as soon as may be practicable, an in-
ternational organization for education and should forthwith undertake the
necessary preparations for that act.
" 7 . That such an organization should be one of the principal parts of
any new international authority that may be created after the war on a world
scale or for any group of states, and
" 8 . That it should be able to draw upon the wisdom of governments,
education authorities, teachers, parents and students' associations, each of
which should be represented upon it, so it may thus combine, with the authori-
ty of the Governments, the active participation of those upon whom will chiefly
fall the task of carrying out its decisions."—USOWI.
EDUCATION OF THE BLIND
THE joint family in India has long shouldered the burden of looking after
its blind members but it is only now that with the growth of urban civili-
zation the visually handicapped persons are coming to be regarded as a
social problem. Even in the West, the problem of caring for and educating the
blind did not come to be regarded as a matter of social concern till the latter
part of the eighteenth century. It was Valentin Haily (1745-1822) who institu-
ted the first systematic experiments in the methods of educating the blind, and
founded the first school for the blind in 1784 in Paris. To him belongs the credit
of being the first real teacher of the sightless. England followed this example
and established its first institution in Liverpool in 1791. During the first half of
EDUCATION OF THE BLIND
the nineteenth century many other institutions were founded in England. The
teaching given during this period was, however, hampered by the fact that as
yet no embossed type had been generally adopted. Hence books were limited
in number and costly in price. In 1829 Louis Braille devised the six-point
system which bears his name, and made reading and writing possible for
With the growth of the voluntary work, the British and Foreign Blind
Association came to be founded in 1868 which is now known as the National
Institute for the Blind. Gradually the voluntary organizations paved the way
for State action. The Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act,
1893, laid upon the School Boards the duty of providing education for blind
and deaf children, and the Act of 1902 provided both for elmentary and higher
education, including the vocational training of blind persons. Later the
Education Act of 1918 provided for maintenance grants to pupils in training of
blind parents. After the education of the blind was made compulsory, it
became apparent that teachers should be properly equipped to teach the blind.
To meet this need the College of Teachers of the Blind was established in 1908.
Thus the education of the blind gradually developed in Great Britain
and is at present reasonably satisfactory. It covers the range from infancy to
adolescence. The residential nursery school provides for the pre-school child,
and the day or residential school gives education for blind youth between the
ages of 5 to 16; at the adolescent stage the training centre fits the blind boy
and girl for a trade, or the secondary school prepares them for a professional
career or for the University.
Similarly, education of the blind has made much progress in the United
States. In all but six of the 48 States of the American Union there are resi-
dential schools for these children. For the most part American schools for the
blind do not offer programmes of vocational training, as it is taken care of by
the State Commission, the department for the blind, or the State bureau of
There are several influential agencies to promote the welfare of the
blind. Special mention must be made of the American Foundation for the
Blind and the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness. The Found-
ation is a nation-wide organisation for the promotion of those interests of the
blind which cannot be advantageously handled by local agencies. Its activities
include: research in education, statistics, legislation, vocational opportunities,
mechanical appliances, and publishing methods for the blind, including the
manufacture of talking book records and reading machines, consultation
service, assistance to state and community agencies in the promotion of legis-
lation, organization of activities, and education of the public, special services
290 NOTES AND COMMENTS
to blind individuals, scholarships for a limited number of promising students
with satisfactory vocational objectives, and a special lending library on the
welfare of the blind.
The Foundation is also conducting an Employment Service which was
recently organized. This Service, which is available without charge to both
seeing and blind workers, is designed to promote productive contacts between
well-qualified professional workers and prospective employers, Its files
include experienced people from every field of work with the blind, as well
as young workers with professional training who wish to make service to the
blind a career. The Employment Service does not, however, undertake to
find employment for sightless people in general industry, business, or fields
outside of work for the blind.
