NEWS AND NOTES COMMUNITY CHESTS IN U. S. In the first week of October,...
NEWS AND NOTES
COMMUNITY CHESTS IN U. S.
In the first week of October, community-
social planning and federated financing of
minded citizens throughout America orga-
social welfare in local communities.
nised a concerted money-raising drive to
support the welfare programmes of hundreds
T h e Community Chest idea h a d spread
of charitable institutions across the country. by 1921 throughout the United States. In
1925, 240 areas had adopted the idea. In
M o r e than a million men and women called 1950, 1,318 Chests raised a total of
on their neighbours, fellow workers and 192,933,988.
business associates to contribute a total of
about $200,000,000 to their Community
Americans are familiar with the Com-
munity Chest's simple slogan: "Everybody
Gives—Everybody Benefits." Each citizen
The Community Chest is a fund to provide contributes to his local Chest as much as he
help for any person in the community who chooses. The funds are then allocated to the
may need it. It buys a needed pair of various agencies that work for the betterment
crutches for a cripple. It provides homes for of the community.
orphans and hospitalisation for those unable
to afford it. For families split by death or
T h o u g h the purpose of a Community
domestic difficulties, it provides wise counsel Chest is simple, the practical operation is
and assistance through experienced family complex.
Before a fund-raising campaign is under-
It was originally started so that each relief taken, representatives of the benefitting
agency would not have to engage in its own agencies meet with Chest officials and agree
fund-raising drive. By pooling their efforts, on the percentage each agency will receive
agencies have found that they are able to from the money contributed. A pledge is
obtain more funds at less expense.
taken that each organisation will not conduct
separate fund drives, and that a public
accounting will be given of the m a n n e r in
T w o ideas—a monetary gift once a year to which each agency spent its funds.
a central fund to support public service
organisations, and a system of organisation—
Once the financial needs of the Chest
form the basis of Community Chests in the agencies have been determined, the primary
United States today.
object then becomes raising t h e necessary
money. Essential to the success of all Com-
Early this century, in 1914, the cities of munity Chest drives are an enthusiastic
Denver and Cleveland were experimenting organisation plus a well-designed publicity
with the central Chest idea to support their campaign.
local social agencies. By 1918 the American
Association of Community Organisations was
A director general is appointed each year
founded to advance the cause of united —usually a well-known citizen who can
N E W S AND NOTES
1 9 3
devote full time, on a volunteer basis, to the week ends, men call on prospects. Twice a
campaign. He may be assisted by a paid week, solicitors report, their progress to their
executive who may actually run the campaign captains, the captains to their chairmen, and
if it is in a large metropolitan area.
the chairmen to the campaign director.
The director general appoints six assistant
At the end of campaigning, a victory
directors, each of whom is responsible for one dinner or some similar community celebration
geographic area or division within the com-
is held, attended by all volunteer workers,
munity. Each of these in turn appoints and the result of their efforts is announced.
assistants, section captains and finally
volunteer solicitors. Ultimately each volun-
The Community Chest idea is spreading in
teer works among his own friends and the United States as more and more popula-
neighbours in a close-knit community effort tion groups see its advantages. By making
to fill the philanthropic Community Chest.
one single large donation, the individual
Before and during the campaign, publicity citizen is spared repeated calls on his purse.
through all media of communications focusses Public information media cooperate more
public attention on the need to achieve the fully in one huge campaign, and the public
Chest's goal. The publicity tells the story is thus better informed of community social
of the Community Chest. Newspapers
maintain Community Chest enthusiasm by
printing from day to day an account of the
One of the most significant benefits of the
progress of the campaign.
Community Chest is that it brings together
all factions and faiths in the community—
A carefully-planned programme of solicita-
employee and employer, city dweller and
tion parallels the publicity campaign. Women farmer, merchant and professional worker—
solicitors make their rounds of neighbourhood in a joint effort that is illustrative of the best
calls during the day. In the evening or over type of domocracy in action.
The Indian Council of Agricultural Edu-
years after Intermediate in Science and (2)
cation resolved that the course in agriculture a specialized course leading to the Master of
should consist of (1) a basic course in agri-
Science degree or diploma in Agriculture,
culture leading to the degree of Bachelor of covering a period of two years. There should
Science in Agriculture, covering a period be no specialisation in any subject during
of four years after Matriculation or three the basic course.
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N E W S AND NOTES
The Council recognised that the students primary and middle schools in the form of
should do practical work in rural surround-
nature study in the former and elements of
ings in addition to practical work on the agriculture and animal husbandry in the
college farm. It recommended that, to provide latter.
such facilities for this additional work, special
non-recurring and recurring grants should
Another recommendation stated that there
be provided, the recurring grant including should be as many high schools as possible
expenses of students.
with agriculture, including animal husbandry,
as the main optional subject, and to start
The Council also prescribed eight weeks' with, there should not be less than one such
duration in each year for the course in rural school in each district, preferably in rural
areas with a small farm attached to it.
The Council pointed out that, whatever
the minimum standard of qualification for
The Council resolved to refer to the
admission to an agricultural college might Standing Committee the report of the Animal
be, the main problem was mainly to produce Husbandry Committee on Veterinary Educa-
a well-equipped agricultural graduate by tion and invited a detailed report with its
giving him a type of education related recommendations in consultation with the
directly and effectively to the tiller of the universities and colleges concerned, the
soil and making him soil-minded, so that he Standing Committee being given the option
could apply the scientific knowledge and to co-opt such members as might be necessary
practice acquired in the college for improving to consider the subject.
agricultural development in the villages.
