NOTES AND NEWS BALKAN-JI-BARI—AKHIL H I N D BALAK SANGH "Its work...
NOTES AND NEWS
BALKAN-JI-BARI—AKHIL H I N D BALAK SANGH
"Its work and its activities.
totalling more than 125, and its member-
ji-Bari is a Sindhi phrase which, according ship is nearly 25,000. Boys and girls
to Kaka Saheb Kalelkar, has been adopted meet in these centres once a week at least,
by Hindustani, and it means 'Children's and oftener at certain places, and arrange
Garden.' The chief aim of the association different programmes every time. Besides,
is to keep children as happy as possible it has a pen-friendship section which
and to let them develop by themselves. brings children of different places in contact
According to our president, Shri B. G. Kher's
with each other. It has also its own two
recent announcement, Balkan-ji-Bari must children's schools, one at Karachi and
become a body which could be referred another at Sukkur.
to for solutions of all problems connected
"Balkan-ji-Bari has two children's
with children up to the age of eighteen own libraries at Khar and Karachi con-
years. The association has been progres-
sisting of books for children in different
sing slowly and steadily, and it is hoped languages. They, however, are small libra-
and wished that it shall be able to achieve ries, and need to be expanded. Bari also
its aims and objects not very late.
has a poor children's fund, out of which
"Balkan-ji-Bari was started in 1926 study scholarships are awarded to its poor,
by a Brother in Sind who prefers to be deserving members. It also helps in making
known as Dada (an elder brother). He collections for deserving causes such as
felt that as we were growing older and famine and flood relief funds. The associa-
older, we were rather becoming more tion conducts its own four monthly
and more selfish, and, therefore, we were journals Pushpa
in English and Gujarati,
losing our real happiness. He thought Hamare Balak
in Hindustani and Gulistan
that children who were already happy in Sindhi, as well as 'Children's Corners'
should be able to retain their happiness in Bombay Chronicle
even as and when they grew old. Thus Bombay Samachar
happiness which everyone is after, which (Tamil) and other papers.
everyone yearns for, would come to stay.
"Balkan-ji-Bari has been holding its
"With that idea he first started just writing periodical excursions and tours, as well
for children, then collected a few of them as workers' camps. So far, about five
and arranged programmes for and by workers' training camps have been orga-
them, and later their provincial and all-
nised. The last time that children were
India gatherings were held. Children who taken on a distant trip was in 1941, when
did not know even each other's language a party of forty Bombay children went
felt happy in each other's company. And as far as Sind and toured round Karachi,
Dada's expectations began to be realised Hyderabad, Larkana, Mohan-jo-Daro,
in seeing children of all castes and creeds Sukkur and other places. At that time
forming into one great brotherhood.
an All-India Balkan-ji-Bari Workers' Con-
"At present Balkan-ji-Bari has provin-
ference also was held. The second such
cial organisations only in two provinces, conference was held in Bombay in Decem-
Bombay and Sind. Its branches, however, ber, 1946.
are spread in almost all parts of
"Its ambitions and aspirations.
the country, including Bengal, Punjab, concrete things we want to do with a
Delhi, U. P., Bihar and South India, view to fulfilling the aims and objects
178 NOTES AND NEWS
of our association, is narrated here below.
Hindu or Muslim, any province, Maha-
First of all, we want to educate children
rashtra or Madras. Besides, it wishes to
in such a manner that they become patri-
establish a children's mutual aid centre
otic and self-reliant Indian citizens having in all its units. Balkan-ji-Bari aims at
power and endurance and self-sacrifice. becoming an organisation whose branches
To achieve this, undoubtedly, the process
will be ready, willing and able to solve
would be a very long and sustained one,
any difficulty or problem facing parents,
but our organisation will continue to put society or the Government, in relation
forth its efforts. However, whatever it to children.
is able to do will more or less be symbolic,
" T h e children's own library of the
because education is the concern first Balkan-ji-Bari will contain all kinds of
of the parents and homes and then of the books meant for and relating to children.
school and whole-time institutions.
Its all-India children's own museum
"Balkan-ji-Bari, at present, is able to will contain whatever the boys and girls
do some work only for about ten or might collect out of the hobbies or aesthe-
twelve hours spread over one whole tic sense, as well as things and materials
month, as it is active only on Sundays, which will interest and educate them.
and that too for not more than two hours. It will establish study classes on child
Within such a short time the work that psychology and on legislations regar-
the organisation would be able to do, ding children of this country and also of
can just be symbolic and a directive other countries, and whenever necessary,
type of work. Wherever the organisation the organisation will agitate for their
has a centre or a unit, it will do only such betterment. It will try to have a net-work
work as is necessary in the interests of of children's schools on idealistic lines.
the children, and which will be a sort To sum up, it will establish an all-India
of pointer in that direction—a pointer children's university.
both to the parents and schools. Over
" I n short, the Balkan-ji-Bari wishes
and above all that, this organisation will, to work along the lines indicated above,
in short, try to supplement the home and only with a view to educating children,
school activities with a view to directing as mentioned heretofore, that they may
the children's emotions in a proper manner.
become patriotic and self-reliant Indian
" T h e organisation has a desire to citizens with enough power of endurance
start an all-India children's volunteer and self-sacrifice for the toughest days
corps in order to increase the children's that are still ahead of us. Today the organisa-
physical and mental efficiency. Then, it tion does work on these lines, but on a
wants to become for the all-India child-
very small scale, and as if negligible.
ren a single common platform for unity— Nonetheless, it is the Bari's ambition
cultural as well as social—irrespective to show that all these things are realised,
of any class, rich or poor, any religion, and not only visualised."
CHARTER OF THE INDIAN CHILDREN'S RIGHTS
(Prepared by Balkan-ji-Bari)
Every child in India shall have the
(1) The child shall live in a free land,
following rights which will help in his in a free atmosphere and in a free en-
proper development and protection.
vironment; every opportunity for his all-
NOTES AND NEWS 179
round development shall be available to him, and education that is both liberal
him, unhampered by any limitations of and useful, and that prepares for good
caste or creed.
citizenship and service; his education shall
be a first charge on the revenues of the
(2) The child shall be provided with State.
a happy home environment, free from
fear and chastisement; he shall be ade-
(6) The child has a right to play
quately fed and clothed and brought up and recreation, and sufficient facilities
with love and understanding.
for the purpose must be provided for
him by the schools and the local autho-
(3) The child and his mother shall rities.
be assured proper ante-natal, natal and
(7) The child shall be protected by
legislation from exploitation in any form
(4) The child shall receive at all stages for the benefit of parents or guardians.
of his growth up to adolescence adequate
(8) The child who is backward or
medical aid; his health and well-being defective shall be provided with special
shall be the prime concern of his parents institutions for his care and education.
or guardians and of the State.