The purpose of the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness is
to ascertain causes of blindness or impaired vision, to advocate measures lead-
ing to the elimination of such causes, to bring the knowledge of eye hygiene
in popular form to children and adults, and to act as a clearing house and
stimulating agent for others engaged directly or indirectly in the prevention
of blindness. Among the services carried on by the Society are : combating
pre-natal syphilis, preventing eye infections of new-born babies and eye acci-
dents in child play, promoting eye health in the school program, promoting
the integration of eye health programs in teacher education, establishing
sight-saving classes and training special teachers, developing medical social
service in eye clinics, eliminating eye hazards in industry, stimulating and
sponsoring research in relation to the causes of blindness and impaired vision,
providing the public with information concerning the care and use of the eye,
and serving a clearing house on all matters pertaining to the prevention of
blindness and the conservation of vision.
American workers for the blind lay great emphasis, and that rightly, on
prevention of blindness. It is interesting to note that recently the Massachu-
setts Legislature passed three laws relating to the prevention of blindness and
they are as follows :—(1) An act relative to recording on the birth certifi-
cate the use in an infant's eyes at birth of a prophylactic approved by the
Department of Health. (2) An act relative to the reporting by physicians or
hospitals to the Commissioner of Public Safety and to the local police authori-
ties the treatment of wounds caused by B. B. guns or air rifles. (3) An act
relative to the mandatory reporting of cases of established blindness to the
Division of the Blind by the clinics, hospitals, physicians, or optometrists
making the examinations.
When we consider the progress which the West has made in educating
the sightless and in adopting measures for the prevention of blindness, we
EDUCATION OF THE BLIND 291
must admit with shame that we are easily a century behind in our methods of
caring for them. Only recently the Government of India appointed Major
Sir Clutha Mackenzie, the well-known New Zealander who was blinded in 1915
during the first world war, to prepare plans for the care and education of the
blind. In a letter to the "Outlook for the B l i n d " (June 1943), he states : —
' 'The Government of India has asked me to prepare a comprehensive
plan for the development of civilian-blind work, which, you already know, is a
tremendous problem in this vast country of four hundred million people; and
blind variously estimated to number from one to four million. Some twenty-
six schools, workshops, and homes already exist, but most of them are faced
with difficulties so great and are on such slender incomes that they can make
little headway. Altogether they take care of only twelve hundred of the several
million. Begging is the time-honoured occupation of the vast majority. This,
we must remember, was the case in the West until about 150 years ago, and it
is only now that we are getting the blind beggar completely off our streets.
The sacred works of Hindu and Muslim give the injunction—give to the poor,
the maimed, and the sick, and you will find favour in God's sight. That esta-
blished the age-old 'social security system' of India. Just as under our modern
Social Security we find malingerers who deliberately make their living by
exploiting the provisions for all they are worth, so also does a section in
India—a beggar caste—which passes the profession of begging on from parent
to child, and the children are sometimes maimed to make them more appealing.
In Bombay I recently came across an eight-year-old boy whom a magistrate had
just sent into a home for the blind. At the age of four he had been kidnapped
from his respectable village parents by members of a robber caste, who had
deliberately blinded him and taken him to Bombay as a decoy for begging
purposes. He had been on the streets for four years until taken charge of by
" T h e societies have been battling hard against things as they are, but
they have lacked the guns. The field they have failed to capture is that of con-
vincing the blind, their relatives, and the seeing public that education and
vocational training have given, and can give, the trainee a better, or as good
an earning power as that of 'the beggar. The blind child has an immediate
income value to its parents; and as no dishonour is attached to sending their
child to beg, they are unwilling to send it to a school for the blind unless they
can see an ample money reward in the end.
" B u t there is a growing public opinion in India, inside and outside of
government circles, that it is time something bigger and more positive should
be done about it. The task is difficult and intricate; and they want to know
just where and how to make this effort. That is the task the Government has
292 NOTES AND COMMENTS
set me. At the moment we are assembling the experiences and the views of
those who have laboured hard through many years of heart-breaking work.