The Council also resolved that a Standing
The Council recommended that there Committee of not more than six members of
should be a well-equipped farm of not less the Council should be elected on a regional
than 100 acres (preferably 200 acres) basis to secure follow-up action and continuity
attached to each college for instructional in the working of the Council through suit-
able machinery which could function between
Study in Schools.
—It also recommended Council meetings and consider agricultural
that agriculture should be introduced in all education problems as they arose.
COMMUNITY ACTION FOR CANCER RESEARCH
In October, 1947, a
forest fire swept out
Citizens of the community, realising the
of control and burned a number of buildings importance of cancer research, organised a
in the town of Bar Harbour, Maine. Among fund-raising campaign to build a
buildings destroyed was a laboratory, that better-equipped laboratory than the one that
had been founded in 1929.
had been burned. Today a
study of the
N E W S AND NOTES
1 9 5
influence of heredity on cancer is being laborartory animals were nearly wiped out
carried on at this institution—the Roscoe B. in the 1947 fire, when only 55 pedigreed
Jackson Memorial Laboratory.
mice survived the blaze, but the breeding
stock has been built up again. Last year the
Members of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, laboratory raised more than 1,000,000 mice
an organisation of men and women who have for its own use and for shipment to research
served abroad with U. S. military forces, institutions in many countries. At nearby
contributed $50,000. The money came in Hamilton Station the laboratory also raises
$1 contributions from 50,000 members of dogs, cats, rabbits and guinea pigs for experi-
Women's Auxiliary posts scattered across the mental purposes.
Although the laboratory is not yet ready
The local fund-raising committee also to announce complete findings, its scientists
appealed to national societies, and money have found that some strains of mice are
was given by the American Cancer Society, more susceptible to cancer than others. In
the Damon Runyon Cancer Fund, the one strain, for example, 80 per cent of the
Rockefeller Foundation and the National mice will develop cancer under laboratory
Cancer Institute. Several local residents conditions, whereas in a more resistant strain
donated land so the new laboratory could only one-tenth of one per cent of the mice
have larger grounds.
will develop the malignancy.
Within three years the Roscoe B. Jackson
Memorial Laboratory had been completely
Scientists from all parts of the world—
rebuilt. It stands today as the world's largest from the Far East, the Middle East and
institution devoted to the study of inheritable Latin America—come to the laboratory to
factors that may affect cancer.
see the work being carried on. Clarence
C. Little, laboratory director, welcomes these
The laboratory has 125 scientists who are visitors as a means of exchanging ideas con-
studying 60 strains of mice, some of which cerning a disease that takes a heavy toll in
can be traced back for 235 generations. The all nations.
WAGE FIXATION AND PAYMENT IN INDIA
There is no one syetem of wage fixation the United States and the United Kingdom
or payment in Indian industries; nor is there where wages are fixed by collective bargaining
so far any law regulating the methods of between the union and management, in India,
wage fixation. Unlike in foreign countries like it is done by the management in the light of
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N E W S AND NOTES
local conditions. But in recent years, Indus-
Neither bonus nor dearness allowance is
trial Tribunals and Labour Courts have been paid to workers in any other country of the
fixing by their awards basic wages and wage-
world. Labour in countries like the U.S.A.
scales for most of the industries. The basic and U. K. and others in the West, demand
wage differs from industry to industry and only higher wages, if the conditions of the
from centre to centre. The Minimum Wages industry permit, and never ask for bonus or
Act 1948, an enabling measure, only says that dearness allowance. Wages there are fixed
there should be a fixed minimum wage for by collective contracts between the union and
all workers in the industries mentioned in management and are hourly rated and paid
the schedule thereof, but does not fix the weekly. Usually collective contracts are made
minimum. This Act is mainly intended to for one year and sometimes for two years. At
benefit sweated labour and is being gradually the end of the contract term, union and
implemented by various State Governments. management enter into fresh negotiations and
Mostly wages in India are daily rated but adjust wage terms in the light of the condi-
paid monthly, on a fixed date, generally on tions within the industry and outside. The
the 10th of every month.
law of the country provides only the machi-
nery for the settlement of disputes that arise
In some major organized industries like out the interpretation of the terms of these
the textiles, engineering, iron and steel, etc., contracts.
wages have been standardised and minima
fixed by awards of Industrial Tribunals. For
Though bonus is not paid, profit-sharing
example, in the Bombay State, wages in the schemes operate in certain industries in the
textile industry have been standardised by West. In the U.K., though found in many
the Industrial Tribunal Award 1947 and firms like Lever Brothers, South Metropolitan
minimum wages fixed for various centres: Gas Company, etc, profit-sharing is not
Rs. 30/- p.m. in Bombay City, Rs. 28/- p.m. popular with workers in major industries like
in Ahmedabad and Rs. 26/- p.m. in textiles, engineering, etc. In the U.S. unions
.Sholapur. The principle of the above award are traditionally opposed to profit-sharing
has been copied by tribunals, in other States schemes. A survey by the National Industry
also, like Madras, Madya Bharat, Madhya Conference Board in 1948 showed that profit-
Pradesh and U.P.
sharing was successful and popular "in the
In addition to the basic wage, workers are small and medium-size establishments where
paid a dearness allowance, a system started workers may more readily see the connec-
during the last war, to neutralise the rise in tion between their actions and the profitable-
the cost of living. In most of the organized ness of the enterprise than they would in a
industries, this is linked to the cost of living large film." According to the U.S. Bureau of
index. Annual bonus, the quantum of which Interal Revenue, about 10,000 concerns of
is also usually fixed by Industrial Tribunals, varying sizes operate profit-sharing plans.