(9) The child in the village shall
(5) The child shall receive the best have the same privileges and facilities
education to which his talent entitles that are assured to the city child.
DRIVE TO REDUCE ACCIDENTS IN SMALL INDUSTRIES
A recent survey conducted by the
The Division of Labour Standards
U. S. Department of Labour reveals is carrying out its present programme
that between 70 to 85 per cent of indus-
through the labour commissioners of the
trial accidents in the United States occur various states. Assistance is also given
in small establishments (manufacturing to labour unions and employers, on request.
plants, service industries such as laundries, The first part of "Operation Safety"
hotels, garages, and machine shops, includes the dissemination of information
agriculture, etc.). As a result, the Division by means of posters and safety packets.
of Labour Standards of the U. S. Depart-
These packets, prepared by the Division
ment of Labour has launched "Operation of Labour Standards and sent out each
Safety" in an effort to cut down an accident month, outline the duties of a safety
rate which in 1946 resulted in 16,500 committee and give step-by-step instruc-
deaths; 1,800 permanently totally disabled; tions on how to conduct a safety campaign.
93,100 permanently partially disabled; and
To make the worker safety conscious
1,951,700 temporarily disabled with an on his job, the Division of Labour Stan-
average of 17 days loss of work. Of these dards has prepared "process flow charts"
accidents, only 15 to 30 per cent occurred for certain industries which show the flow
in the great industrial plants of the United of materials from the original source to the
States, which have long been more safety-
finished product, together with the accident
conscious than the small establishments.
hazards encountered in manufacturing.
180 NOTES AND NEWS
A process flow chart made for the factors in finding the source and cost
brick and tile industry of North Carolina, of injuries. In many small establishments,
shows the causes of potential accidents however, accident records are incomplete
in this field to be: boilers, explosives, or not kept at all. State factory inspectors
mining, crushing, transportation, hoisting, can point out the need for such records
platforms, falling material, belts, pulleys, and advise on their preparation.
gears, stairs, ladders, hand tools, electri-
The low percentage of accidents in
city, dust, piling and loading. Statistics big industry is accounted for chiefly
show that the majority of accidents are by the work of the National Safety Council,
caused by common, not special, hazards.
which was formed in 1913 by a number of
The second part of the Division large manufacturing plants in the United
of Labour Standards safety programme States following the enactment of work-
is the training of state factory inspectors men's compensation legislation. It is now
in accident prevention. Since 1936, R. P. realized that if small establishments are
Blake, senior safety engineer with the to cut down their high accident percentages,
Division of Labour Standards, has been a safety programme must be initiated
conducting training programme for these through state inspectors and through volun-
state inspectors. This includes four 30-
tary co-operation on the part of employers
hour courses, taken at intervals of about and employees.
six months. The basic idea is to make the
inspectors aware of the need for safety
The effectiveness of "Operation
and then show them what should be done.
Safety" is being proved already by requests
from numerous states for special studies
Fundamental to any safety programme of small industries in their respective
says Blake, is a review of plant accident sections. The Division of Labour Standards
records which compare the individual will continue to aid in this national pro-
plant injury rate with the national or state blem of lowering industrial accident rate
experience; these records are also important
to the irreducible minimum.
TRAINING IN LEADERSHIP
Convinced that the liberal arts college
(1) A common intellectual expe-
must assume responsibility for training its
rience will be given to all seniors,
men and women in community leadership,
regardless of their major field;
Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hamp-
(2) An attempt will be made to
shire, is offering a new course this fall
bridge the gap between adult
(autumn) to be known as "Great Issues."
and undergraduate education;
Designed to acquaint undergraduate stu-
dents with the basic national and inter-
(3) It will endeavour to give the
national problems of the day, it will be
students an understanding of
a required course for all seniors, regardless
the basic issues confronting pre-
of their field of specialization.
The course itself, believed to be the
To accomplish these objectives, the
first of its kind in a major institution of course has been set up in a new manner,
higher education in the United States, will without regard for traditional college rules.
have three main objectives:
Basically it consists of three sessions
NOTES AND NEWS 181
each week. One morning all the students tensive use of this "laboratory" as part
will meet in the college auditorium (there of their course work.
is no classroom large enough to accom-
Although a new issue or problem
modate them all) and will be " b r i e f e d " will be presented to the students each week,
by some faculty member on the subject these will be phases of one of the six main
for discussion that week. At the second sections into which the course is divided.
meeting, a guest lecturer will present The first deals with newspapers and with
his views on the topic in question, and introductory discussion about what a
at the next session, the students, led by "great issue" actually is. Next will come
the college president or a guest speaker, a series of lectures on "Modern Man's
will discuss, explore, analyse, and develop Political Loyalties," followed by a third
section called "The Scientific Revolution"
which will stress the sudden emergence
Apart from these lectures and dis-
of the atomic age. Next will be discussion
cussions, each student will also be expected of international aspects of world peace,
to work on some project in connection followed by a series of discussions on U. S.
with the course. Present plans envisage aspects of the same subject. The sixth and
division of the students into 20 or 25 final section of the course is called ' 'What
small groups, to each of which will be Values for Modern Man." Here, after
assigned a specific problem.
having studied some of the urgent issues
The text-book for the course will confronting mankind today, the students
be the newspaper. Each senior will be will get to the basic "whys" of these
expected to subscribe to one of the major issues and study the moral and ethical
New York dailies, and will be asked values underlying U. S. culture.
to read it each day, attempting to evaluate
The course has attracted considerable
and interpret the news. As a further attention in many parts of the country.
