NOTES AND COMMENTS ARTHUR ERASMUS HOLT (1876-1942 ) IN the death of Dr....
NOTES AND COMMENTS
ARTHUR ERASMUS HOLT (1876-1942 )
IN the death of Dr. Arthur E. Holt America has lost a clear thinker, and
a courageous prophet at a critical time when the services of such men
are most needed. True to his nature, he worked till the hour of his
death. He died at his desk in Chicago on the 13th of January. He was
professor of Social Ethics at the University of Chicago and was visiting
professor at our School in the winter of 1936-37. In 1929-30 he served as
regional consultant for India, Burma and Ceylon, surveying the work
conducted jointly by the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associ-
ation, He had travelled extensively in many parts of the world, studying
social conditions and religious work and had written several books on social
problems. For many years he was an active participant in all reform
movements for the reorganization of social and political life on an ethical
basis. The problems of economic adjustment between farmers and city
consumers received his special attention.
His cosmopolitanism and international outlook won for him the
friendship and respect of those with whom he came in contact. His selfless
life, characterized by simplicity, sympathy and sincerity, was a source of
inspiration to all those who had the privilege of being his students. He
maintained that democracy, though a hard way, was the only way that will
work in the long run. His faith in the democratic way of life was so great
that he advocated it as the religion of the future to be taught in all parts of
the world. Like the Chinese sage, Dr. Holt believed in the ideal " U n d e r
Heaven One Family ", and always worked for universal brotherhood and
international peace. We have lost an old associate and friend whose advice
and encouragement we valued very much, We extend our heartfelt con-
lences to the bereaved family.
LABOUR OFFICER AS AN EMPLOYER SEES HIM*
LABOUR welfare is such a wide term that it includes not only the creation
of social conditions to improve the economic, physical and intellectual
condition of the worker, but also the provision of facilities whereby the
worker can work under the minimum amount of hardship. It is becoming
* An abstract of a class lecture given by Mr. P. A. Narielwalla of Tata Sons Ltd., in the
course on " Labour Welfare " at the Tata School.
12

488 NOTES AND COMMENTS
more and more clear to all progressive employers that the provision of healthy
conditions of working is vitally important both to the employer and to the
worker. A cynic once told me that the provision of better conditions of work-
ing in a factory is done not with a view to improve the condition of the worker
but in order that the employer's profits may rise disproportionately higher.
There is of conrse a quantum of truth in it, as in all cynicisms, but it is not the
whole truth. To me, the provision of better conditions of working is essential
in order to make the worker take an interest in his work and feel joy in it. The
provision, therefore, of more healthy conditions of working in the shape of
light and ventilation, facilities wherever possible for working seated on a chair
instead of standing for hours together, removal of all causes which conduce to
unnecessary fatigue and waste of energy, installation of devices whereby the
hardship of manual labour can be reduced to a minimum, supplying of cold,
fresh, drinking water at central or easily accessible spots, providing clean
healthy uniforms and facilities for baths after work, arrangement for free
medical service including pre-natal and post-natal treatment and running a
canteen service on a basis of cost where supplies of clean, healthy food at
cheap rates can be made—these are to my mind some of the essentials of a wel-
fare programme for an up-to-date factory. I am afraid that these requirements
are still not fully appreciated to-day by the employers as a class and are look-
ed upon as luxuries. Their importance has not yet been recognized by all
employers. Therefore, this work of bringing to the notice of the employers
the need for healthier working conditions is something that is specially
marked out for the Labour Officer.
Welfare work outside working hours should, to my mind, be done also
by the employers themselves. I do not believe in honorary welfare workers
going round labourers' quarters giving them gratuitous advice on what they
should do and what they should not do. I often try to put myself in the posi-
tion of the unfortunate worker and wonder what my reactions would be to
some of these busy-bodies who come to give unwanted or unsought for assist-
ance. I do not wish to cast reflections on them but invariably their approach
to the problem being wrong, it gives rise to a great deal of misunderstanding
and, may I say, misapprehension in the mind of the workers.
I realise that in a socialist order, where the State is the largest employ-
er of labour, it is a part of the function of the State to provide amenities for
labour, but in a capitalist society in which we live, it is in my opinion the
function of the employer and the State to undertake this work. This is where
financial considerations play a large part, for money is needed in every direction
for promoting these welfare activities. I do not pretend that we in India have
only touched the fringe of the labour welfare problem and much remains to be

LABOUR OFFICER AS AN EMPLOYER SEES HIM 489
clone. While I do not deny that the profit-motive in the Indian employer is
still very strong, I assert that it is rarely realised that labour welfare work is
essentially dependent on the economic condition of the industry and its ability
to afford welfare activities that an employer would like to create.
In India where industrialisation is, comparatively speaking, very-limit-
ed and where industries have to fight for their very existence against foreign
vested interests, the scope and activity of welfare work are necessarily re-
stricted. As a liberal-minded employer, I might wish to provide several
welfare activities, but economic and financial considerations often debar me
from acting in this direction. It is a moot point as to which of the welfare
activities should be undertaken first. Is that attitude of mind " one step at
a time is enough for me " the right approach to the problem ? Should an
employer undertake the housing of his men as the first step, or should the
provision of social amenities like play-fields, reading rooms, night schools,
co-operative credit societies, etc. be undertaken simultaneously and in prefer-
ence to the housing scheme ? Take, for instance, the problem of housing.
In Bombay it is a problem which is acute and bristles with difficulties. In a
city like Bombay, the housing of workers cannot be undertaken by the
employers alone without the co-operation of the Municipality and the State.
Even outside Bombay the problem of housing presents a number of
difficulties. For instance at Cochin, where we have one of our factories,
where industrial development has hardly progressed, and where untrained
labour is available plentifully, we are daily flooded with workers who do not
mind travelling 8 to 10 miles per day by foot or by boat in order to seek a
livelihood. What attitude can the employer of labour take in the housing of
these workers ? To house them near the factory in a town brings the problem
of social vices; to remove the worker from the land on which he has his house
would mean breaking up his home and creating new domestic problems.
Further, is it worth creating a water tight community of workers and adding
yet another class to India's numerous classes and creeds ? The problem,
therefore, of housing is not easy of solution and it needs considerable fore-
sight and forethought. Mere building of dwelling houses without providing
them with the other necessities and amenities of life only worsens the situation
instead of improving it. It would be perhaps advisable to think in terms
of a housing colony where the land and the house can be acquired and built
by the employer in the first instance with the view that in a period of years
these houses may become the property of the workers. To some perhaps this
is not a solution as they may well turn round and say that we, capitalists, are
adding to the class of land-holders. But belonging to a capitalist organisation
and being a capitalist by birth and profession, I perhaps only think in terms