is another payment made to industrial
workers in India. For the first time in the
Methods of profit-sharing payment are
last five years, the quantum of bonus for three: (a) current payment, (b)
textile workers in Bombay City and Ahmeda-
payment in shares of stock. Most
bad for the year 1951 was decided in July of the firms generally combine the first two,
1952 by mutual agreement between the res-
i, e., part of the share paid currently and part
pective unions and managements.
deferred. A few provide for payment in shares
NEWS AND NOTES
1 9 7
of stock. But workers have not been enthusia-
Mills Co. Ltd., Madras. But even in these,
stic over buying shares in stock. While in profit shares like bonus are paid in cash
most of the countries, profit-sharing is volun-
annually to the workers. The other varia-
tary, in some like Bolivia, Columbia, Mexico, tions of profit-sharing plans have not deve-
New Zealand, Brazil and Czechoslovakia, loped in India.
legislative provision is made whereby the em-
ployers are compelled to share their profits
Workers in State-owned industries in India
with the workers.
get only the basic wage and dearness allo-
wance and do not get any bonus. Their D.A.
In India too, there are some industrial is not also linked to the cost of living index,
units operating profit-sharing schemes, made so that they receive less D.A. than their
after negotiations with workers' unions, e. g., counterparts in private enterprise.
the Tata Iron & Steel Company Ltd.,
Jamshedpur and Buckingham and Carnatic
FAMILY PLANNING CENTRE
We are not only concerned with the pro-
in other allied problems, and would offer
blem of controlling the population in our advice on all matters concerning sex.
country, but our main object is to advice
He said that experiments would be con-
people to lead happier and healthier lives, ducted to manufacture cheap and effective
observed Major Gen. S. S. Sokhey, declaring contraceptives, which could be supplied free
open Kutumba Sudhar Kendra, a family of cost to the poor.
welfare centre, organized by the Family
Planning Association of India at the Bombay
Presiding over the function, Lady Rama
Central Station compound.
Rau said that the Family Welfare Centre
was the first of its kind in the country to be
Maj-Gen. Sokhey said that the centre will opened by the Association, as formerly they
not only guide the people in limiting their were working in clinics, belonging to the
families, but would also be equally interested municipalities and private organisations.
HOUSING FOR INDUSTRIAL WORKERS
The Government of India has decided to struction of 28,500 tenements, under the
allocate a sum of Rs. 716,625 for the con-
Industrial Housing Scheme for 1952-53, the
1 9 8
NEWS AND NOTES
Works, Housing and Supply Ministry burden, while the State Governments will
meet any shortfall in the maintenance charges
of housing estates constructed by them or
Of this amount, Rs. 324 lakhs will be by Housing Boards. Establishment charges
distributed as subsidies and the rest on schemes of the State Governments,
Rs. 392,625 in the form of loans.
Housing Boards or any agency other than
private employers, will also have to be borne
—The scheme is meant by the State Governments.
to provide accommodation for industrial
workers through the agency of State Govern-
Accommodation under the scheme will be
ments, statutory housing boards, where they of two types: in cities of moderate size, single-
exist, employers, and registered co-operative storeyed buildings will be constructed, while
housing and building societies for workers.
in larger cities, in view of higher cost of land,
there will be multi-storeyed buildings. The
A National Housing Legislation, which tenements in either case will consist of a
might include town planning, was proposed living room, not less than 120 sq. ft. in area,
to be enacted, the announcement added, to and a kitchen, but bathroom and other facili-
ensure a uniform policy throughout the ties will slightly differ.
country, and to remove disabilities under the
Land Acquisition Act, regarding compensa-
tion and taking possession of land, and other
—State Government and
Housing Boards may make modifications but
the subsidies and loans will in no case be
raised. Employers or co-operatives desiring
—The announcement said no to modify the specifications substantially, will
loan or subsidy will be admissible for housing have to obtain the Central Government's
of central or state government employees, permission.
except where employed by corporations or
companies falling under the Employees'
Provident Fund Act, 1952.
The maximum standard rents have been
fixed at Rs. 10 and Rs. 171/2 per month,
Under the scheme, the Central Government respectively for single-storeyed and multi-
will bear the major share of the financial storeyed building tenements.
NEW MODES OF EDUCATION
Students should neither be hero-worship-
to various social, economic and cultural
pers nor blind followers. The vital need of problems, and to have the courage of their
a country which had just achieved freedom own convictions, was the view expressed
was for its students to rationalise their attitude by Dr. Shyama Prasad Mookerjee, President
NEWS AND NOTES
1 9 9
of the Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh, addressing a respite of a few years. Dr. Mookerjee
a students' gathering at the Ferguson College thought it was a question of non-adjustment
amphitheatre. Dr. R. P. Paranjpe presided. of educational aims. By holding occupational
and psychological tests, their energies and
Dr. Mookerjee told the students that a activities could be properly channelised. But
vast field of constructive work lay before today a large number of them was living
them. There were millions of people in the in a most irrational manner.
country who had no food, no cloth and no
shelter, and were extremely poverty-stricken.