aid to students in understanding the press, It is frankly experimental, but as the
a "public affairs laboratory" will be New York Times
education editor writes:
established in the college library. It will "If the students learn how to read the
be equipped with newspapers, magazines newspapers intelligently, if they get an
and periodicals of all sorts that provide understanding of the serious issues con-
factual material or expression of opinion fronting the world, and at the same time
on national and international issues of if they become better citizens, the 'Great
current significance. The students will Issues' course will have fully proved
be expected and required to make ex-
It has been fully realized in most Highness' Government have sanctioned
countries in Europe and America that the a scheme designed to provide a machinery
nursery or infants' school has an impor-
for proper sensory training of infants,
tant part to play in the educational system. the promotion of their self-expression,
Extremely efficient systems of kindergarten community living and companionship in
and nurseries have, therefore, been evolved a carefully controlled environment. As
there. With a view to meeting this defi-
the scheme is mainly concerned with the
ciency in the Dominions, His Exalted pre-primary education stage and. as teachers
182 NOTES AND NEWS
for the schooling of infants have neces-
14th year—the last year of the second
sarily got to be women who alone possess stage—560 women teachers will be avai-
the requisite sympathy and knowledge lable to teach 16,800 children. The expendi-
of child-nature, it aims at training teachers ture at the end of the seventh year, includ-
specially for this stage of education. ing the cost of training teachers, is estimated
The scheme has been divided into two at 1.76 lakhs and in the fourteenth year
stages of seven years each, and it is proposed
at 6.80 lakhs. The cost of training a teacher
to have 140 trained teachers at the end of
the first stage. It is expected they will be works out at Rs. 500/- per year and the
able to handle 4,200 children in model per capita cost of instruction is estimated
schools which will be established at sui-
at Rs. 30/-. —New Hyderabad,
table centres in the Dominions. In the No. 9, p. 11 (August, 1947).
In his fifth lecture on "Social Security", of relief of need. The second stage of deve-
in the Perin Memorial Series, Prof. Kirkaldy lopment was that of State relief or Poor
said that mankind in the present century Law Relief which was probably an early
had more than its share of adventure sign of the awakening of the social con-
and that the cry today was for security. science in most countries. It was
The need of the time was to combine however a desire for something more
security with initiative but the problem palatable than state relief that led to the
was to arouse a form of collective initiative formation of mutual insurance associa-
within every country so that the nation tions, endeavouring in a humble way at
as a whole might enjoy social security.
the cost of a few pence per week to make
some provision against the manifold
In the striving after social security hazards of an industrial life. Such informal
it was possible to distinguish three main associations developed in some cases into
competitors who made provision against trade unions the most notable example
the vicissitudes and misfortunes of indus-
of which was the Amalgamated Society
trial life, namely, the worker, the employer of Engineers, formed in 1850. This New
and the State; the modern tendency Model Unionism as it was called was
however was towards co-operation between
these three partners but the control and however eclipsed by the New Unionism
direction seemed to have gone to a generous,
in the 1890's which placed less emphasis
paternalistic and all providing State. While
on friendly society and benefit activities
such a movement of emphasis was pro-
and which, though it benefited by the
bably inevitable and possibly desirable, lessons of efficient administration which
one could not forget the fundamental the New Model Unionism had taught,
truth that the State could only redistribute was its antithesis in most matters of policy.
wealth and that the efforts of those engaged It sought to organise the masses; its creed
in industry could alone create it.
was the solidarity of the working class
and it believed in political action and that
Speaking of the origins of social social security represented "duties and
security, the Professor referred to private responsibilities that only the State or the
and religious chaiity as the earliest form whole community can discharge."
NOTES AND NEWS 183
The first steps in State action towards would not abolish want unless purchasing
social security were, strangely enough power was maintained and this could
taken, not at the expense of the State be done only through social insurance
and not as a co-operative effort on the which not only redistributed wealth bet-
part of the State and industry but as ween different periods of a worker's life
the sole and direct charge of the employer, but also between different classes.
e. g., the Employers' Liability Act of
As a measure of the growth of social
1880 and the Workmen's Compensation security the following figures might be
Act of 1897. A new conception of of interest. In 1901 the State spent £4
social security appeared for the first millions on social security measures, and
time in Britain in 1908—social security in 1939 £303 millions. Under the new
provided at the sole cost of the State— scheme the cost to the State was estimated
in the form of old age pensions, followed to be £747 millions in 1948, and £1016
by the legislation in 1911 which provided millions in 1978. Of these £747 millions
at the joint expense of the State, employer and £1016 millions, the State would
and the employed, National Health Insu-
contribute £375 millions and £646 millions
rance Disablement and Maternity Cash respectively leaving for division between
benefits, and the Employment Insurance employers and workers in each period
to about 21/4 million workers in indus-
some £370 millions.
tries of specially fluctuating employment.
Social security was clearly an objec-
Little purpose would be served by a tive of the working man but did not
detailed description of the steps by which in itself contain the elements of incentive
this system developed to a stage when necessary for its achievement. In any
the whole of the industrial, commercial highly developed form it was therefore
and agricultural employed population was suitable only for a society which by the
covered by a variety of schemes as this education of its people or by some other
whole body of social security legislation means had been able to develop a collec-
which had grown up piecemeal and unco-
tive social conscience. But even if a com-
ordinated had been or was about to be plete system of social security could not
replaced by a still more comprehensive be provided, there were certain priorities
system which was comprised within for which might provide a guide to its employ-
Acts of Parliament—the Family Allowances ment, humanitarian and productive, e. g.,
Act (1945), the National Insurance Act relief of destitution, old age provision,
(1946), the National Insurance (Industrial etc.
Injuries) Act (1946), and the National
Concluding, Prof. Kirkaldy said: " T h e
Health Services Act (1946).
aim of those who contemplate a system
Minimum standards of existence.
—The of social security should be to establish an
main principle underlying the new scheme order of priority best suited to meet the
was that of the national minimum; a needs of the country concerned, to provide
new conception of the duty of the State not merely future liabilities but to develop
to provide a minimum standard adequate future assets and so to build the founda-
for reasonable and self-respecting existence tions of a structure on which future
in childhood and old age, in sickness advance can be made towards the pinnacles
and health, in employment and unemploy-
of refinement of freedom from want.—Tisco
ment. It was also based on the economic Review,
Vol. XV, No. 2, pp. 61—63
argument that increased production alone (March, 1947).
