134 REPORT FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1944-45. to go for Advanced Study in and...
134 REPORT FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1944-45.
to go for Advanced Study in and they are expected to leave India
Pathology at the Medical School
for America in December next. It may
of the University of Chicago, be mentioned that the securing of Fellow-
in view of the plans for the ships to these is in part fulfilment of
expansion of the Vellore Dr. Kumarappa's scheme to expand the
Tata Institute. While thus the visit of
Dr. Kumarappa to the U. S. A., has
3. Miss A. K. Minakshi, M.A., resulted in concrete financial benefit to
Research Scholar in Child the Institute in particular and the country
Psychology at the University in general, the prospect and possibility it
of Madras, to specialise in has opened up for training our young
Child Development at the men and women and for keeping and
Child Welfare Research Station continuing the contact and goodwill with
of the State University of Iowa. the U. S. A., constitutes a cultural benefit
of a more lasting character. We thank
4. Miss Sarojini Munim, M.B.B.S., Dr. Kumarappa for his unremitting
to specialise in Midwifery and devotion to our Institute which he is
Gynaecology at the University so considerably and tirelessly helping to
Hospital Medical School of build up. We extend our welcome to
the University of Iowa.
him and wish him a fruitful continuance
of his career.
These candidates have already made
necessary preparations for their journey
M. V. M.
NEWS AND NOTES
W H A T WE CAN LEARN FROM AMERICA
Ever since my return to India a few
My main purpose in going to America
weeks back after my extensive tour of as guest of the United States Government
the United States as guest of the Cultural was to find ways and means by which
Division of the Department of State, better cultural co-operation could be esta-
I have been asked for information regard-
blished between the U. S. A., and our
ing my impressions. To begin with I country, I shall confine myself here to
must express my appreciation of the things that we can well learn from America,
honour bestowed on me by the American and her experience in the promotion
Government, as I was the first Indian Edu-
of national welfare and efficiency.
cationist to be so invited, and also to
express my deep gratitude for their hospita-
The first impression one receives on
lity and the necessary facilities provided by landing in New York is the heterogene-
the State to carry out my mission success-
ous character of the population. In many
fully. Here, I should also like to take the ways America resembles our country in
opportunity of stating that my original plan the various languages spoken by people
was first approved by the Tatas who very from different parts of the world who
generously decided to depute me on this represent various cultural groups. But
mission. But soon after their decision, this what is most amazing is that despite
unique invitation from the American these cultural and linguistic differences,
Government was received.
the U. S. A., through various educational
NEWS AND NOTES 135
devices known as "Americanisation"— States, the creative activity of the people
makes a homogeneous nation out of this seems to express itself mainly in technolo-
gical achievements, whereas the older
nations of the world like the Indians,
—Even at this, Chinese, the Europeans express their
there are five prominent racial and religious creative activity in Art, Music, Literature
groups namely, the Negro, the Jew, the and Philosophy. In my opinion this
Protestant, the Catholic and the Nissi— accounts for America's amazing contribu-
the last being the most recent. The Nissis tions to modern mechanical appliances
represent the second generation Japanese, and engineering skill. Most of the
born and bred in the United States and American Institutes of Technology have
who are American citizens. They have attained high standard during the past
now become racially conscious though few years owing to the war situation.
Americans, because of the persecution Technological science has so advanced
meted out to them by the White Americans that industrial plants in the post-war
after Pearl Harbour. This was done by period, I am told, would be radically
the latter because of the fear that the different from the ones that they have had
Nissis would be loyal to their former hitherto, and that they would be produc-
motherland. Though there are these five ing a new variety of articles not available
irreconcilable groups within the nation, in the market before.
yet there is no agitation for special
privileges ; the political parties are only
Most of the American students get
divided as Democrats and Republicans such good practical training that they
which are the two main parties, and do not think of entering any profession
therefore the only ones worth mentioning. which is non-creative and non-productive.
Since an essential aspect of its basic A large number of science graduates are
creed is that the American nation is one employed in industrial, technical, and
and indivisible, the United States Govern-
other scientific research—to benefit man-
ment does not tolerate any such nonsense kind. This is in striking contrast to
as is all-too-prevalent in our national the attitude and mentality of our students
life. In this particular field we have who usually think in terms of jobs.
much to learn from our Yankee friends
Most American professors express
across the seas. The educational technique their astonishment at the degree-minded-
and other devices utilized by them for the ness of students from India. However,
promotion of national solidarity and co-
our students are not entirely to be blamed
operation are methods which could well for this attitude, as the main objective
be adapted to India and made a part of of our educational system was to train
the post-war country-wide system of educa-
them to help in the alien administration
tion for the furtherance of national unity of our country. The university degree
and training in the democratic way of life. has thus come to be recognised as " a pass-
—Another phase port for a job." Our effort now should
of American life which impresses one is be to break this common mental attitude
is the application of science to the of our students and instil in them the
production of industrial goods and agricul-
spirit of enterprise and a desire to enter
tural implements and products. It is business life rather than to seek security
interesting to note how, in the United in Government service.