There was a cry for jobs everywhere. It
But they were full of genuine human quali-
pained him greatly to see thousands of young
ties. Students had to mix with them and men drifting hither and thither in search of
not to brush them aside, as people hailing jobs. Was there any country in the world
from the lower strata of society. The which could provide jobs to all, he asked.
students, on the contrary, would have to act In a country where the favour of high-placed
as bridges and raise these people, and would persons counted so much in securing a job,
have to guide and train them properly, it would be extremely difficult for all to get
Dr. Mookerjee said.
jobs for which they had aptitude. How to
absorb these young men in the economy of
—Referring to the edu-
the country was a problem of "national ur-
cational system, Dr. Mookerjee said that gency", Dr. Mookerjee said and added that
English education had opened the door to it was essential to see that the nation's youth
knowledge and had aroused their national was not wasted.
consciousness. It had united them. The
British had introduced English education
—There was something
with a view to raising a class of "English rotten in the present system of examinations.
Indians" in this country. But the result had If students failed in the examinations, it made
been quite the opposite.
them nervous and they came to regard them-
selves as failures in life and as social outcastes.
Even after receiving English education, That should not happen, Dr. Mookerjee said.
they had remained "Indian Indians". It He emphasised the need for re-adjustment
could be seen from past history that it was of the education system, so that a separate
the English educated Indians who became class or race of unemployables was not cre-
the architects of freedom. But, said ated in the country.
Dr. Mookerjee, that system of education
needed to be changed today. He had seen
Strikes in educational institutions pained
students who felt utterly blank about their him, Dr. Mookerjee said. It was wrong to
future. Students felt distressed, groped in paralyse the work of these institutions.
the dark and did not know which path to Students should be outside the pale of poli-
follow. He had been told that the Poona tical interference, and they should not be
Law College had a strength of 800 to 1,000 made pawns in the political game, for, Dr.
students. Was there need for so many Mookerjee felt, the foundation of the nation
lawyers in the country today?, Dr. Mookerjee would be shaken. That did not mean that
the students were to be docile or inactive;
Dr. Mookerjee explained there could be
It had been suggested that the students open discussions on the burning questions of
took to such courses because it provided them the day.
2 0 0
N E W S AND NOTES
Democracy, Dr. Mookerjee continued, had interest in political and economic matters.
come to stay in India. It was a unique
feature in the annals of world history that
In his presidential remarks, Dr. R. P.
11 crores of people had recorded their votes Paranjpe said that students should study poli-
in the last general elections in India. They tics in all its aspects. They should think for
had peacefully adopted the ballot box. During themselves and train for public life to be
the elections, the people had shown absorbing undertaken in the years to come.
B. C. G. VACCINATION: SOME QUESTIONS ANSWERED
Dr. Bhasker Patel, Honorary Secretary of prove to be dangerous to the children who
the B. C. G. Vaccination Committee, has maintain good or indifferent health. The
sent the following in reply to the questions tuberculin used for the detection of the infec-
raised by Dr. R. N. Naik, retired Vice-
tion is so dilute that it does not cause any
Principal and Bacteriologist of the Bombay injury whatsoever to the person in whatsoever
health he might be.
Tuberculin was first invented by Robert
In my experience of 4,11,465 tests of
Koch and was hinted at that time as a persons of various ages and various conditions
wonder cure for the disease. Subsequently, it of health carried out in the city, not one
was realised that its use was not so much to single incident occurred where a person got
be hailed for the cure as for diagnostic new infection or the old unnoticed disease
purposes. Its judicial use was made by Von was aggravated.
Pirquet in Vienna who employed it for detec-
ting the infection of the disease in an other-
This was not expected either, because
wise healthy person. The detection of Tuberculin test had established itself very
changed capacity to react to this test as from firmly on the scientific world as very effective
those who did not react at all, was the basis and yet non-injurious.
of his newly coined entity "Allergy".
The statement that tuberculin test is not
Since then Tuberculin, in various dilutions, ordinarily carried out in the West without
has been used for the detection of the infec-
educating them properly on the disease is
tion in a person.
far from true. Tuberculin test in various
forms has been extensively used since Von
Your correspondent seems to be under the Pirquet first employed it as a method of
apprehension that the tuberculin test will detection of the infection. Its use has been
NEWS AND NOTES
2 0 1
very much further extended since the use of
4. The dose and dilution of tuberculin
BCG Vaccination as a prevention of the required for the test is not much at all so as
disease as it is found necessary to find out to cause any flare up of the disease. Not one
positive and negative reactors.
case has been noticed in the testing of several
lakhs of the people of Bombay state.
—I now come to answer
the series of questions raised by your corres-
Practice in West.
—5. The Governments of
pondent for elucidation of certain points.
almost all countries in the West have intro-
1. Tuberculosis being a chronic disease duced Tuberculin Testing and subsequent
taking a toll of human life at a very early Vaccination with BCG. The Scandinavian
age, various efforts were made by several countries have been pioneers in this field,
scientists of the world to get at some substance having started it in 1940 on a mass scale.
which might produce even relative immunity The BCG Vaccination has already been made
against the disease. BCG is the only sub-
compulsory there with definite good results.
stance known at present which produces a The British people, though not on a mass
certain amount of immunity specially at an scale, have already started to do so on a
age and for the period when it is most certain group of people.
6. The Tuberculin test when found positive
suggests that the person is infected and is
2. Immunity is always a relative term. building immunity. When the person is
There does not exist any condition which is non-reactor, which is more common in
known as true and lasting immunity. BCG children, it suggests that these children are
also does the same thing. It produces more liable to get massive infection at any
immunity when it is most needed.
time and thus susceptible to the disease.
Several authors like Wallgren and Heim-
The importance of BCG Vaccination in such
beck have shown by careful study that in children is self-evident. It would gradually
their observation it has been found that the develop immunity as in natural infection.
vaccinated persons developed immunity Persons to be vaccinated as a preventive
against the disease and were not victims of measure are generally healthy and the
the disease as against those who were not medical science advocates immunisation
vaccinated who became victims of the disease. against disease.