184 NOTES AND NEWS
OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE IN REVIEW
The Minister of National Insurance tomiasis in miners. It was realized almost
has appointed a committee1 to review the immediately that there were other diseases
policy adopted in scheduling occupational which could be added to the Schedule,
diseases under the Workmen's Compensa-
so in August, 1906, the Home Secretary
tion Acts and to advise on the selection set up a committee ' 'to inquire and report
of diseases for insurance under the National what diseases and injuries, other than
Insurance (Industrial Injuries) Act. This injuries by accident due to industrial
Act came on the statute book in 1946 occupation, were distinguishable as such,
and will become operative during 1948, and could properly be added to the diseases
although the appointed day has not yet for which compensation was paid under the
been announced. It will replace the present Workmen's Compensation Acts." This
system of compensation under the Work-
committee had Mr. Herbert Samuel, M. P.,
men's Compensation Acts, which will now Viscount Samuel, as chairman. The
be repealed. The principle of listing, two medical members were the Regius
or scheduling, occupational diseases is Professor of Physic at Cambridge Univer-
to be retained, and under the new Act sity and the Medical Inspector of
they will be known as "prescribed" Factories—at that time there was only one
diseases. "A disease may be prescribed... medical inspector. The committee took
if the Minister is satisfied that it ought evidence at forty-one sittings in London,
to be treated, having regard to its causes Birmingham, Manchester, Swansea, Glas-
and incidence...as a risk of their (insured gow, and other industrial cities; it visited
persons') occupations and not as a risk many factories; and the medical members
common to all persons; and it is such examined a number of workers. Before
that, in the absence of special circumstances,
any disease was scheduled the committee
the attribution of particular cases to the applied three tests: Was it outside the
nature of the employment can be estab-
category of accidents and diseases already
lished or presumed with reasonable cer-
covered by the Act? Did it incapacitate
tainty." The Minister must decide at an from work for more than one week (the
early date which diseases are to be included minimum period for which compensation
within this definition, and so he has was payable)? Was it so specific that the
set up this committee to
causation of the disease or injury by the
employment could be established in indivi-
The first Workmen's Compensation dual cases? The result was that some
Act became law in 1898. Its importance sixteen diseases were added to the Schedule,
in industrial legislation was soon evident, thus enlarging the list to twenty-two
and its provisions were widened in the in all. Conditions such as poisoning
Act of 1906, particularly in regard to occu-
from carbon monoxide, sulphuretted hydro-
pational diseases. The Third Schedule ap-
gen, sodium cyanide, and potassium chlo-
pended to this Act specified six conditions rate, as well as "brass-founders' ague,"
for which the worker could claim com-
mange, and bottle-makers' cataract, while
pensation: mercury, lead, phosphorus, and fully investigated by the committee, were
arsenic poisoning, anthrax, and ankylos-
1 Members of the Committee are Judge E. T. Dale, chairman, with Sir R. R. Bannatyne, M r . S.
Chapman, M r . C. R. Dale, Dr. J. Vaughan Jones, Prof. R.
E. Lane, Dr. E. R. A. Merewether, Mr.
Piper, Mr. F. Stilwell, Dr. A. L. Winner, and Mr. p. K. Forrester, secretary.
NOTES AND NEWS 185
By 1946 the scheduled diseases2 had up instead. Wisely, the Act allows questions
gradually increased to forty-four, largely as to temporary disablement to be referred
on the advice of the Factory Department,3 to a single medical practitioner appointed by
and included "cataract in glass-workers." the Minister, instead of to a medical board.
Silicosis, asbestosis, and the condition But no one doctor can, as in the past,
of the lungs known as dust reticulation be both judge and jury. This is fairer
are not scheduled under the Act in the to the worker and to the medical
ordinary way, but power has in the past profession.
been given to the Minister to make special
Another important change is that
schemes for the compensation of workers payments will be made by the Ministry
employed in specified industries or pro-
of National Insurance from a fund contri-
cesses who contract one of these diseases buted by workmen, employers, and the
as a result of their employment. A number State. Private insurance in this respect
of schemes have been drawn up—for will cease, as will much of the work done
example, the Refractories Industries (Sili-
now by doctors on behalf of insurance
cosis) Scheme, the Metal Grinding Indus-
companies. The fund will normally have
tries (Silicosis) Scheme, the Various Indus-
an annual income of over £25,000,000,5
tries (Silicosis) Scheme, and so on. Here, and the number of persons employed in
surely, is an opportunity for the new industry and covered by the Act, but not
committee to do some tidying up, parti-
necessarily at much risk, is over 18,000,000.
cularly in linking diseases with industrial Benefits are of two types: (a)
processes. In the new Act, as in the Work-
allowance payable for 26 weeks; (b) a
men's Compensation Act, there is mention disablement pension payable when the
of the pneumoconioses. Dust reticulation, man continues to be incapable of work
however, is mentioned for the first time.
after this period. Future compensation
will be based not on loss of earning power
The Industrial Injuries Act has other but on the character of the injury, the
implications, some of which were discussed loss of a finger may leave the earning
by Stewart4 when the Bill was being debated.
power of one man unimpared but seriously
In establishing a claim for compensation interfere with the earning power of another,
the present procedure is for the worker yet both will receive the same allowance
said to be suffering from a scheduled or pension.
disease, say dermatitis, to be examined
by the examining surgeon. He then receives
An important issue is raised when the
a certificate stating that he is, or is not, rates of benefit under this Act are compared
suffering from the disease. Appeal from with those under the new National Insu-
this decision, by the man or his union, rance Act. Persons suffering from injuries
or by the firm through its insurance and diseases arising out of their employ-
company, is to a single medical referee, ment will receive somewhat higher rates
whose decision is final. Neither of these of benefit than individuals disabled
procedures is to be retained. Medical by conditions which have not been
boards and appeal tribunals are to be set "prescribed." The fact that there is a
2 Memorandum on the Workmen's Compensation Acts,
1925-45. H.M.S.O. 1946.
3 Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories for
1932, p. 53. H.M.S.O. 1933,
4 British Medical Journal,
1946, 1, 561.
5 Ministry of Labour Gazette,
1947, 55, 77.
186 NOTES AND NEWS
difference may give rise to abuse. The
On both sociological and economic
sick worker, comparing the two schemes, grounds, however, the new Act is, on the
may try to obtain the more favourable face of it, a more satisfying document
return for his contributions by claiming than the Workmen's Compensation Act.
that his disability was caused by his For one thing, it deals with prevention,
work; or he may try to prolong his absence hopefully perhaps, but the fact remains
beyond the 26-week period and thus that it creates hope, and it appears to be
qualify for a pension. This will no doubt constructive. Section 73 states that the
exercise the minds of the new committee Minister may promote research into the
and particularly its medical members, to causes, incidence, and prevention of indus-
whom the problems of certification are trial accidents, injuries, and disease; he
well-known. When it appears that a man's may himself employ persons to do this
disability may have been caused by his or help other workers financially. Judg-
occupation, a feeling of resentment against ment will be suspended until there is
his work and his employer is not infre-
evidence of practical implementation of
quently created. This may retard cure and this part of the Act. For example, what
prolong incapacity periods. If a disability is to be the link with the Medical
is regarded as not due to work (involv-
Research Council? Clearly, however,
ing perhaps only 10s. a week less in the country cannot afford to pay out
benefit) the man is often readier to return vast money benefits without the closest
to his job, and psychological disturbances scrutiny of methods of preventing
do not arise. This is one cogent reason injury and disease. The worker, now
for asking the committee to go carefully a partner in the payment of contributions
before it adds to the list. "Aggravation" as well as a potential recipient of benefits,
clauses which the trade unions may press must become as eager a scrutineer as,
for should also be opposed, not necessarily no doubt, will be the officials of the new
for highly technical or legal reasons but Ministry of National Insurance.—-British.
in the direct interest of the workers.