490 NOTES AND COMMENTS
of an enlightened capitalism. But the housing colony I visualise is only
capitalistic to the extent that it has to be built and got ready by the employers.
Its management and well being should be in the hands of the workers. It
should function as a democratic village community. It should have its own
Council or Panchayat to look after its municipal problems, its own schools for
primary and secondary education with a provision for a technical education
in the factories of the employers, its own medical and maternity facilities, its
own co-operative credit society, its own central stores and dairy, its commu-
nity restaurants and playfields, its own dramatic club and art centre, its own
music and Bajan practice and perhaps its own temple, church and mosque.
But a promotion of all these activities needs careful planning, a large
capital outlay, and most of all an effective and intelligent co-operation from
the workers themselves. And here the function of a labour officer begins;
he can play a great and important part in thinking about these problems;
merely trying to copy and reproduce an organisation which has thrived else-
where may not yield results here. To think originally should be our motto;
it matters little if a proposal is novel provided it is well thought out; it
matters still less if it is laughed at because greater men than ourselves have
been laughed and scoffed at before our time and in our own time because they
thought originally; to wit, Mahatma Gandhi, who has been the target of the
world's scoffing for years together, occupies today the position of being one
of the world's greatest men, if not the greatest.
So then, what are the functions and duties of the Labour Officer ? The
position of the Labour Officer is one which is both delicate and unenviable in
many respects. He has to be a liaison officer between the employer on the
one hand and labour on the other. To attain any measure of success he has
to win the implicit confidence of labour as well as the employer. An impossi-
ble task, some might say. I agree to some extent, but I feel that it is possible
to achieve it. A Labour Officer's position is like that of Caesar's wife. He
has to be a friend, philosopher and guide to the worker. He has to be a
counselor to his employer. He will have to exercise a considerable amount
of patience to deal with the problems of labour, and with it also a large dose
of tolerance. He will have to create an impression in the mind of the worker
that he (the worker) can confide in him (the Labour Officer), and tell him
all his woes in the hope that the Labour Officer may succeed in inducing the
employer to reduce his hardships. He must have and develop, if such a thing
is possible, a sense of impartiality and fairness in dealing with the labour
problems, not only vis-a-vis with the employer and labour but between one
worker and another. At the time of labour strike, the employer as well as
the employee will look to the Labour Officer for intervention in view of his

LABOUR OFFICER AS AN EMPLOYER SEES HIM 491
personal contact with the men. In the matter of recruitment and transfer of
labour from one department to another, in the matter of allocating suitable
jobs to suitable persons, in the matter of finding other employment in times
of stress when unemployment becomes inevitable—all these will require of
the Labour Officer a great deal of imagination, a certain amount of initiative
and a considerable amount of tact and patience. There will also be a number
of pitfalls in his path which he will have to guard against. In his position
as a Recruiting Officer, he will face many temptations and that is where he
will have to exercise the greatest amount of watchfulness in his own interest
as well as in the interest of the employer. He will be flooded with petitions
from friends and others asking him to give preference to X, Y or Z for em-
ployment. He will be offered monetary and material considerations for the
recruitment of a particular worker. These are some of the glaring pitfalls
before him and it is necessary that he should guard against the traps t h a t
are often laid deliberately with a view to test his integrity and honesty. To
the employer he has also to tender advice just as he has to tender advice to
the worker. He will have to bring to the notice of the employer the import-
ance of welfare work for improving the moral and material conditions of the
worker. His advice may fall on deaf ears, but if he has courage and patience
he will persist and persevere until he succeeds in inducing the employer to
adopt some of his suggestions. These are but a few ideas on what I consider
to be the duties and qualities of a good Labour Officer.
THE YENADIS OF CHITTOOR,
AMONG the aboriginal tribes in the Presidency of Madras, the Yenadis
occupy no insignificant place. They speak Telugu and are found in
the districts of Krishna, Guntur, Nellore, Cuddapah, Chingleput and
Chittoor. In 1901, their number was 1,04,000 and in 1921,1,38,000 for the whole
presidency. But the 1931 Census makes reference neither to them nor to the
Irulas, another aboriginal tribe. It may be that they have been enrolled as
Hindus or as any other faith to which they might have been converted by pro-
selytization ; but no explanation is given anywhere for the omission of Irulas
and Yenadis in the 1931 Census. The Yenadis in Chittoor district numbered,
according to the 1921 Census, 11,269. As there are no figures given in the
Census of 1931 for Yenadis, it is not possible to give their present figure,
but it is estimated that their number is about 15,000. Their total number
for the entire presidency may exceed 1,50,000, of whom more than 80,000 are
found in the district of Nellore alone.
The Yenadia is dark in complexion and short in stature, has a broad nose,