(American Review of Tuberculosis,
1948. Page 96, & Tubercle,
—7. The only practical
Again in Scandinavian countries, the authors method of measuring the effect of the
have noticed that meningitis in childhood vaccination is to make tuberculin test. From
did not occur in the series of children who vast experience, it can be stated that as long
were vaccinated as against some cases which as the tuberculin reaction remains positive,
occur in the non-vaccinated.
the protection obtained by the vaccination
will also remain. The Scandinavian authors
3. Tuberculin test does not detect any im-
have been able to demonstrate that 4 to 5
munity in a person. It only shows the pre-
years after vaccination, more than 90% of
sence of infection which helps the person to the persons vaccinated are still reactors to
build immunity and hence it suggests that a tuberculin. In my opinion this immunity
positive reactor does not require B. C. G. further continues after the natural infection
got in the normal ways, which is experienced
2 0 2
NEWS AND NOTES
from the increasing number of positive Campaign in India are constantly put before
reactors as age advances.
the public by various methods of instruction,
such as, lectures, leaflets, press statements,
8. It is useful and instructive to find out and Radio broadcasts. The public has already
positive reactors who develop immunity al-
been taken into confidence and it is gratify-
ready and it serves no purpose to these ing to note that the public is already BCG—
positive reactors to give BCG.
minded, having fully realised its usefulness as
The aims and objects of the BCG a protective measure.
Comparative figures of refugees in India to be 7.15 million. Thus India has had to
and Pakistan based on the census taken accommodate nearly 3,30,000 more refugees
recently in the respective countries are as a result of the partition of the sub-cotinent.
It is also gathered that, for every thousand
According to Pakistan's report, 7,01,000 persons, there are 17 refugees in Eastern
Muslim refugees migrated from India to Pakistan, while the corresponding proportion
Eastern Pakistan. The number of non-
in West Bengal is five times as high. Actually,
Muslim refugees who have migrated to West the figure is 85 refugees for every thousand
Bengal and other Indian States from Eastern of population.
Pakistan are nearly 25,75,000.
The Pakistani capital, however, contains
The total number of refugees who have more refugees than the Indian capital. Out
migrated from either wing of Pakistan is of every thousand persons in Karachi, there
estimated at 7.48 million, while those who are 480 refugees, while for every thousand
migrated from India to Pakistan are stated in Delhi 450 are refugees.
PHYSICAL FITNESS OF STUDENTS
The Central Education Ministry has educational institutions.
suggested to all State Governments that
greater emphasis should be laid on physical
"For sometime past", says an Education
fitness and the dignity of manual work in Ministry circular, "the Government of India
NEWS AND NOTES
2 0 3
have been receiving reports of the deteriora-
and the possibility of students sharing in the
tion in educational standards at both the work of community projects.
school and collegiate level. This has been
States have been asked to consider whether
accompanied by deterioration in the physical it will be possible to offer students an oppor-
fitness which one expects from young tunity to do some ancillary work which is
students. It has been suggested that perhaps at present done by paid labour. If students
the two are closely linked and the introduc-
are offered facilities for paid work, as library
tion of measures to improve the physical assistants, gate men, bell men, daftaries,
efficiency of our young people would lead gardeners, etc., it is suggested, this would
to intellectual improvement as well".
help poor but willing students to meet part
of their expenses by their own work. In
"No doubt," the circular goes on, "some addition, it would inculcate in college
facilities for drill obtain in most schools even students a sense of the dignity of labour and
now but they are neither adequate nor taken also help to correct the undue emphasis which
seriously by either the teachers or the taught." is often placed on mere book learning. Many
The Central Education Ministry feels that American students pay their way through
participation in mass drill, etc., should be college and university by part-time work.
compulsory and boys and girls, unless
exempted on special grounds, would have to
In another circular, the Education Ministry
attain a minimum standard to qualify for suggests the students should be encouraged
to devote about a fortnight a year for activi-
ties, such as, preparation of compost, im-
A reference has been made in the circular provements of village-roads, drains and
to the need for expanding National Cadet houses and school buildings and construction
Corps and scouting and guiding activities of irrigation channels or canals.
CRIMINAL TRIBES WELFARE
Shrimathi Rameshwari Nehru, Chairman Bharat and Madras.
of the Criminal Tribes Welfare Board, dis-
closed that the Board had suggested to the
Shrimathi Nehru is on a ten-day tour of
Government of India a five-year scheme for the Punjab State in order to study the
the welfare of the criminal tribes in five conditions of criminal tribes after the repeal
of the Criminal Tribes Act, Harijans and
displaced women and children.
Shrimathi Nehru, who is also the Honorary
Adviser to the Rehabilitation Department of
Giving her impressions of the tour,
the Indian Government, added that the Shrimathi Rameshwari Nehru said she felt
scheme would cost Rs. 40 lakhs, of which that welfare work among criminal tribes and
Rs. 30 lakhs would be taken on loan.
the rehabilitation of displaced persons should
The amount, she said, would be spent in be handed over to a non-official organisation
the Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya of "established repute".
2 0 4
NEWS AND NOTES
STUDENTS TO HELP PROJECTS
A suggestion that students can devote a direct assistance from the students on the
part of their time, during their long summer community project work in that area, will
vacations in work on community projects, has open up new avenues of public co-operation
been made by the Community Projects and secure greater enthusiasm for the com-
Administration in a communication to all munity projects.