May 17, 1947, p. 686.
SEX LIFE OF PRISONERS
Admittedly, individuals have certain The life of a prisoner, in New South
basic needs, physical, economic and psycho-
Wales for instance, means that he spends
logical. To meet them, society is organised.
17 hours a day alone in a cell. The prisoner
Society, however, does not recognise that eats alone, his visitors are seen through
those who break its laws have also these a grille or at best in a room supervised
needs, though it is now known that these by a warder. Thus all that tends to make
so-called criminals are not wholly respon-
him human is not only lacking but is
sible for their actions. A part of the blame definitely ruled out. This is because of the
must be accepted by society itself.
assumption that an individual who commits
a crime deserves only punishment. Public
No thought is given to the fact that the
opinion educated by psychiatrists and
needs of an individual do not disappear psychologists is slowly moving towards
with his segregation in gaol, which only a greater understanding of Man, including
means that he is moved from one social the criminal. It is now admitted that he is
system to a still more defective system. often "driven"
to anti-social actions,
NOTES AND NEWS 187
without himself knowing why. Yet, existing
fulfilled. This could be done by allowing the
laws lack this understanding, so also ad-
prisoner to meet his marriage partner
ministration in all fields.
occasionally. It should be remembered
that sex deprivation affects also the partner
Among the basic needs of man, the outside the gaol who often forms other
most important and the one that affects ties, thus further embittering the prisoner.
his unconscious is sexual fulfilment, which
is entirely ignored as far as a prisoner is
This concession would not only benefit
concerned, along with his other needs. the prisoner (for it is certain that good
This results in frustration, resentment and treatment makes better men where bad treat-
exasperation. A psychological tension is ment makes worse), but eventually society
created which, within prison walls, quickly would regain a citizen fitted to the world
grows and expresses itself in sex per-
outside. It may be conceded that this
versions such as masturbation and privilege has to be earned and is to be
homosexuality. Emotional instability is granted only to those who would be pre-
heightened in this sex permeated atmos-
pared to co-operate in a scheme of rehabi-
phere and emotional instability is one of litation. Such consideration may be
the major causes of crime. Lack of under-
construed as a tolerance of sin, if not an
standing of this fundamental fact on the encouragement, but is it paradoxical to
part of the authorities, who with the state that the worse a man appears to be,
prisoners regard sex as shameful, con-
the better we should treat him ? U.S.S.R.
tributes to this atmosphere.
has experimented on these lines with good
To remedy this state of affairs, the results. For this, the unquestioning ac-
reforms usually suggested are, shorter ceptance of baneful traditions and customs
hours spent in cells, better food and more prevalent even today must die.
recreational facilities. These will help only
in a minor way to solve the problem. The
What man is we know—what he can
most essential reform, especially for the be we can only surmise. —Irene Speight
long-term prisoner, should be to have in Marriage Hygiene, Second Series, Vol. I,
his important basic need, sex expression, No. 1 (August, 1947).
A L L INDIA CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL W O R K
If family is the root of society, society African tribes. Even these apparently un-
and social regard have been the sustainers social acts were carried out with due
of the family. In fact the human family ceremony and they were impelled not by
would not be possible without the socialised selfish motives but by an idea of preserving
instincts of man and woman, the father social well-being, and the larger interests
and mother. That is why social work, the of the clan or tribe as a whole. The Spartan
quintessence of which is mutual help weakling was sacrificed in order that as
and sympathy or fellow-feeling, is universal an adult he may not be a burden to society.
to mankind. It was a rare phenomenon in
very primitive society that the aged and
From these ancient, inchoate attempts
disabled were mercifully put to sleep as of primitive man at social health and
among the ancient Eskimo, or the dead or well-being to the present day systematic
dying were abandoned as among some and scientific measures of states at com-
188 NOTES AND NEWS
prehensive social security for all their Revolution, however, brought its own
members is a very far cry. The intervening problems arising out of the rapid disinte-
period gives us glimpses of man's conti-
gration of family and group life. The
nuous struggle to civilize and socialize herding together of vast numbers of
himself, the one central thread running unorganised individuals in large towns
through all these activities being to achieve and cities created socio-economic pro-
the greatest good of the greatest number blems that defied individual effort and
by ways, which he considered appro-
required handling on an organised, civic
priate according to the spirit of changing or national scale.
Thus began civic and state responsi-
The soldier, politician and demagogue bility for the alleviation of distress of the
has lead him one way, the thinker, reformer, varieties of handicapped and maladjusted
saint and prophet has beckoned him to in what is now a highly complex social
another. One can have little doubt that fabric in densely populated urban and indus-
the humanitarian in him will triumph trialized areas. In this field, Germany
in the end. For, human civilisation, inspite led the European countries in the beginning
of some of its strange developments, is of the twentieth century, with her famous
essentially based on the social instincts Elberfeld system of state social services,
of man. In peace time, social virtues of based with characteristic thoroughness on
helping the aged and weak, relieving the the smallest organised unit, the parish
sick and suffering, looking after the with its citizen almoners. Great Britain,
cripple were practised daily as a matter however, followed fast with her Charity
of unconscious routine, but it was during Organisation Societies and family case
the first big wars that the need of organised work. Today she is in a position to in-
social work was felt for the relief of the augurate social services of vast magnitude
wounded, maimed and crippled soldier, and seriously discuss the Beveridge plan
for helping the widow, mother or children of nation-wide social security. Smaller
of the dead one, for assisting those who European countries like Sweden, Norway,
had suffered loss owing to destruction Denmark, Switzerland, however, have
of their fields or houses by fire, flood or shown the way to a balanced socialized
economy wherein the individual is free
from wants and fear of insecurity, and the
It is this systematic and organised jarring contrasts of wealth and poverty,
effort at relieving human suffering and luxurious superfluity and elementary want
rehabilitating the handicapped man, woman have been largely abolished. The quality
and child that goes today by the name and extent of the nation-wide social services
of social work. Largely attempted and of these smaller but closely knit countries
organised in earlier times by private are a measure of the level of their human
philanthropy or religious orders, with civilization.