* * * * *
"Of course, a very large amount of blindness in India is preventable or
curable. Government health services, philanthropic societies, and missions are,
and have been, at work in this field for many years, and many with devoted
self-sacrifice, and the number whose sight they have saved must be tre-
mendous. But the field is so great that considerable extension is needed. So
much of the reduction in blindness depends upon better sanitation, more
balanced diet, abandonment of much of Indian medicines and treatments, and
simple precautions against common diseases. Changes in these directions
are in progress; but, with ancient peoples deeply conservative at heart and
not at all convinced that the West knows better than the Orient, abandoning
age-old religious beliefs and changing deep-rooted customs is a painfully slow
business. There is much of frustration and disappointment. But the task
has been begun, and it must go on steadily and with confidence in ultimate
For years private agencies have laboured with limited finances to
meet this tremendous problem with little State aid. It is indeed encouraging
that after all the Government of India has thought it fit to do something for
these unfortunates. Let us hope that Sir Clutha Mackenzie's efforts will be
crowned with success and that India will soon fall in line with the progressive
countries of the world in caring for her sightless millions.
SOCIAL SECURITY IN THE UNITED STATES
THE release in England on November 20, 1942, of Sir William Beveridge's
report on Social Insurance and Allied Services, followed by the sub-
mission to the U.S. Congress on March 11,1943 of the report, "Security,
Work and Relief P o l i c i e s " , prepared by the U. S. National Resources Plan-
ning Board, invites discussion of the background and present status of social
security in the United States. Just what does "social security" mean to the
U. S. citizen now? How much does he put into it ? How much " s e c u r i t y "
does he actually get ? W h a t does it not
cover ? How does it work ? To
begin with, social security is not one programme, but ten, only one of
which (old-age and survivors insurance) is wholly administered by the U . S .
Social Security Board. The other programmes are operated jointly with
state governments and other Federal agencies, but remain under supervision
of the Board. Thus social security is an integral part of the governmental
and economic structure of the United States,
SOCIAL SECURITY IN THE UNITED STATES 293
The programmes are financed in various ways. In general it is the
aim to make social security self-sufficient where possible; that is, supported
by taxes earmarked for the purpose and paid by the eventual recipients of
aid and by their employers. This goal can be attained only partially owing
to the nature of some of the kinds of aid given and the fact that recipients
are in some cases quite incapable of making any contribution. The mechanics
of financing each part of the programme will be mentioned under each of the
ten headings which follow. The ten social security programmes are : —
I. Old-age and Survivors Insurance.
—This is the only programme
entirely administered by the Federal Government. It provides monthly
payments for retired employees insured under the system and for dependents
and survivors of these employees. The amounts received monthly are based
on wages received by the insured workers during their period of employment
in industry and commerce. Benefits generally begin at age 65, and continue
for life, providing the worker has earned at least 50 dollars per quarter
(200 dollars per year) for ten years, except that workers who reach the age of
65 before the plan has been in effect for ten years (that is, until December
31, 1946) are covered. Additional benefits are allowed retired worker for
wives if they are also over 65, and for children under 16, or children under 18
who are still in school. This is a somewhat simplified picture of the way
the system works; there are certain other considerations involved. For
instance, the amount of payment varies with the average monthly earnings of
the insured and with the length of time he has been working under the
system. The minimum allowance is 10 dollars per month, and the maximum,
including supplementary benefits for dependents, is 85 dollars per month.
In the ease of an insured worker's death, his widow receives approxi-
mately three-fourths as much per month as her husband would normally have
received during his lifetime. Surviving children are also entitled to collect
benefits, and if there are no survivors, a lump-sum payment is made to certain
relatives or other persons authorised to receive it. Administration of old-
age and survivors insurance necessitates maintenance of a continuous wage
record under a separate account number for every insured worker. There
are now more than 6,00,00,000 of persons in the United States insured
under this system. Benefits are financed by equal taxes collected from the
employer and from the employee. The rates are now 1 percent of wages
from each party, but the rate is to be increased gradually until it reaches 3
percent from each party in 1949.