The Ministry of Railways have decided
The State Governments have been asked that the concession permissible to students
to consider whether they can persuade edu-
when they travel on educational purposes
cational institutions, etc., to organise students will also be available to them when they go
camps in project areas during the long out to take part in the community project
summer vacations. This, apart from getting activities.
HEALTH WELFARE CENTRE
A Student Health Welfare Centre has been guided by an Advisory Committee consisting
set up at the KEM Hospital, Bombay to of doctors and educationists.
provide a complete physical check-up for the
The Centre will commence functioning
on October 6. It will remain open between
The Centre represents the first step in the 3 and 5 p.m. on all Mondays and Thursdays,
programme for Greater Bombay, following excluding public holidays.
the South-East Asian Conference recently
Any student of the Bombay University
held in Singapore by the World University can avail himself of the facilities on payment
Service. The work of the Centre will be of a nominal fee of Rs. 2/-.
TATA INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES ALUMNI ASSOCIATION
Report of Activities during
tion, followed by a joint dinner of the
The year started with election of members members of the Executive Committees of the
Executive Committee of the Associa-
Association and of the Students' Union,
NEWS AND NOTES
2 0 5
which the Director of the Institute was the it was found that due recognition was not
given to the Institute's diploma-holders.
The members of the Association particpat-
Several socials were held among which
ed in the Social Welfare Day on February was one to welcome the new students (1952-
20, 1952, organized by the Indian Conference 54 Class) of the Institute.
of Social Work.
A variety entertainment programme was
An one-day excursion to Khandala was staged in September, 1952, in aid of socially
arranged in April in which members of the handicapped children, in which the members
Association, students of the Institute as well of the Association put up some items. "The
as Jail Officers then under training, in all Fashionable Bibi" was again presented. The
70 persons, participated and made the excur-
evening was full of fun and gave much
sion a grand success.
entertainment to the audience. The women
members of the Association gave an item of
The Association contributed Rs. 100/-
Ros, which added much to the evening's fun.
towards the Institute Day Celebrations and The highlight of the evening, however, was
actively participated in the function by stag-
"The Colours of the Mosaic",
a small play
ing a play entitled, "The Fashionable Bibi". depicting an enlightened Juvenile Court in
India. The play was specially written by a
The Association was "At Home" to member of the Association. Nine members
Dr. Clifford Manshardt, the first Director of of the Association, three senior students of the
the Institute, during his visit to Bombay on Institute and seven members of the newly
account of the Silver Jubilee celebration of formed Association of the Past Students of
the Nagpada Neighbourhood House. the Certified Schools of Bombay State took
Dr. J. M. Kumarappa was felicitated at a part in the production of the play. The
public function on his nomination to the Association plans to film this play.
Council of States.
A sum of Rs. 3000/- was realized from the
A memorandum was submitted to the receipts of the Variety Entertainment and
Director of the Institute, on the placement Rs. 2000/- was allotted equally to four child
opportunities of trained social workers, as welfare institutions in Bombay.
EMPLOYMENT FOR THE DISABLED
Today, even severe disablement is no dom, are registered as disabled; of these under
longer a bar to employment in Britain. This 54,000, which include the very severely dis-
is the result of improvements in medical abled, are now without work.
science, and of positive Government action
over the past 10 years. About 900,000
Trade unions have long opposed any idea
persons, or nearly four per cent of the that to fit these people into work must be a
employed population of the United King-
matter of philanthropy. They believed that
2 0 6
NEWS AND NOTES
the sympathy extended to disablement carried to minimise incapacity caused by injury.
with it an under-estimate of working capa-
city. This belief was strengthened by the
—In 1944 the first
measures taken during World War II to Industrial Rehabilitation Unit was establish-
ensure for the wounded their way back to ed, and since then more Units—some
full recovery. The success of this rehabilita-
residential and others with easy daily
tion service in restoring physical functions, travelling facilities from large centres of
strengthening weakened muscles and allay-
population—have been formed each year.
ing anxiety led to its extension in 1943 to There are now 15 Units, able to cater for
industrial injuries and diseases.
1,600 patients, which ensures that there is no
period of waiting for treatment. Courses
Obligation on Firms.
—The framework of at these Units last from 6 to 12 weeks.
the Government's campaign was laid in the Their first aim is to provide the right kind of
Disabled Persons Employment Act of 1944. exercise in gymnasia and workshops which
This encourages workers with a disability, will restore maximum working fitness. Their
whether surgical, medical or psychiatric, second aim is to advice those who because
to register with the Ministry of Labour, and of their injury must seek a different occupa-
provides that firms must engage at least three tion or the most suitable work to take up,
per cent of their staff from workers on the and to help them find it.
register. Inspections by the Ministry and
Exercise to restore normal activity are an
enquiries by unions show that employers are essential part of modern hospital routine, and
complying with this obligation.
most people who are injured are able to
return to their former work after medical
For those so severely disabled that normal treatment. But when their illness has been
factory work is out of the question, sheltered severe a return to work may be impossible
employment is provided. To this end the unless special steps are taken to build up
Government formed a non-profit making their working capacity and restore self-
company (Remploy), which now has 90 confidence. To provide this re-conditioning
factories, including special factories for the Ministry of Labour take over at the
workers disabled by tuberculosis, employing a hospital gates or, on the recommendation of
total of 6,000 people. This figure is rising a doctor, accept workers into Rehabilitation
as experience and mechanical aids widen the Units who have not been hospital cases.
variety of goods which even severely handi-
capped workers can produce. Remploy Factor Conditions.