492 NOTES AND COMMENTS
grisly hair and lithe and agile limbs. The word Yenadi is said to be a corrup-
tion of the word ' Anadi ' meaning the original man ! He is not an ' untouch-
a b l e ' . He can draw water from any well and can serve the higher castes
including the Brahmins. There are numerous divisions among Yenadis.
Some of them are called the Reddi Yenadis, Chella Yenadi (refuse eating),
Adavi Yenadi. (forest), Kappa Yenadi (frog eaters), Somari Yeuadia (Idle).
In many households of Reddis who are a prosperous and cultured Hindu caste,
Reddi Yenadis serve as cooks, they also serve as watchmen. By associating
themselves with high class Hindus, Reddi Yenadis have gradually shed their
jungle habits and are now scarcely distinguishable from the common folk
except by those who know them well. Whatever be the sub-division to which
the Yenadi may belong, he will not eat with Madigas and Parayas who are
among the so-called ' u n t o u c h a b l e ' castes. The Yenadis live in colonies of
about 20 huts called Goodem or Palayam. Each palayam has a head-Yenadia,
who in consultation with a council of castemen, and independently too in
some cases, decides many disputes and social questions and imposes fines on
the erring Yenadis.
The Yenadi is essentially a denizen of the forest and knows the forest flora
very well. He is an expert in collecting honey from hill tops. He is a good
tracker of foot prints, and in many cases it is told the Yenadi's clues have
helped the police in tracing culprits and criminals. He climbs hills and
precipices with plaited rope and pliant bamboos. He collects all kinds of forest
produce for the contractor in return for a paltry quantity of paddy. He
knows the remedial properties and uses of herbs and roots in the hills. He
knows the remedies for scorpion sting and cobra bite too. He lives in a
conical circular hut. There is a long pole 10 feet high in the centre of
the hut and from the pole radiate small spoke-like beams all round the hut
resting on a wall about 5 feet high. The hut is built of bamboo, palmyra
leaves, grass, millet stalks and other twigs and leaves. The entrance is usually
small. Many of the huts in the settlements are kept very neat and clean. The
decorations on the floor encircled by thin red border in various designs in
front and round each house done with a mixture of powdered rice and red earth
would do credit to any high class Hindu woman. The inside of the hut is all a
single room with no ante-chamber attached to it. The Yenadi has not many
earthly goods which he can call his own. In the matter of religion, social
habits and dress, he conforms more or less to Hindu usage. There are very
few among them who can be called Animists.
He loathes settled work. While he has any thing to sustain him,
he will do no work ; compelled by hunger, he will collect and sell firewood,
hunt or fish. He will not do any work which is monotonous, irksome and

THE YENADIS OF CHITTOOR 493
laborious. His chief occupations are agricultural labour, tending sheep, cattle
breeding, scavenging, wood cutting, charcoal burning, basket making, rice
pounding, domestic service and as the village watch. He is a nomad and
shares some of the traits of the gypsies. He has a strong taste for wander-
ing life, and it is said that years ago, many people of other castes attracted
by the wandering life of the Yenadis, had joined the Yenadi gangs, adopting
their customs and ultimately claiming full membership of the tribe. This is
also said to be responsible for the abnormal increase of the Yenadis between
1911 and 1921, especially in Nellore district.
The Yenadi has been notified since about 14 years ago as a member of a
criminal tribe and his complaint is that as a result of it he has been subjected
to great many hardships even by the ordinary people. If a Yenadi refuses
to work for low wages, the landlord or contractor threatens that he would get
him registered as a criminal. This is responsible for the Yenadi being exploit-
ed by many contractors in the district. He has to be saved as much from
his nomadic and primitive traditions as from this Damocles' sword of extra-
legal harassment by well-to-do people of other castes. Ameliorative work
among them to improve their social, moral and material well-being has been
in progress in several Yenadi-palayams in Chittoor district during the last four
years under Government auspices. The credit for this work should go to the
Congress Ministry. The Police Department, which administers the Criminal
Tribes Act, is running these colonies under the direction of the Government
of Madras.
One of the colonies is at Gallapalli, which is 20 miles from Renigunta.
This settlement has come into existence after reclamation work among the
Yenadis was started in 1939 by the Government. It consists of 50 houses with
well-planned sites and streets, a good well and a school which is not yet recog-
nised. The Yenadis have learnt to make bricks with which they have built the
teachers' quarters and the provision store which is run by a Yenadi youth.
The well was dug and built by the Yenadis themselves. They saved some
money which they utilised for purchasing bulls. The District Superintendent
of Police, Mr. V. Subbarayan, who is their guide, friend and philosopher,
has secured for them 100 acres of land very near the settlement and has
distributed the same among the 45 families in the settlement engaged in
agriculture. Some Yenadis of this colony are also engaged in burning charcoal.
Formerly they were being paid Rs. 3/- for a cartload of 20 bags of charcoal of
90 lbs. each, but now owing to the successful negotiation of the Yenadi
Reclamation Officer with the contractors, the rate has been raised to Rs. 8/-.
At Kalahasti the shed that was formerly a toddy shop has been converted
into a weaving shed for Yenadis. Chittoor district is happily a prohibition

494 NOTES AND COMMENTS
area. Six looms are at work and the Yenadis are weaving bed sheets, lungis,
towels etc. for local dealers on a daily wage of Rs. 0-6-0. The colony at Yer-
pedu consists of 50 families, all of whom are casual labourers and they find it
very difficult to find work. Vadamalpet is 5 miles from Renigunta in another
direction. The colony here consists of 40 huts and this is the oldest and best
of the colonies. About 100 acres of the Tirupati temple lands have been
secured for the Yenadis and they have now been settled down on these lands
as agriculturists. The School here had in 1941, 32 pupils of whom 18 were boys
and 14 girls. They sing well and sweetly too. They have learned to sing even
Tagore's song 'Jana-Gana-Mana'. Tape making is also taught to children
as part of the school work.
While the work so far done by Government is no doubt laudable it has
not yet touched the fringe of the Yenadi problem. The Government should
have a comprehensive scheme of work for the Yenadis so as to provide them
with every facility to enable them to rise up to the level of the average citizen,
as they have done in the case of Kallars of Madura district. The Government
should be prepared to spend many times the present amount they are spending
in addition to other facilities that they may grant for the realization of this
ideal. The Yenadis deserve it by the long neglect they have suffered at the
hands of the society and of Government.
S. R. VEHKATARAMAN , B . A . , B . L .
Member, Servants of India Society, Madras
"I BECAME A TEACHER"*
T is indeed a pleasure to take part in this series of broadcast talks on "I
Became a T e a c h e r " . Before entering a profession seldom do young
people weigh carefully the advantages and disadvantages of any particular
vocation. At first I myself did not think seriously of this calling. Later I
decided to become a teacher because, in the first place, my mother constantly
held before me the ideals of service; in the second place, my high school
teachers made study a disagreeable job, and thirdly because of my valuable
experiences of learning under great teachers as an undergraduate and post-
graduate student in the United States of America. Such famous men like Josiah
Royce, Rudolf Eucken, Hugo Munsterburg, John Dewey and others made a very
notable contribution to the growth of my personality. It is there that I began
to realise how much good teachers can do not only to stimulate intellectual
interests but also to form ideals of citizenship in the young students entrusted
* A broadcast talk in the series "I became a Teacher" by Dr. J. M. Kumarappa,
Ag. Director of the Tata Graduate School of Social Work, from the All India Radio Station,
Delhi, on the. 16th February, 1942.