At present the following types of employment are expected, and workers
in these fields are not
insured under social security : —
1. Agricultural labour
294 NOTES AND COMMENTS
2. Domestic servants
3. Casual labour not in the course of the employer's trade or business
4. Service on foreign vessels and certain small fishing vessels
5. Employment by religious, charitable, educational and scientific
organisations not operated for profit
6. Self-employment and independent contractors
7. Service for a foreign government
8. Newspaper boys under 18
Two other types of employment are not insured under social security
but are covered under separate plans operating in a somewhat similar fashion.
These are : —
1. Employees of federal, state and local governments and certain of
their instrumentalities. (Federal employees have their own retire-
ment plan and most state and local employees are covered under
plans established by the governmental agencies which employ
2. Railroad employees. (These are insured under the programme of
the Railroad Retirement Board).
II. Employment Security.
—The Employment Security programme
formerly combined two functions : a system of payment to unemployed
workers, and an employment service to help them find new jobs. The latter
function, performed by the United States Employment Services has recently
been transferred to the War Manpower Commission. The federal government
does not pay unemployment benefits directly, but assists the states to finance
and operate their own unemployment compensation systems. Every state
now has such a system; the details vary with local needs.
The Social Security Act provides for federal co-operation which takes
two forms; grants to the states to cover the cost of administering state laws;
and credit against the federal unemployment tax allowed employers for their
contributions to state unemployment funds. The federal unemployment tax
is a 3 per cent excise tax levied on the payrolls of employers with eight or
more employees, except that certain classes of employees, including agricul-
tural workers, domestic servants, seamen, insurance salesmen and some
others, are not included. Employers subject to the federal unemployment
tax are allowed credit up to 90 percent of the amount of the tax for their con-
tributions to state unemployment funds. More than 40,000,000 workers in
all 48 U. S. states now have wage credits which will provide them with funds
in case of loss of jobs.
III. Old-age Assistance.—
This programme differs from the Old-age
and Survivors Insurance (see above) in that it is not based on the recipient's
SOCIAL SECURITY IN THE UNITED STATES 295
employment record, but on his need. This is determined by investigation
by state agencies. Old-age assistance protects aged persons whose employ-
ment record for one reason or another does not entitle them to the regular
insurance plan. It is a federal-state joint programme based upon state laws
existing in every state, the District of Columbia, Alaska and Hawaii. The
federal government contributes one-half the payment up to a total of 40 dollars
per month. Payment is made only to old persons without other resources or
with inadequate resources. The average monthly benefit is about 23 dollars.
In 1942 slightly more than 2,000,000 old persons received this type of assistance.
IV. Aid to the Blind.
—Forty-three of the U. S. states have adopted
plans for aid to the needy blind which comply with the terms of the Social
Security Act and may thus receive federal assistance. The federal government
contributes one-half the benefits up to 40 dollars per month and also contri-
butes about one-half the cost of administering the state plan. No blind
person is eligible if he is receiving old-age assistance. Monthly payments
average about 25 dollars.
V. Aid to Dependent Children.
—The federal government grants one-
half the assistance payments up to 18 dollars for the first dependent child and
up to 12 dollars for any additional child, under approved laws which exist in
46 states. As in the case of old-age assistance and aid to the blind, these are
state programmes aided by the federal government, which stipulates
minimum conditions under which the aid will be given. This aid is strictly
for subsistence of children determined by state investigation to be in need
and living at home or with relatives or guardians. The average payment is
about 36 dollars per month per family.
VI. Maternal and Child-health Services.
—Grants to the states for
maternal and child-health services are for the promotion of the health of
mothers and children, especially in rural areas and in areas suffering from
economic distress. Under this programme, which derives funds under the
Social Security Act but is administered by the states and by the Children's
Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labour, the states operate pre-natal
clinics, dental programmes, child health conferences, public-health nursing
services and other related programmes.
VII. Services for Crippled Children.
—All 48 states now have pro-
grammes of aid for crippled children. Under the Social Security Act an
annual federal appropriation is authorised to enable the states to extend and
improve these programmes, which vary somewhat from state to state but
usually include facilities for diagnosis, medical and surgical care and after-
care. These services are available to families unable to afford the expensive
commonly necessary to correct or improve crippling conditions.