solitary exceptions as of the Elizabethan
Poor Law, today social work touches
In an age of industrialism, with the
civilised society at so many points that it can
tremendously heightened mobility of labour
no longer be confined to private effort. In and disruption of group life, social work
feudal society, the individual in distress is no longer considered an act of charity
was largely looked after by his guild, but an act of social justice, readjustment
group or feudal lord. The Industrial and necessary rehabilitation of the handi-
NOTES AND NEWS 189
capped individuals and families reduced of pioneers of various industrial and scien-
to straitened circumstances often for tific undertakings in our land. And yet
reasons beyond their control. It is because India is a country, where welfare work
of the recognition of this fundamental is needed on a grand scale, because of the
right of every honest citizen to the decen-
social, economic and cultural backward-
cies of life that public assistance in Europe, ness of millions of her peoples. Whereas
America and a good many oriental coun-
charity and social service have been
tries has assumed the form of social held in high esteem in India from times
legislation as witnessed in Health and immemorial, as can be instanced in her
Unemployment Insurance, Maternity Bene-
Gram Panchayets, Sadavrats Maths, Musa-
fits, Old Age and Widows Pensions, Orphan
farkhanas, Langarkhanas, Dharmashalas,
and Children's Acts, Juvenile Delinquency, giving of alms, feeding of beggars, Sadhus
Workmen's Compensation, Factory Acts, and Fakirs,
systematic social service of an
organised nature is hardly fifty years old.
Social reform is older, but it dealt more
This vast state legislation has had with harmful socio-religious customs and
its repercussions on the educational system traditions rather than the systematic re-
and the status and training of the social moval of social distress. The Indian
worker. There are courses for degrees, National Social Conference started dea-
diplomas and certificates for theoretical ling with problems of social reform under
and practical training in almost every the guidance of the late Mr. Justice M. C.
Western university, and both the voluntary
Ranade as early as 1889 and held its annual
and paid social workers take one or the sessions almost for thirty-five years.
other course of training. Social W o r k
is no longer considered the perquisite
Institutions for true social work, how-
or pastime of the rich and leisured class. ever, came into being later in the form
The complex problems of the physically, of Seva Sadans, Seva Samitis and Social
mentally, morally and economically handi-
Service Leagues, which gradually came to
capped demand expert care and attention, be established all over the country. It
which only trained workers can give. was in 1916 when the Indian National
It is now well-realized that mere zeal Congress met in Lucknow, that the idea
and sympathy, however exuberant, are of starting an All India Organisation of
not enough. For the rehabilitation of the Social Workers was first conceived at the
variously handicapped, besides the virtues suggestion of Dr. D. N. Maitra, founder
of sympathy, aptitude, patience and kind-
of the Bengal Social Service League.
ness, tact, training, accumulated experience Accordingly, the first Social Service Con-
of case-work and a thorough understanding ference was held at Calcutta in December
of the background of society and the 1917 simultaneously with the session of
victims of maladjustment are necessary.
the Indian National Congress ; and its
first president was no other than the
India, with so much distress among Architect of India's Freedom, and one
her vast population, owing to poverty, of the greatest social workers India has
illiteracy, unfavourable social customs and produced, Mahatma Gandhi. The second
traditions, can so far boast of only one session was held in 1918 at Delhi under
such institution for the training of social the presidentship of Mrs. Sarojini Naidu.
The Tata Institute of Social
The continuity of the Conference
Sciences, founded by that farsighted house was however broken thereafter and efforts
190 NOTES AND NEWS
were again made at the third Social Service philanthropy are long overdue in our
Conference in Madras in 1922 to revive country, where scattered individualistic
the All India Organisation. The fourth efforts are at times doing great harm to
session was held in December 1923 in the healthy sections of society by mis-
Bombay with Sir Lallubhai Shamaldas guided or sentimental charity and philan-
as the Chairman of the Executive Commit-
thropy—of which there is more than
tee and Dr. Mrs. Annie Beasant as the a fair amount prevalent in our country.
President. The All India Conference seems In the words of that wise Irish Sage,
to have again met with mishap and in George Bernard Shaw :
subsequent years only provincial con-
ferences were held in Madras, Calcutta,
" T h e virtues that feed on suffering
Bombay and other places. The founding
are very questionable virtues.
of the Servants of India Society by the
There are people who positively
late Mr. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was an
wallow in hospitals and chari-
effort to built up a country-wide network
table societies and relief funds
of social service with a devoted band of
and the like, yet who, if the
workers dedicating their lives to the
need for their charitable exer-
service of the distressed, downtrodden,
cises were removed, could spend
handicapped and maladjusted.
their energy to great advantage
in improving their own
On the eve of India's independence,
manners and learning their own
it was therefore a happy move on the
business. There will always be
part of the Alumni Association of the
plenty of need in the world
Tata Institute of Social Sciences to have
for kindness ; but it
called a meeting of various social wel-
not be wasted on preventable
fare agencies in the city of Bombay to
starvation and disease. Keeping
organise an All India Conference of Social
such horrors in existence for
Work. The meeting readily recognised
the sake of exercising our sym-
the value of such a Conference, so that
pathies is like setting our houses
social workers doing field work in various
on fire to exercise the vigour
spheres may be brought together to dis-
and daring of our fire brigades.
cuss their common problems and exchange
It is the people who hate
their varied experiences, leading to mutual
poverty, not those who
advantage and improvement of their work
sympathise with it, who will
put an end to it. Almsgiving,
though it cannot be stopped
The Conference has another laudable
at present, as without it we
objective in view, and that is to explore
should have hunger riots, and
the possibilities of establishing on a per-
possibly revolution, is an evil."
manent footing an All India Conference It is also well-known that enlightened
of Social Work, so as to help in co-ordina-
co-operation and co-ordination can effect
ting welfare work affecting the peoples saving, prevent overlapping and wasted or
of India, give advice and guidance, and reduplicated effort.
act as a clearing house of information.
It can hardly be denied that such co-ordina-
Obviously, it is neither possible nor
tion and helpful guidance both to state wise to deal with all the problems affecting
social services and private charity and the varieties of handicapped and mal-
NOTES AND NEWS 191
adjusted in a Conference like this. It in the Sectional Meetings will be brought
has therefore been decided to focus up in the form of Sectional Reports before
the attention of the delegates on the the Plenary Sessions of the Conference
1. State and Social Services.
It is a happy augury for the Conference
2. Community Organization and that the Hon'ble Prime Minister Mr.
B. G. Kher, an indefatigable social worker
and the premier public servant of the
3. Family and Child Welfare Ser-
Province, has very kindly accepted the
Organisers' invitation to inaugurate the
Conference, which will be held in Bombay
4. Youth Organizations.
at the Sunderbai Hall from 6th to 9th
November. Accredited social welfare
5. Rehabilitation of the Handi-
agencies or institutions can send a maxi-
capped and the Maladjusted.
mum of five delegates each and individuals
6. Private Philanthropy and Social actively associated with social work can
join as visitors on payment of Rs. 10/-.