I BECAME A TEACHER 495
to their care. So I decided to become a teacher.
I have now been a teacher for over a quarter of a century. I have not
regretted having entered this profession. If I were given a chance to live my
life over again, I would again choose teaching as my career. Though teaching
is a fascinating occupation, it is one of the most exacting of jobs with often
little leisure and less thanks. But in moulding the character and lives of so
many of the future citizens of one's country, a conscientious teacher finds his
greatest values of life and satisfaction in the daily routine of his work.
Furthermore, I do not find teaching the dull grind it is made out to be;
for the constant and never ending stream of new material in the form of fresh
batch of students is passing through one's hands each year, even if one is
confined to one department or one classroom in an educational institution.
Each student brings with him fresh courage, enthusiasm and idealism along
with new problems to be met and solved. The feeling of pride and self-respect
that comes from doing one's job well and presenting one's lessons skilfully
is the result of mental growth on the part of the teacher who has to keep
. abreast of the latest developments in his subjects. This prevents him from
getting into a rut of pedantry and smug self-satisfaction, and helps him to
keep his intellect alive. Moreover, of all professionals, teachers have the
chance of staying young through the contagion of youth which rebuilds its
spirit and its dream in them.
I am a teacher not merely because of those personal advantages but
even more because of the service I can render in my own way to the progress
of our nation by moulding the character of the young students with whom I
am privileged to come into contact. A country that has a large number of
really good efficient teachers should congratulate itself, for it is they who
render valuable service to the nation and its welfare. Indeed, the school may
be considered one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization
because all educationists agree that universal elementary education is necessary
if democracy is to exist, since it is the predominant form of social organisa-
tion among civilised people today. What a nation is depends largely upon
what type of teachers are found in that nation's classrooms.
I find that my job as a teacher extends far beyond the walls of the class-
rooms, for how I mould the character of my students determines the way they
will respond to the tasks set before them in the outside world. Because of
this immense responsibility, I have not only to be very careful about my own
character but also about every aspect of my work and relationship with my
students. My objective then in teaching is not merely the imparting of
knowledge but even more that of character-building. But I must make clear
what I mean by character-building. When I say that character-building is the
13

496 NOTES AND COMMENTS
ultimate aim of education I am using the word " character " in a wider sense
than is usually understood by the term. Ordinarily, this word is used only as
applying to the moral or spiritual nature of man. In this narrow sense, it is clear
that it could not include all the elements that enter into a person's education.
The term so used by me has a much broader meaning; for character, as
aim in education, must include all the elements that compose or make up a
desirable and efficient preparation for life. It follows, therefore, that the
greater the number of these elements that enter into a person's character, the
more complete will be his education. In this wider conception, character
includes all the best qualities and ideals in the culture of the nation. There-
fore a person of a worthy or desirable character may be described as one who
represents in himself, and expresses in his life, the best ideals of the civiliza-
tion of which he is a part. The introduction of western education, unrelated
to our life and culture, has brought about a cultural dualism which stands in
the way of that spontaneous development of a unified national energy which is
the law of normal life in society. This dualism, extending far wider than any
earlier schism, has almost severed the intellectual element of the nation from
the historic traditions of Indian development.
Culture is as important to a nation as face is to an individual; it is culture
that gives individuality to a race or a nation. "The physical organization of
the race," says poet Tagore, "has certain vital memories which are persistent,
and which fashion its nose and eyes in a particular shape, regulate its stature
and deal with the pigment of its skin. In the ideal of the race there also run
memories that remain constant, or, in the sense of alien mixture, come back
repeatedly even after the lapse of long intervals. These are the compelling
forces that secretly and inevitably fashion the future of a people and give
characteristic shape to its civilization". Therefore the main lines of a people's
education must be determined by its inner life, its character and predisposition.
Since it is the living consciousness of the race's past ideals and achievements
which differentiates one cultural group from another, it is imperative that
such historical traditions and ideals should be made to form the intellectual
equipment not only of every student but also of the lowest unlettered member
of the race.
If the world is to take cognizance of India's never failing emphasis on
the abiding values of the spirit, then she must demonstrate the superiority of
her spiritual culture over the secular culture of the West. And such demon-
stration is not possible unless and until we ourselves are taught to live up to
high and noble ideals of our sages and saints. To this end the teacher must
strive to develop the cultural traits in each child till it makes him a perfect
incarnation of the soul of India. Our first aim must therefore be to