296 NOTES AND COMMENTS
VIII. Child Welfare Services.
—Welfare services for the protection and
care of homeless, dependent and neglected children and children in danger of
becoming delinquent are jointly provided by state agencies and the Children's
Bureau of the Department of Labour, partly with funds provided under the
Social Security Act. The programme operates mostly in rural areas and
areas of special need.
IX. Public Health Services.—
Federal funds authorised under the
Social Security Act are made available for the establishment and maintenance
of adequate state and local public health services, the federal contribution to
be matched by the state contribution. Allotments to the states are made by
the Surgeon-General of the U . S . Public Health Service on the basis of popu-
lation, financial needs and special health problems which may exist, and are
used in the expansion of state health services and in the training of personnel.
X. Vocational Rehabilitation.
—Funds for extending and strengthening
programmes of vocational rehabilitation of the physically disabled, so that
handicapped persons may be trained and placed on a self-supporting basis,
are made available under the Social Security Act. The programmes are
administered through state agencies by the U. S. Office of Education.
* * *
Old-age and Survivors Insurance involves keeping records throughout
the working life of each insured person; and because many people move
from state to state during the course of their employment, changing em-
ployers and residences, state operation of such a programme would be im-
practicable. In all other parts of the programme, state machinery was
already in existence in some or all states, and it was of course economical to
make use of it, but prior to enactment of the Social Security Act, there was
no programme comparable to Old-age and Survivor's Insurance, so new
machinery had to be set up.
The social security programme in the United States has developed
rapidly since the passage of the original Act
in 1935. It is still developing
and expanding, and will continue to do so. The recent report of the National
Resources Planning Boards suggests the possible direction of new improve-
ments with special attention to adaptations of the programme made necessary
by the war and by post-war demobilization problems. But it should be
remembered that before the war began, the United States already had a
functioning and rapidly developing system of welfare and security services
set up under the Social Security Act of 1935.—USOWI.
LABOUR RESEARCH IN INDIAN UNIVERSITIES 297
LABOUR RESEARCH IN INDIAN UNIVERSITIES *
THE following is a list of subjects of labour interest on which research is
being conducted in certain Universities and Colleges in India : —
University of Calcutta.
—(i) The Authoritarian Element in the Standard
of Living. (ii) A Critical Study of Index Numbers now in current use in
India. (iii) Sickness Insurance.
Morris College, Nagpur,
—(i) Industrial Labour in Central Provinces
Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work, Byculla, Bombay.
(i) A Socio-Economic Survey of 150 Working Class Families in the Banga-
lore Binny Mills. (ii) Life and Labour of 100 Women Textile Workers of
the Sassoon Mills in Bombay. (iii) A Socio-Economic Study of Shop Assist-
ants in the Cloth Markets of Bombay. (iv) Effects of Unemployment on
100 Unemployed Persons. (v) A Study of Welfare Schemes for the Textile
Workers in the Empress Mills in Nagpur. (vi) A Socio-Economic Survey of
100 Shoe-makers in Private Shops. (vii) A Study of an Employment Scheme
for Poor Parsis.
University of Madras.-—
(i) Conciliation and Arbitration in Labour
Disputes with special reference to Madras.
TRAINING OF LABOUR OFFICERS #
Calcutta University's Latest Move
THE Appointments Board of the Calcutta University has recently inaugur-
ated in co-operation with the Indian Jute Mills Association, a special
course of social work for giving suitable training to Labour Welfare
Officers engaged in jute mills. In framing the scheme the University had in
view the following objects :—(1) The welfare requirements of the working
classes. (2) The Labour Officer as the representative of the employer
entrusted with the task of supervising welfare work. (3) The Labour Officer
as a colleague of other officers of the concern for the improvement of the
workmen's efficiency and general uplift.