7. Co-operation between Social
At a time that our country's energies
Welfare Agencies and Co-ordi-
are being bent unitedly towards creative
nation of Social Work.
and constructive work for the socio-
8. Training and Equipment
economic, educational and cultural
of the Social Worker.
amelioration of the masses, it is hoped
the Conference will fulfil a useful purpose
It is not the purpose of the Conference in giving a much needed lead to social
to make it a speech-making or resolution-
workers in the systematic and scientific
passing venue, which is a danger for such handling of India's many social ills and
Conferences. Experts or workers acquainted
problems and all those engaged in such
with each specialized subject will, therefore, work will participate in it to make it a
be invited to take part in the discussions, success.—A Broadcast talk over the Bombay
which should substantially contribute to station of the All India Radio, by Dr. ]. F.
the knowledge of the subject. The agreed Bulsara, General Secretary of the All India
viewpoints and conclusions arrived at Conference of Social Work.
TATA INSTITUTE NEWS
Late Sir Bomanji Wadia.
—It is with Sir Bomanji was well-known for his
deep regret that we record the death erudition and scholarly attainments. He
of Sir Bomanji Wadia, Member of the was a good judge who imparted a touch of
Governing Board of the Tata Institute refinement and culture to everything he
of Social Sciences, ex-judge of the Bombay did on the bench. As Vice-chancellor of
High Court and ex-Vice-chancellor of the the Bombay University, he was responsible
Bombay University on the morning for several reforms. A condolence resolu-
of Sunday, August the 17th, 1947. tion mourning the death of Sir Bomanji
192 NOTES AND NEWS
and expressing its deep and heartfelt Her Excellency wrote to Sir Sorab
sympathy with the bereaved family, was and Dr. Kumarappa expressing her
passed by the Faculty at its meeting held appreciation of the work done by the
on September the 6th, 1947.
Lady Mountbatten's visit.
lency Lady Mountbatten visited the Insti-
—Mr. T. Gopalakrishna
tute on Monday, August the 18th, 1947. Rao (Class '48) has been elected President
She was received by Sir Sorab Saklatvala, and Mr. V. P. Baliga (Class '49) General
Chairman of the Governing Board who Secretary of the Union. Mr. N. C. Biligiri
introduced to Her Excellency the Director Rangiah (Class '48), Miss B. M. Roovala
and Members of the Faculty. The party (Class '48) and Mr. B. H. Warden (Class
then listened to Dr. Kumarappa who '49) are the other members of the Executive
explained the work of the Institute Committee for the first term of the acade-
and its future plans of expansion. mic year 1947-48.
CLASS OF 1947-49.
Ahmed, (Miss) A. K.
Dastur, (Miss) S. F.
B. A., Lucknow University, 1946
B. A., Nagpur University, 1946
Nagpur, C. P.
Ahmed, M. R.
Deshpande, (Mrs.) I. V.
B. A., Aligarh University, 1947
G. A., Indian Women's University, 1939
Poona, Bombay Province
Baliga, V. P.
Dhopeshwarkar, V. H.
B. A., Bombay University, 1945
B. A., Bombay University, 1946
North Kanara, Bombay Province
Bakthavatsalam, V. R.
Dias, (Miss) V. M.
M. A., Madras University, 1946
B. A., Bombay University, 1947
Salem, Madras Province
Bhatia, (Miss) S.
Gandhi, (Miss) F. R.
B.A., Punjab University, 1947
B. A., Bombay University, 1946
Bulsar, Bombay Province
Bhatt, N. N.
Gokhale, S. D.
B. A., Bombay University, 1947
B. A., Bombay University, 1946
Bhavnagar, Bhavnagar State.
Poona, Bombay Province
Bose, B. K.
Hadi, M. A.
B. S c , Patna University, 1943
B. A., Osmania University, 1945
M. A., „ „ 1947
*Daftary, (Miss) N. R.
Aurangabad, Hyderabad State (Dn.)
Jebaraj, (Rev.) A. G.
Dalai, (Miss) I. P.
B. A., Madras University, 1927
B. A., Bombay University, 1947
B. D., Serampore University, 1933
Palamcottah, Madras Province
NOTES AND NEWS 193
Joshi, (Miss) S. M.
B. A., Bombay University, 1942
B. A., Delhi University, 1944
B. T., „ „ 1947
M. A., „ „ 1946
Poona, Bombay Province
Kalle, (Miss) I. R.
B. A., Osmania University, 1946
B. A., Bombay University, 1947
Hyderabad City, Hyderabad State (Dn.)
Ahmednagar, Bombay Province
Permar, (Miss) K.
Kanal, (Miss) U. R.
B. A., Delhi University, 1946
B. A.. Punjab University, 1943
M. A., Bombay University, 1947
Purkayastha, D. L.
B. A., Calcutta University, 1945
Kidwai, S. A.
B. A., Lucknow University, 1946
Razavi, S. A. H.
Hyderabad City, Hyderabad State (Dn.)
B. A., Osmania University, 1944
Hyderabad City, Hyderabad State (Dn.)
Kuruwa, U. J.
B. A., Bombay University, 1947
B. A., Punjab University, 1944
Mathur, A. S.
Thangavelu, (Miss) R.
B. A., Agra University, 1943
B. A., Madras University, 1944
M. A., „ „ 1945
Coonoor, Madras Presidency
Shikohabad, U. P.
Vaidya, (Miss) K. M.
B. A., Nagpur University, 1942
M. A., „ „ 1945
Antya Diploma, Viswa Bharati, 1947
B. Music, Bhatkhande University of Indian
Music, Lucknow, 1944
Nagpur, C. P.
Nargundkar, (Miss) S. H.
B. A., Nagpur University, 1942
*Warden, B. H.
STUDENTS—PAST AND PRESENT
Mr. Ahmed, F. M. ('47) has joined
Miss Anklesaria, R. P. ('47) has been
the Office of the Adviser for Tribes and recently added to the case work staff of
Backward Communities, Hyderabad (Dn.), the Central Investigation Bureau of the
as Social Service Officer.