I BECAME A TEACHER 497
meet the immediate need of providing our children with a culture that is
the product of India's thought and creation. Such a cultural foundation is
necessary to enable them to take a legitimate pride in their own intellectual aris-
tocracy as well as to assimilate to greater advantage the best in Western culture.
Besides, in this age of international strife, India must offer to the world
her philosophy of life, of peace, based on her conception of the spiritual unity
of all human beings. In order to make the best in our culture available to the
peoples of the West, it is essential to revive our own learning and make it
available first to the children of the soil. We, as teachers, must first become
saturated with our own indigenous culture and then make it available to the
youth of the land. We can no longer continue to stand as outcastes deprived
of our place among the cultured peoples of the world. India has had a glori-
ous past, and her future is not without promise, but the latter really depends
on the education of the young. I became a teacher ; I continue as a teacher
and my task is to do all that is within my power not only to help to revive our
culture but also to make every student, who comes under my influence, to
represent and express as far as possible in his life and work the best ideals of
the civilization of which he is a part.
FIGHTING SOCIAL VICE IN INDIA
AT the present time, when moral values are as much at stake as political
freedom, it may be useful to outline, in non-technical terms, the basic
principles of Moral and Social Hygiene Work. These principles are:—
(a) An equal moral standard for men and women; (b) liberty with respon-
sibility; (c) and respect for human personality. Acting on these principles,
the Association for Moral and Social Hygiene in India has formulated the
following aims and objects : —
(a) to secure condemnation of all aspects of State Regulation of com-
mercialised prostitution ;
(b) to raise the standard of character and conduct in sexual relations,
and to uphold the highest family traditions ;
(c) to secure recognition of an equally high standard of morality for
men and women;
(d) to eradicate prostitution and kindred evils as far as possible.
The Regulation System introduced by Napoleon in 1802, initiated and
fostered as it was by the State, seemed to justify the notion that continence
was harmful to physical as well as mental health. Under this system, women
were segregated for the use of the troops. They were compulsorily subjected
to medical examination and, if found diseased, were forced to undergo treat-

498 NOTES AND COMMENTS
ment. The system was supposed to cheek the spread of venereal diseases
among the troops, as the provision of these women catered for the so-called
"biological necessity". This system was a despicable degradation of women,
who were placed under police control and had to obtain licenses from them.
Licensed women's movements were closely watched and controlled. Infringe-
ment of those unjust laws meant punishment.
The existence of the vice areas was a temptation to adolescents and
adults, and the official sanction which lay behind the system unintentionally
encouraged the vice. Thus public morality was bound to suffer. In view
of these considerations, the Ladies' National Association for the Repeal of
the Contagious Diseases Acts was formed in 1869, by Mrs. Josephine Butler.
She championed the cause of these women and conducted a most difficult
crusade. Mrs. Butler was a highly talented woman, profoundly religious, and
cosmopolitan in outlook. She fought for two fundamental principles, name-
ly :—(a) an equal and high moral standard for men and women, and
(b) equality of both sexes before law.
Mrs. Butler founded the International Abolitionist Federation, whose
headquarters are in Geneva. The London Branch is known as The Association
for Moral and Social Hygiene. It has been working since its foundation, by
invitation in various countries; the Indian Branch has its headquarters in
New Delhi. In 1854, the British Army introduced the same Regulation policy
by the application of the C. D. Acts to India. Regular brothels were established
for the use of the troops. Indian and Japanese women were housed in them
and were medically examined. The existence of those houses became a
common feature of cantonments. As a result of this segregation of vice, the
incidence of veneral diseases in the British troops in India rose to 503 per
thousand hospital cases. Since the abandonment of the Regulation system,
the ratio for British troops has fallen below 40 per thousand.
Agitation against the C. D. Acts was going on in England, when in
1874, Keshab Chandra Sen, (whose centenary was celebrated in India in
December 1938), appealed to Mrs. Josephine Butler to help by studying and
gradually removing these conditions in India. The council of Mrs. Butler's
Abolitionist Association invited Keshab Chandra Sen to join them as a
member, and this marked the beginning of the present Association for Moral
and Social Hygiene in India. Her Association in England was invited by a
group of reformers in Bengal to send a whole-time investigator to India, and
the London A. M. S. H. Committee promised to maintain financially the
present Central Organiser, Miss Meliscent Shephard, for 3 years. After a
long struggle, the Regulation system in relation to the army in India was
abandoned. The following extract from a letter from the Military Secretary

FIGHTING SOCIAL VICE IN INDIA 499
of the India Office addressed to the London Headquarters of the Association
for Moral and Social Hygiene makes the present army policy in India clear: —
"I am to add, for the information of your Association that the issue by
any responsible officer of His Majesty's Forces, to any section of that Army
in India, of any official advertisement or recommendation of any brothel,
whether for the use of the Army or otherwise, is contrary to the policy of the
Government of India, as also is the periodical inspection or control of the
inmates of any such brothel by any Medical Officer of His Majesty's Forces."
Prostitution and traffic in women and girls are the two sides of the same
shield. Where there is prostitution, the traffic in women must go on, as the
brothels have to be kept well provided with fresh entrants. The market has
to be increasingly profitable to those who are concerned with this vicious trade.
The interests of the "buyers", "sellers" and the third parties have to be
furthered. Such being the case, the immoral traffic flourishes, and victimiza-
tion of the women involved increases. Thus it is clear that as long as pro-
stitution is allowed to develop in commercialised form, there will be no "equal
moral standard for men and women"; no "liberty with responsibility"; and
no "respect for human personality"—the three vital principles of moral and
social hygiene. Hence it is necessary to oppose traffic in women and girls. To
challenge this traffic is the aim of the Association for Moral and Social
Hygiene in India.
How far is the Indian society responsible for this situation ? Antiquated
social customs, unsatisfactory family conditions, marital mal-adjustments in
poor homes, social tyranny over the unfortunate Hindu widows lead many
an Indian girl to fall into the traps of pimps and traffickers. Young, and
innocent, illiterate girls are kidnapped, seduced or enticed away for purposes
of prostitution. They are either sold to old retired prostitutes, or sold
in marriage to fictitious husbands, and once an Indian woman falls into
such difficulties, her only destiny is to be victimised by one or more hypocritical
sympathisers; then, after feeling disgraced by repeated deceits and pitfalls,
she embraces the disgraceful profession of prostitution openly.
In Western countries, and in large industrial cities of the East, a number
of girls are employed as domestic servants, shop assistants, telephone girls
etc. Their wages are small, and they cannot meet the standard of life they
aspire to have. The result is that they seek questionable ways and means of
making extra money. It is not long before many discover the easy way of
prostitution. And once they make a moral slip, they are lost. It is not poverty
therefore but desire for luxury that is a cause of certain girls' entry into a
life of prostitution.
We shall now consider the methods by which the association tries to