In order to make the training course really useful, it is proposed to
give both practical and theoretical instruction, Owing to difficulties of
arranging for practical training, however, in its initial stages, it is proposed
that the course should be open only to those who are at present engaged as
Labour Officers or are likely to be so employed.
*Indian Labour Gazette,
# The Indian Textile Journal,
298 NOTES AND COMMENTS
1st month—Jute mill industry to be studied sufficiently intensively to
appreciate the broader technical aspects and common terms used.
2nd month—Coolie lines, residential bustees and labour to be con-
stantly visited in order to gain an insight into their social and physical
3rd month—Attend night offices and Labour Commissioner's office to
hear the recording of grievances and their disposal as well as the clerical work
involved in this line.
4th month—Return to the jute mills this time to study the worker in
relation to the industry—both physical and mental.
5th month—Make a detailed study of social and welfare activities,
sports, health, trade unions, etc. in the way of a factual survey, as it is
desired to develop existing centres where possible.
6th-9th month—Conduct the hearing of cases, organise welfare and
other activities, hold meetings, etc., and work on some definite constructive
10th and 11th months—Visits to other industries.
The theoretical course of instruction consists of the following sub-
jects :—(1) Social duty, (2) Applied economics, (3) Law, (4) Statistics,
(5) Social and industrial psychology, (6) Practical training, and (7) Public
An influential committee consisting of representatives of the Univer-
sity, the Jute Mill Association, Government Department concerned and also
a woman representative has been appointed to be in charge of this course.
Bombay, on the other hand, may be said to have stolen a march over
the sister presidency. The Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work
has now for more than five years been fulfilling a vital need of industrial and
social service organizations in India. It offers a two-year course of training
in social work for graduates of Indian Universities. Its work is roughly
divided into the following general heads :
Preprofessional: General courses: Family and Child Welfare: Juvenile
and Adult Delinquency: Medical and psychiatric social work: Social research:
field work. Under the heading of industrial relations are covered general
economics, Indian industrial organization, the worker's place in industry,
the work of the Labour Officer and social legislation. Like the graduates of
the Department of Chemical Technology of the University of Bombay, the
diploma holders of the Graduate School of Social Work are in great demand
and are now occupying responsible positions as labour and welfare officers in the
textile and other industries. The proposed scheme of the Calcutta
TRAINING OF LABOUR OFFICERS 299
University is however, less ambitious, concerning itself as it does only
with the training of labour officers for jute mills. The progress of the scheme
will no doubt be watched with interest by the other centres.
A sum of Rs. 800/- was collected for Bengal Famine Relief by the
Alumni Association. This money was sent to Bengal through the All-India
Mr. J. V. Bhave has gone to Nagpur as Assistant Labour Officer,
C. P. Government.
Miss K. B. Naik is now Superintendent of the Hindu Women's
Rescue Home, Poona, her services having been lent by Government.
Friends of Mr. D. V. Kulkarni, Superintendent, Yeravda Industrial
School, Poona, will be very grieved to hear of the sad demise of his wife on
the 5th December 1943.
Mr. D. C. Nanda is in Ajmere organizing Labour Unions for railway
Mr. Ladlinath Renu has recently returned to Bombay after a month's
tour in the famine areas of Bengal. He went as a volunteer of the All-India
Seva Samiti and, after studying the various relief organizations working in
Calcutta, helped the All-India Seva Samiti to prepare a scheme on a scienti-
fic basis for relief work. He also rendered help to the Samiti's existing
centres which distribute rice doles, medical aid, and cloth. According to
him about one crore of people have died from the present famine in Bengal.
The chief sufferers are agricultural labourers, fisher folk, and Chamars.
Mrs. Wazir Merchant, nee Rajendar Kaur Sidhu, whose husband is an
Engineer on the G. I. P. Railway, now stationed in Bombay, was blessed
with a son last September.
Mr. G. N. Harshe, Additional Assistant Inspector of Certified Schools,
Bombay Province, Poona, has announced his engagement to Miss Agashe,
G. A., a Sanskrit and Marathi scholar and daughter of a well-known doctor
and social worker of Satara.