136 W H A T WE CAN LEARN FROM AMERICA
How They Spend Their Money.—
It wealthy men can well learn from the
is not uncommon to hear non-Americans nature and organization of American
say that Americans are dollar chasers. Foundations how to use their riches in
It is undoubtedly true that Americans the interest of the public. Among our
make money, and make it fast. No noted Philanthropists the Tatas deserve
country today is as wealthy as America, special mention for the efficient manner
and yet there is no country which so in which their charities are now organized,
generously parts with its money for and the variety of causes to which they
philanthropical purposes. Whether it is generously give their support.
China which suffers from famine and lack
State Social Services.
—While we are
of sufficient medical supplies, or Italy still in the mediaeval stage in meeting
from the devastating effects of an our social problems through private social
earthquake, or India from cloth and food agencies and indiscriminate charity (both
famine, it is America from where relief of which are apt to function in an irregular
so generously pours in. Making money and haphazard manner), America has
to the American is an enjoyable sport, reached the stage of tackling these problems
he spends it as rapidly as he makes it.
through State Social services. The care
—Hundreds of of the physically handicapped and their
foundations are established by the wealthy rehabilitation ; the education and training
Americans for the promotion of human of the mentally deficient ; and homes
welfare, and the advancement of human for delinquent boys and girls are all
knowledge. The most prominent one is undertaken by the Government, and the
the Rockefeller Foundation. There are institutions are maintained out of public
many others, which, though not internation-
funds. Large sums of money are thus
al in their grants, are nevertheless made available for the care of the under-
concerned with the control of diseases, privileged and maladjusted. The personnel
promotion of social and scientific research of these institutions are highly qualified
and the development of experimental and specially trained for their jobs.
For instance, while there is hardly
One is impressed not only with the one special institution for the feeble-
number, size and purposes of these minded in the whole of India run by our
foundations but also with the efficient Government, there are many such institu-
manner in which they are administered. tions maintained by several of the forty-eight
Indiscriminate charity is something that states which comprise the American Union.
is altogether outmoded in the U. S. A., At Wrentham, for instance, the State
and is replaced by scientific philanthropy. of Massachusetts runs a home which
Millions of dollars are thus given away has been put up at a cost of five-and-a-half
for increasing human happiness and well-
million dollars. The Home has also a
being. Scientific philanthropy is one thing Research Department with highly qualified
of which India is very badly in need.
medical men on the staff who are carrying
While there are some well-endowed on research into the causes of mental
TRUSTS in India formed for worthy deficiency. In addition to such homes
ends, one wishes that such efficient methods
for mentally deficient youth, there are
of administration could be introduced numerous mental hospitals for adults
in their management. Many of our with psychologists and psychiatrists and
NEWS AND NOTES 137
other specialists attached to each. In our tions which provide so much knowledge
country, most of the mental hospitals are to their youth in every field of human
inadequately staffed and poorly managed.
endeavour need to learn that it is not
There seems to be no limit to the knowledge only which counts but, even
amount of money the American Govern-
more, wisdom which is derived from the
ment spends in providing proper comfort, integration of this knowledge with proper
good treatment, and various kinds of emphasis on spiritual values which are, at
entertainment for the happiness of these the present time, sadly ignored on account
unfortunates. It is time that India stirred of the all-too-common tendency to
herself to reorganise her institutions in emphasise material values.
a more efficient but humane manner.
It was gratifying to note the interest
Need for Public Welfare Department.
— American scholars manifest in coming
It was very inspiring to see a special out to India to study the different aspects
department as part of the Government of our culture—philosophy, comparative
in most States to administer the special religions, classical Indian languages,
funds provided for public welfare and archaeology, sociology, and ancient Indian
social security, as well as, to supervise political science. In a few American uni-
the work of and give guidance to the various versities they have already introduced
social service agencies. But unfortunately courses on Indian culture. India has
in India while we have Departments of much to teach our American and European
Public Health, and Public Instruction, friends in these directions. Similarly, our
we do not have a Public Welfare Depart-
scholars should go to the United States
ment for increasing the efficiency of the to learn what America has to offer as her
work of the private social service agencies distinctive achievements.
which are given grants-in-aid ; nor to
All those who are responsible either
co-ordinate the various social services for sending students to America or giving
of the province, and to develop new ones them necessary guidance should emphasize
to meet special problems as they arise. the need for undergoing practical training
In the post-war period it is very necessary and returning to India with the determina-
to give serious consideration to the tion to undertake independent enterprise
establishment of such Departments in rather than to go there to acquire degrees,
every province in our country, considering and return seeking either Government or
social service as an essential part of the teaching jobs.
function of the Government, instead of
The present world war has taught
leaving them to the whims and fancies us the evils of isolation, national greed,
of private bodies.
and international non-co-operation, and
Towards Better Understanding.
all thinking people the world over must
Cultural exchange is always a two-way endeavour to bring about better understand-
process. While we have much to learn ing between nations through cultural
from the United States, there is much understanding and appreciation, and
for the United States to learn from India to reorganize the economic system on
and her ancient culture. In the hustle a basis of international co-operation rather
and bustle of her life, America needs than national competition in the interest
to learn something of the repose and calm of international goodwill and happiness
which is an essential feature of Indian of mankind.
life. And American educational institu-
J. M. KUMARAPPA.