—At first patients were
factories chiefly make furniture and leather occupied with simple handicraft work, but
goods, and do clock repairs and packing. experience showed this was a mistake. Much
In addition there are 100 workshops run by better results have been obtained when they
local authorities or by State-aided voluntary are engaged on tasks of a kind carried out in
organisations which cater for another 5,000 an ordinary factory. Today, therefore, condi-
workers, a large proportion of whom are tions in the Units' workshops resemble those
which the men and women encounter when
they resume employment. If training is
These measures have removed the pre-war required for entirely new work, this is given
fear that injury might lead a man never to usually in the Government Training Centre
work again. Other action has done much with which each Unit shares premises.
NEWS AND NOTES
An example will show how this rehabilita-
7,000 people completed courses on industrial
tion works. A 45-year-old worker was rehabilitation. In 80 per cent of these cases
discharged from coal-mining because of success was achieved in that the workers were
defective hearing. He obtained a number either able to re-enter their own employment,
of poorly-paid unskilled jobs, none of which or were trained for new employment.
he was able to retain for long. He developed
an 'anxiety state" through financial worries
The working of the whole scheme—the
which made it more difficult to obtain suita-
Register, Remploy factories and Rehabilita-
ble employment. He went to an Industrial tion Units and Training Courses—is under
Rehabilitation Unit where, after a period of regular survey by Resettlement Officers of the
exercises, his mental and physical condition Ministry and by local Disablement Com-
improved. Vocational tests showed he had mittees. Trade unions appoint members to
the ability to learn a skilled trade, and he these Committees. They are also associated
was given a six month's course on coach with the national bodies whose duties are
painting. Within three months of entering to advice on changes required, and to sponsor
employment again he was earning full wages. research so that the worst cases which remain
Eighty per cent Successful.
—Last year may be assisted to useful employment.
EDUCATION FOR TRADE UNIONISTS
Britain's trade unions have been receiving workers' education organisations have played
some very blunt advice from the General an important part in union education of a
Council of the Trades Union Congress about general character. Their function is to
the need for improving educational services provide facilities either in their three colleges
to their members. Many unions, says the or by evening and week-end classes and by
Council, are too slow in extending their correspondence, for education in the social
services to meet the greater responsibilities studies (history, economics, political institu-
they have assumed in recent years.
tions) without which understanding of the
principles of trade unionism or of the con-
A few of Britain's larger unions have ditions in which it seeks to achieve its aims
thoroughly reviewed the educational needs of is bound to be limited.
their members and for the first time are
making systematic provision for training their
Virtue in Variety.
—The Congress has not
junior officers in work-study and negotiating sought to merge the activities of these bodies,
methods. Now every union is being urged since it believes there is virtue in a variety of
to make a detailed assessment of its require-
provision and a choice of action. However,
ments both for general education and for it has said to some unions that this freedom
of choice must not result in no choice at all
For 30 years a number of voluntary being made, while other unions which help
2 0 8
NEWS AND NOTES
to finance these bodies and participate in tion's history, its rules and structure. Some
their government have been urged to do have added to this by educating branch
more. In its comprehensive statement to the officers and workshop representatives in the
movement on educational developments the nature of their duties, but too many still
Congress says; "The full value of the services regard experience as the only teacher of
which these bodies can provide will only be such subjects. What the Trades Union
secured when unions take an active, imagi-
Congress insists in in most need of remedy, is
native interest in their work, constructively the paucity of provision made by individual
criticise their performance, and make in-
unions for the specialised training of selected
creasing but reasoned demands upon them." officers in particular aspects of their work. In
particular Congress suggests education in
Necessary as this background education is, industrial relations, social insurance and the
there is a greater need today for the special mastery of new production and management
training of those who intend to play an active techniques.
part in union affairs. No longer is the call
only for service inside the unions and in
Fourteen Technical Colleges.—
national negotiations. With the increasing Britain's largest unions, that for general and
strength of unions, the call is for represen-
municipal workers, which has more than
tatives to uphold union prestige in workshop 800,000 members, has taken the lead in this
negotiations, joint consultation, and a wide respect. At 14 technical colleges in different
range of technical and advisory committees. parts of the country courses of four weeks
As the General Council said to the delegates each are being run on a common syllabus.
at Congress in August, "We have claimed
our rightful share in these things and must
Of the total teaching time at these courses,
now train our members to enable them to 35 per cent is devoted to industrial relations
take up these positions with confidence."
and negotiations and some of the more im-
Congress itself took the lead in 1947 in portant Acts of Parliament dealing with
providing courses for full time and voluntary injuries at work. A further 35 per cent is
officers of unions in the practical work spent on work-study such as the principles of
required of them. These courses are held job evaluation and methods of timing work
in Congress's own education department for and rating effort; and 20 per cent is split
one month, and last year were supplemented between factory organisation and payment
by two sets of intensive courses of one week methods. The remaining 10 per cent is given
each; one of these dealt with the technique to improving the students' ability to express
of negotiations, the other with work-study themselves clearly in their own language.
and costing. In addition, five universities
have arranged classes in trade union subjects
Several more unions have recently sent
for which unions are now being invited to some of their officers to these technical
provide a greater number of students and colleges, and the most recent part of the
Congress campaign was its circular which
asked all other unions to use these courses
Many unions, of course, already encourage and to extend them to the larger towns not
members to learn about their own organisa-
NEWS AND NOTES
2 0 9
FAMILY WELFARE AGENCY
Social scientists have stressed the value of and the referrals are coming from govern-
family living, considering family life as the ment hospitals, juvenile courts, child guidance
corner-stone of a sound society, the first clinics and private individuals. Some call at
essential of good human relations. As due the Agency directly. There are about 125
to various factors families breakdown and cases on the Agency's role at this time. In the
as family problems are of various types, a nature of referrals, there is a great variety.