500 NOTES AND COMMENTS
convert its ideals into accomplished facts. As has been said at the beginning,
the A. M. S. H. endeavours to promote reforms in the laws, in administration
and in the social customs of the country ; it tries to arouse public interest in
these great problems ; by means of education, it brings to the knowledge of
young and old the real facts of life, the dangers of the misuse of the gift of
sex, the need of chastity before marriage and faithfulness to the highest
standards of family life, the ideals of chivalry and of justice between the sexes.
Medically, it tries to bring to the knowledge of all, the great danger of dis-
ease in promiscuous sexual intercourse ; it endeavours to secure the provision
of up-to-date and confidential treatment of those diseases for all who become
infected whether innocently or otherwise, it advocates better training of
medical students in these matters, and stresses the harmful effects of irregu-
lar living.
For the sake of convenience, the work of the Association may be dis-
cussed under the following heads :— (a) work for the protection of women
and girls; (b) work for the protection of children. There are five aspects
of the work :—(1) Investigatory, (2) Legal, (3) Educational, (4) Medical and
(5) Rescue.
Investigation.—Although the workers in connection with the Missions,
and specialists like Dr. Bushnell and Mrs. Andrews, had undertaken a limited
survey in connection with individual women trapped into the life of prostitu-
tion, yet it was obviously necessary to make a general survey of the actual
conditions in the segregated vice areas and to obtain first hand information
as to the causes lying behind the traffic in women. The Central Organiser,
therefore, undertook personal investigation into the various types of houses
in Calcutta, Bombay, Lahore, Madras and other cities and also visited the
hidden villages in Ceylon. These investigations made it clear that adequate
legislation and a campaign of education were necessary, together with greatly
increased medical help.
Legal.—When Miss Shephard arrived in Bengal in 1928, she found that
no comparative study of the laws in the different provinces had been made.
She, therefore, undertook this study, and prepared a statement showing the
penalties against procurers, and those who live upon immoral earnings, and also
the protective clauses in operation in different provincial laws. This study made
it quite clear that in some provinces there was incomplete legislation and in
others either no protective clauses or no Children's Act; and penalties against
procuration and trafficking were very defective. This study was followed up by
the writer, Assistant Organiser, who prepared a pamphlet on " A Comparative
Study of Provincial and Indian State Acts Relating to Traffic in Women and
C h i l d r e n " . Since that date, new legislation, or amendments to existing

FIGHTING SOCIAL VICE IN INDIA 501
legislation, have been promoted by the A. M. S. H. and the following provinces
have enacted the Suppression of Immoral Traffic Acts : —
.1. Bombay— Bombay Act No. XI of 1923: The Bombay Prevention of
Prostitution Act 1923 (As modified up to the 31st March
1934 ).
2. Mysore State— Regulation VIII of 1936: Regulation for the Suppression
of Brothels and Immoral Traffic in Mysore State.
3. Punjab— Punjab Act IV of 1935: The Punjab Suppression of
Immoral Traffic Act, 1935.
4. Delhi— Bengal Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act 1933 (as
applied to Delhi).
5. Bengal— Bengal Act VI of 1933: The Bengal Suppression of
Immoral Traffic Act, 1933.
6. Madras— The Madras Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act, 1930:
Madras Act No. V of 1930 (As amended by Madras Act
I of 1932 and 1938).
7. U. P.— The United Provinces Suppression of Immoral Traffic
Act, 1933.
8. North-West The North-West Frontier Province Anti-Prostitution and
Frontier Suppression of Brothels Act, 1936.
Province
9. Gwalior State— Sections 357, 375A, 857B, 363 and 364 of the State Penal
Code.
10. Ajmer-Merwara—Sections 167 and 168 of the Ajmer-Merwara Municipali-
ties Regulation, 1925 (VI of 1925).
11. Bihar— The Bengal Disorderly Houses Act III of 1906.
12. Baroda State— Sections 356 and 357 of the State Penal Code correspond-
ing to sections 372 and 373 of the Indian Penal Code.
13. Sind— Bombay Act No. XI of 1923: the Bombay Prevention of
Prostitution Act 1923: also section 41 of the Bombay
District Police Act, 1890, is applied to certain towns and
villages in Sind.
14. Kashmir & Jammu—Ranbir Penal Code: sections 366-A and 498.
15. Travancore— Regulation I I I of 1107 M. E. ( 1932 A. D. )
16. Ceylon— Act of 1913 Domestic Servants Ordinance.
The effort to promote adequate legislation has necessitated a consider-
able amount of public propaganda, and education. In other words, a draft