Liaison Committee for Parsi Charity
Mr. Ananthanarayanan, P. S. ('40) Organisation, Bombay.
has returned to India after successfully
Mr. Barnabas John ('38) who until
completing his studies at the University recently was Senior Rehabilitation Officer,
Poona, has been appointed Assistant Secre-
194 NOTES AND NEWS
tary to the Prohibition Board of the
Mr. Kulkarni, D. V. ('38) has recently
Government of Bombay.
returned to India after successfully com-
Miss Batliwala, B. M. ('47) has been pleting his studies at the New York School
added to the Central Investigation Bureau of Social Work, New York.
of the Liaison Committee for Parsi Charity
Mr. Kulkarni, P. D. ('46) is working
Organisation, Bombay, as Family Case as Case Investigator with the Sheriff's
S. S. Ramdas Relief Committee, Bombay.
Miss Bharucha, B. D. ('46) has been His "Scheme for Universal Literacy and
appointed Medical Social Worker of the Adult Education" was published in The
J. J. Hospital, Bombay, in place of Miss Indian Journal of Adult Education,
Desai, A. F. who has accepted another post. VIII, No. 3 (May, 1947).
Miss Bharucha is receiving training in
Mrs. Kurup, T. ('45) has been
this specialized field under Miss Blakey, appointed Lady Inspector of Factories
Visiting Professor of Medical Social Work. by the Government of Travancore, and
Mr. Chatterji, B. ('45) has joined is now posted at Trivandrum.
the staff of the Institute as Field W o r k
Miss Kutar, M. J. ('47) has joined
the staff of the School for Children in
Miss Chinniah, M. ('46) has been Need of Special Care, Bombay. This school
appointed Psychiatric Social Worker,
is meant for educating the mentally
Mental Hospital, Angoda, Ceylon.
Mr. Deodhar, L. D. ('46) is contin-
Mr. Mampilly Cherian, J. ('42) has
uing his socio-economic survey of workers been appointed Labour and Welfare Officer
employed in the sugar industry in the of the Tata Mills Limited, Bombay.
Province of Bombay.
Miss Desai, A. F. ('42) has resigned
Miss Marr, P. ('46) has joined
as Lady Almoner of the J. J. Hospital the staff of the National Y. W. C. A.
to take the position as Joint Secretary School of Social Work, Delhi.
of the Stri Zarathosti Mandal, and the Sir
Mr. Mathew, C. T. ('47) has contri-
Ratan Tata Industrial Institute Bombay.
buted an article on "Labour Welfare—
Mr. Dighe, K. G. ('42) formerly Its Principles and Objectives" to The
Probation Officer of the Children's Aid Indian Textile Journal,
Vol. LVII, No. 681
Society, Bombay, has now been promoted (June, 1947).
to the position of Chief Probation Officer.
Mr. Mishra, H. M. (Class '48) has
Mr. Katticaran, G. J. ('46) has been contributed two articles on "Planning
recently appointed as Labour Officer by Bombay's Milk Supply" to Chaya.
the Government of Madras and is now articles appeared in Vol. V. No. 23
posted at Coonoor.
(February, 1947), and No. 25 (March,
Mr. Khandekar, P. R. ('44) has been
appointed Labour Officer, Rewa State,
Mr. Mukerjee, A. K. ('46) has been
appointed Labour Welfare Officer, Bur-
mah Oil Company, Syriam, Burma.
Mr. Krishnaswami, C. S. (Class '48)
has contributed an article on "Child
Mr. Nair, P. K. ('47) has been appointed
Welfare in Industry" to The Indian Textile
Labour Officer by the Government of
Vol. LVII, No. 683 (August, 1947). Madras and is now posted at Calicut.
NOTES AND NEWS 195
Mr. Panakal, J. A. ('47) is now receiving
Mr. Roy, B. K. ('46) is now Secretary
training at the Department of Economics of the Social Service League, Lucknow.
and Statistics, Tata Industries Limited,
Mr. Rochlani, S. P. ('47) has been
appointed Lady Welfare Officer by the
Mr. Panakal, J. J. ('46) Assistant Karachi Municipal Corporation, Karachi.
Secretary of the Institute, is now working
Mr. Sambasivan, K. S. ('46) has been
as Research Assistant with the Bureau appointed Labour Welfare Officer by
of Research and Publications.
The Amalgamated Tea Estates Company
Limited, Pollachi, South India.
Mr. Patil, W. D. G. ('42) has been
appointed Superintendent of the Remand
Mr. Shaikh, R. A. ('45) who was
Home of the Children's Aid Society, working as Case Investigator with the
Sheriff's S. S. Ramdas Relief Committee,
Bombay, has been temporarily appointed
Mr. Pillay, G. S. ('45) has been ap-
Officiating Assistant Labour Officer by the
pointed Labour Welfare Officer by the Government of Bombay, and is now posted
Government of Travancore, and is now in Bombay.
posted at Alleppey.
Mr. Shroff, B. D. ('47) has joined the
Mrs. Rajadyaksha, K. (Miss Naik, K.)
Svadeshi Mills Limited, Kurla, Bombay, as
('42) has been appointed Medical Social Assistant Labour and Welfare Officer.
Worker of the Cama and Albless Hospitals,
Mr. Singh Wilfred ('40) has been
Bombay. She is now receiving training in appointed Superintendent of the Delhi
this specialised field under Miss Lois Poor House, Delhi.
Blakey, Visiting Professor of Medical Social
Mr. Sourimuthu, M. (Class '48) has
contributed an article on "Breaking or
Mr. Randeria, K. N. ('47) has been Making the Family" to The Examiner,
appointed Welfare Organiser of the Zoras-
Vol. 98, No. 17 (April 26, 1947).
trian Welfare Association, Bombay. He
is also serving as a Case Worker with the
Miss Taraporewala, D. M. ('44) has
Central Investigation Bureau of the Liaison joined the staff of the Institute as Field
Committee for Parsi Charity Organisation, Work Assistant.
Bombay. A series of articles by him on
Mr. Thomas, P. T. ('46) is now working
" Play Centre Organisation " and " Social
Case Work " appeared in the issues for with the Friends' Service Unit, Calcutta.
the months of July and August, 1947, of
Mr. Velayudhan, C. K. ('38) has been
The Kaisar-i-Hind, The Jam-e-Jamshed,
and appointed Labour Officer by the Govern-The
ment of Madras, and is now posted at
Mr. Rao Gopalakrishna, T. (Class '48)
has contributed an article on "A Plea for
Miss Vyas, I. ('47) is recently married
Industrial Health Services in India" to The
to Mr. Pinakin Patel. We wish the new
Indian Textile Journal,
Vol. LVII, No. 680 couple all success, happiness and long life.
(May, 1947). Mr. Rao has been elected
Mr. Zachariah, K. A. ('46) has joined
president of the Students' Union for the the University School of Economics and
first term of the academic year 1947-1948.