number of agencies are developing under Requests for the rehabilitation of unmarried
different names to deal with certain areas mothers and delinquent children, investiga-
of welfare of families in a community. They tion into a prospective foster home for a
concentrate on some particular aspect of child, settling cases of marital discord,
the problem, e.g., a maternity and child counselling on personal problems, followup
welfare centre caters to the health needs of work for certain hospital dischargees and
the mother and child or a birth control their problems pertaining to ill-health, are
clinic works towards spacing the arrival of being received by the Family Welfare Agency.
children in the interest of the family. None
of these agencies, however, take into view
Case Work Approach.
—Though in many
the totality of the family problem.
cases the referrals are made due to a single
complaint, the agency maintains the case
The Family Welfare Agency located in work approach of viewing it as a part of
10 B.D.D. Chawls, Delisle Road, Bombay, the total family problem.
came into existence in May, 1950, to meet
this unmet need. It concentrates upon the
In dealing with cases of irregularity in
family as a social unit and the individual taking medical treatment, for instance, other
members thereof, and tries to help them in family problems like marital disharmony,
their total problem. Besides, the manner in unemployment and schooling of children
which the help is rendered in this Agency have been taken cognition of and assistance
is important. It is essentially an organisation given in these areas according to the needs,
for case work service. As such, its main wishes and the capacity of the family. As
function is to assist people individual by in case work service the goal is to help the
individual when they are experiencing some client to help himself and to work with
breakdown in their capacity to deal with him and not for him, the Agency has always
their affairs by themselves. This is the emphasised the client's participation in
curative aspect of the service. It has a planning and his right of self-determination.
preventive side too. It is visible when the What the Agency does in the matter of
service is geared towards rendering help to planning about a particular client is to help
people who need guidance for planning for him to clarify his thinking. The Agency
conservation of their inner strengths to avoid gives varied information and suggests plans,
breakdown and to lead a socially and per-
if needed, which may not have struck the
sonally satisfactory life.
client. Through case work technique, the
client is helped to participate in planning
The Agency has kept its doors open to all for himself or his family or both. He
persons in need, irrespective of caste and creed
2 1 0
NEWS AND NOTES
discusses the pros and cons of each plan and
Work with the community
decides for himself which one he will like
to take up. A plan may be excellent from
the viewpoint of the worker but without
the client's preparedness and lack of active
While giving counselling service to the
understanding for participation in the entire client sometimes the Agency has to work
scheme, it will not lead to any successful directly with him only. In some cases, other
family members have to be interviewed and
some assistance given to modify their atti-
—The Family Wel-
tude for dealing with the problem. Com-
fare Agency, Bombay, assists its client in munity resources like schools, hospitals,
getting acquainted with or using available trusts and charities have to be tackled too,
community resources. Besides, he is helped to pool together all the necessary help for
to understand his situation better, to clarify the client and his family. Specific aids like
his indecision, to discharge tension and also financial assistance, securing some work for
to get an insight into the feelings which the client, getting an artificial limb for the
obstruct constructive action or induce des-
amputee are also very helpful in solving
tructive behaviour. The means adopted for family problems. The agency closes each
treating family problems may be environ-
case after a reasonable amount of follow-up.
mental, i.e., utilising specific resources or As the agency is not capable of commanding
changing external factors so as to alleviate, the course of human events it cannot
diminish or remove the problem. Or they guarantee that the same case will not come
may be psychological, i.e., helping the indivi-
across new situational difficulties at a later
dual to understand his problem and mobilise period. After a case has been helped in the
his personality strengths to effect an adjust-
Agency, it is expected that some of the
ment or they may be both environmental clients will be able to handle these difficul-
ties better than before. Also, as each case
is handled scientifically it is expected that a
An important aspect of the work of this large number will have confidence enough
Agency is the co-operative arrangements to come back and ask for assistance at an
with other organisations such as hospitals, early date rather than experience breakdown
camps, courts, etc. The purpose is not to when they will face a situation difficult to
take the place of any service which other handle single-handed.
agencies may have but to pool together all
the resources in the community to meet the
needs of the client.
The Agency remains open from 9 A.M.
to 1 P. M. and 2 to 4 P.M. everybody except
Methods of Service.
—The service in this Sundays and Public Holidays.
Agency consists of several steps, which are
undertaken simultaneously or successively,
The work in the Family Welfare Agency
wholly or in part, depending on the indivi-
is carried on by a well-trained social case
dual cases and on the type of complaint. worker. The Tata Institute of Social Sciences
has recognised the Agency as a field work
centre for its students for practical training
Work with the client
in this field of social work.
Work with the family
NEWS AND NOTES
2 1 1
The managing committee of the Agency Charities, The American Women's Club and
is comprised of responsible citizens and social the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. Lady Jehangir
workers like the Hon. General Secretary and Dr. K. S. Mhaskar of the Bombay
and Executive Secretary of the Indian Mothers & Children's Welfare Society, have
Conference of Social Work, a member of allowed the Agency to have its office at
the Faculty of the Tata Institute of Social their Society's premises. It also received
Sciences and Joint Secretary of the Parsi Grant-in-aid from the Government of
Bombay. The Family Welfare Agency
deserves fullest financial and moral support
The agency was brought into existence of the public to enable it to carry out its
with the financial help of the N. M. Wadia programme fully.