502 NOTES AND COMMENTS
bill has been used as a peg on which to hang the challenge against the double
moral standard, and the appeal for an enlightened public opinion. In this
effort the Press have been helpful, both English and Indian.
Study Circles have been promoted, to help those concerned with grow-
ing children to a more balanced knowledge. The Central Organiser has re-
cently published a booklet called " A Plea for the Provision of Instruction in
the Duties of Civic and Family Life (Including Sex Hygiene) in Schools and
Colleges in India, with a Foreword by the Educational Commissioner with the
Government of India ". Some of her papers have been translated into certain
vernaculars, but writers able to interpret are needed in order to take advant-
age of the present demand for vernacular instruction. The difficulty of find-
ing an adequate vocabulary in the Indian languages has to be overcome. In
this connection Mrs. L. W. Bryce's books, "The Comrades of the Road " and
" The Child in the Midst" which have been translated into several Indian
languages, are useful.
Medical.—As treatment of the venereal diseases is no part of the ordi-
nary curriculum in many medical colleges, it has been necessary to stimulate
interest amongst the medical profession, and to urge a great extension of
clinics with free bacteriological tests. In Calcutta, for instance, out of 11
teaching hospitals, it was found in 1928 that only one included training in the
diagnosis and treatment of the venereal diseases as part of its medical courses.
On representations made, it is encouraging to report that other hospitals have
adopted the fuller and more complete curriculum. In this connection a
challenge against pornographic material, whether in films, books, pictures,
posters or advertisements has been made. As a member of the Bengal Board
of Film Censors, the Central Organiser was able to study the duties of
censorship.
Enquiries have already been received from different parts of India as to
whether a Training House, similar to the Josephine Butler's Memorial Train-
ing House in England, could be opened in India to train Indian women in the
practical work necessary in connection with these social questions. Several
Universities have already introduced something of Social Science Course. The
Tata Graduate School of Social Work, Bombay, has filled this long-felt want,
and it is very encouraging to see that its graduates are serving in different
parts of India. It is hoped that a few more institutions of this type will come
into existence and follow the exclelent example set by this School.
Rescue.—Apart from Christian missions, in whose compounds Rescue
Homes already exist, there have been, since 1928, an increasing number of
Rescue Homes opened by Parsee, Hindu and Moslem groups. In this connec-
tion the Central Organiser has prepared a pamphlet called "Traffic in Women

FIGHTING SOCIAL VICE IN INDIA. 503
and Children and Commercialised Prostitution : Principles for the considera-
tion of Departments of Local Self-Government and Municipalities ". In India,
every province should adopt an Act for prevention of cruelty to children, and
engage women welfare workers or probation officers who can deal with cases
brought under notice of the Children's Court. The reader is referred to a
booklet " The Probation Service in England and in India with a Foreword by
the Home Member of Council, Government of I n d i a " prepared by the
Central Organiser.
Protection of Children.—The work of the Association has steadily de-
veloped, especially owing to the interest shown by the Patron, Her Excellency
the Marchioness of Linlithgow. Her Excellency's Special Appeal for funds
for the Association has enabled the work to be continued and expanded in
certain directions. The work for the protection of children has engaged the
particular attention of the Association, and at the last Annual Meeting, held on
31st March 1941, the Chairman of the Association, Sir Maurice Gwyer said : —
" Another aspect of our work is becoming more and more important;
I refer to the work for delinquent and victim children. Instead of Delhi hav-
ing modern arrangements, and giving a lead to other cities, it is now engaged
in trying to find out the best methods from the Provinces and then to reform
its present arrangements. The Association, particularly the Assistant Secre-
tary, Mr. Nigam (who is away in Madras at the moment), has been taking an
increasingly active part in all this work, and has been keeping in close touch
with the Delhi Children's Aid Society, of which Miss Shephard was the in-
spiring Honorary Secretary for some years. We have unfortunately at present
in Delhi a legacy of unsatisfactory arrangements for juvenile delinquents but I
hope and think that the Local Government is persuaded of the need for a
Juvenile Court Magistrate and Special Court, of Probation Officers, and for a
Remand Home for Children."
The Assistant Organiser's tours throughout India, in connection with
this work, and his subsequent reports and suggestions are now proving fruitful,
and it is very encouraging to have news of satisfactory progress from different
Provinces. The Government of Bombay, for instance, have written to say that
they are adopting in the Province most of the recommendations made by the
Assistant Organiser. In Delhi also the necessary Juvenile Court and Remand
Home arrangements have been made. The Central Organiser, A. M. S. H. in
India, continues her tours of investigation and inspection in connection with
the work for the protection of women and girls, including a review of the
activities of Rescue Homes, and of the working of the Suppression of Immoral
Traffic Acts.
The aim of establishing a Provincial Welfare Service for women has
14

504 NOTES AND COMMENTS
been achieved in Madras Presidency. There a Central Training Home, with
39 branches and shelters in the Mofussil and with an Indian Provincial
Woman Welfare Worker and assistants, has been the result of the A. M. S. H.
work spread over a number of years in collaboration with the Madras Vigilance
Society. The Madras Government speak highly of the value of this Provincial
Welfare Work to which they give a considerable grant. It is hoped that
other Provinces and States will follow this example.
The A. M. S. H. has received many requests from local social welfare
societies and from Governments of Indian States for guidance and affiliation
to A. M. S. H. in India. It is encouraging to note that there is a great
awakening in India to the need for protecting women and children from ex-
ploitation. The Educational and Probation booklets of the Association have
been widely circulated by the Government of India, and by the Association.
The Central Advisory Board of Health has, for some time past, under con-
sideration certain proposals of the A. M. S. H. for the teaching of sex hygiene
in schools and colleges, and is considering them at its Conference in
Calcutta, early in 1942.
Most of the women's organisations in India e.g. the All-India Women's
Conference, National Council of Women in India, and other social service
conferences have passed resolutions, sponsored by the A. M. S. H . , urging
the public and Government to take steps to secure better protection for women
and children. It is hoped that at a time when war is directly threatening us,
such work for protection, instead of being forced to the background, will
receive a greater impetus. Refugee and evacuated women and children are
exposed not only to the sufferings of war, but also to the greater dangers of
exploitation for immoral purposes. The A. M. S. H. in India has had long
experience in organising efforts to prevent and suppress this exploitation and
traffic and is willing to help wherever help is needed in the future.
K. S. NIGAM
Assistant Organiser,
Association for Moral & Social Hygiene in India.
PREVENTION OP BEGGARY IN HYDERABAD
AN Act for the Prevention of Beggary in Hyderabad was passed and has
received the assent of H . E . H . the Nizam. Unlike many other schemes
that are adopted in other centres, in Hyderabad they have put some
teeth into the scheme. They have made begging a punishable offence. Section 3
says, " No person shall adopt the profession of begging " and in section 16,
it says, " E v e r y officer and Police official who sees a person in any place con-

PREVENTION OF BEGGARY IN HYDERABAD 505
travening the provisions of section 3 or about whom he receives a complaint
that he is guilty of such contravention, may order such person to refrain from
such contravention and to leave such place. If the said order is not complied
with, he shall, after holding a panchnama, arrest the offender and take him to
the nearest Police Station to hand him over with the panchnama to the Police
official present there."
The Police official has to produce the beggar before a court where, if he
promises not to beg any longer, he will be discharged. If he does not promise
to refrain from begging, or if he repeats after being discharged, unless there
is respectable person to stand surety for him, he will be committed to an insti-
tution for beggars. Such institutions are to be established in suitable places
" for the maintenance, residence, physical exercise, technical and primary
education and reform of beggars." They are to be under the general
management of a " chief committee " appointed by the Municipal Corporation
in Hyderabad City and by the District or Local Boards in other regions. The
financing of the institutions is to be done by raising subscriptions or receiving
donations from the public and also from allocations in their budgets by
Municipalities of respective areas. Beggars are to be admitted to institutions
either at their own request or by order of the court to be retained there for
a minimum of two years. They are to be released only after they have "become
capable of earning a living."
The semi-official set up augurs success for the scheme. As part of the
scheme, the Chief Committee have decided to collect one pie per rupee from all
government employees with an income exceeding Rs. 50/-. Government are
also willing to render financial aid. Beggar problem, we might mention here,
is not isolated and disconnected with other economic problems. The need is
not so much to train beggars to earn a living but provide them jobs to
enable them to support themselves. Able-bodied beggars are not all unwilling
to work; but they have no work to do. While it is true that there are many
idlers and so-called religious mendicants among the army of beggars, many
landless agriculturists, with no jobs or resources to fall back upon, gradually
drift into vagrancy.
Another observation to be made is regarding the apparent hope of the
sponsors of the scheme that provision of food and shelter will attract the
beggars to come to these institutions. Experiences in cities where such facili-
ties had been provided, show that beggars prefer the freedom outside to secur-
ity with discipline inside an institution. The common danger in such schemes
is the tendency on the part of authorities to take a patronising attitude towards
these beggars and make it extremely humiliating for them to remain as in-
mates. Beggars by and large are poor either materially or in self-respect and

506 NOTES AND COMMENTS
self-reliance. If schemes are sponsored to ameliorate the material poverty of
beggars at the cost of what little self-respect they have we will have an
increasing army of beggars on our hands for all time. But since beggars are
just the unfortunates in society, their material, physical and moral rehabilita-
tion is the prime duty of society. To achieve this end, economic reforms of a
sweeping nature are needed.
CONFERENCE OF WORKERS WITH JUVENILE DELINQUENTS
THE fifth conference to discuss work under the Bombay Children, Borstal
Schools and Probation of Offenders' Acts met in Bombay in a two-day
session on the 26th and 27th of January 1942. It was opened by Mr. C.
H. Bristow, C.I.E., I.C.S., Adviser to the Governor of Bombay when he
announced that the Juvenile Court of Bombay was to be reconstituted with a
full-time non-lawyer woman magistrate. He pointed out that there should be
greater support and interest for the work under the above Acts from the public
and also the need for more "properly trained Probation Officers." He
announced that the Government had decided to appoint 12 more such officers
from April next.
The papers read dealt with various problems of urgent practical import-
ance in the execution of the work under the Acts. The discussions on the
whole revealed, on the one hand, the extent of good will, idealism and en-
thusiasm on the part of many workers, and, on the other, a type of approach
more legalistic than constructive. There was uniform condemnation of the
Bombay Children's Act in regard to many of the clauses therein. Several pro-
posals for amendments were made and passed to be submitted for Govern-
ment approval. The value of such conferences is great. It is only when we
try to put into practice certain laws and theories that we recognize their defects
and difficulties. When workers who confront such difficulties meet and ex-
change ideas and compare notes much light is generally thrown on the subject.
In regard to the reconstitution of the Juvenile Court, we are happy
to note that the usefulness and importance of such a Court is recognised
at least now. The Juvenile Court in Bombay was till now presided over by
a part-time lawyer-magistrate recruited from the Service, and that too on a
short-term basis. The Court met only once a week thus delaying disposal
of cases. With neither training nor experience in the field of Social Work
relating to Juvenile Delinquency, and with the legalistic outlook developed in
the other courts, the magistrates are handicapped in dealing with juvenile
cases. Their legal training makes them stress the legal aspects more than the
human element. Moreover, Juvenile Court work being only a temporary phase

CONFERENCE OF WORKERS WITH JUVENILE DELINQUENTS 507
of their official career, there is no incentive for them to specialize in it. All
these factors contribute to much inefficiency and delay. Now that a full-time
magistrate is appointed who, though without legal training, has had practical
experience in dealing with children and their problems, the Juvenile Court
gains a new status and a new role. We venture to interpret the change as an
indication of a new and long overdue reformulation of the method and philo-
sophy of treatment of juvenile delinquents.
The recruitment of a larger number of trained Probation Officers augurs
bright prospects and greater efficiency in the field of protecting and saving the
unfortunate children. As it is, too many cases are on the hands of a single
Probation Officer. Also, many districts do not have trained men to tackle the
problem. The additional number of Probation Officers will help in reducing
the case load of the present staff as well as in the extension of the provisions
of the Children's Act to other regions.
There is a tendency in governmental departments to "consider the
claims " of those who are already in service when new appointments are made.
We wonder whether such " c l a i m s " will be given preference as against
qualifications, training and experience. We hope that the department is
sufficiently convinced of the need for special training for all those who are
dealing with children especially for Probation Officers. The major and primary
claim is that of the children themselves. The most important aspect of work
with Juvenile Delinquents is that those who are engaged in it should view it
as a vocation rather than as a mere job. Probation work is both a profession
and a vocation. Personality of the worker is as important as the indispensa-
bility of his training. To recruit men for Probation work on any basis other
than the above two, is sure to end in tragedy. We are dealing with children
and the task is so difficult and yet so sacred that we have to give them the best
both in treatment and personnel.