NOTES AND NEWS PROTECTING THE PUBLIC FROM THE CRIMINAL THROUGH SCIENCE ...
NOTES AND NEWS
PROTECTING THE PUBLIC FROM THE CRIMINAL THROUGH SCIENCE
Since about one-half of the men need for convictions for future political
arrested each day, have been arrested campaigns. The defense appeals usually
before, there is reason to suspect that rest on sentimental grounds—the humani-
society is not being protected from the tarian appeals and so-called mitigating
criminal as well as it might be. Society can
be better protected by a system that uses
Neither attorney is much concerned
scientific means to select treatment and about the relation of certain characteristics
determine fitness for release, than it is by of the accused to future lawful behaviour.
the current system which temporarily with-
What is done with the man if found guilty,
draws the criminal from society and relies even in the best of courts, is largely a
upon timed unpleasantness to effect a cure. matter of chance rather than informed
Temporary protection only is afforded by decision. Broad choices and limits with
the current system which automatically reference to suspended sentences, probation,
releases nearly all of the men at the end or imprisonment in a reformatory or prison
of their court determined terms, whether are permitted. With certain limitations in
or not they are likely to lead normal law terms of maximum and minimum sentences,
the length of sentence is largely left up to
the judge who sets the sentence on hunch.
Contemporary treatment may be cari-
Much of this exists because a scientific body
catured in the following way. A wrong has
of knowledge, with respect to the treatment
been done and a man has been found who of offenders, has not yet been made avail-
is supposed to be responsible. He is arrested
able. Assume that our man has been sent
and unless he has money or some standing to state's prison for his punishment. Timed
in the community he is cast into jail to unpleasantness and limitation of privileges
await trial. There the innocent are mixed are largely relied upon to prepare the man
with the guilty—the first offender with the for return to society. His return to society
habitual—the social deviate with the sexual can be considerably hastened by good
deviate. Among such men he must wait behaviour, but there is a point in reduction
for trial in a court, founded upon notions of sentence beyond which he cannot go.
of free will where the seriousness of his Note also that bad behaviour or belief that
crime and the supposed pleasure he had in the man is not ready for release cannot
committing it, are weighed against the pain
extend his stay beyond certain limits. In
he is to receive from punishment. In line such instances, criminal activity has only
with the American sporting theory of been postponed and not removed.
justice the courtroom scene is more a show
than a treatment clinic. The prosecutor
Contemporary criminology objects to
and the defense attorney try to put on good
these means of dealing with law violators.
acts. He who gives the best performance This objection has come with increasing
usually secures the jury's verdict. The recognition that habitual criminal behaviour
acting ability of the lawyers, rather than develops out of fundamentally the same
the merits of the case is rated by the jury.
processes that produce habitual lawful
The prosecutor is guided in his act by his behaviour. There are no universal crimes.
NOTES AND NEWS 137
What is considered criminal varies from disfavour it means he has not only the
culture to culture and from country to limitation of his deviation to handicap him
country and within a given country it varies
in the social world but also he has the battle
with time. If we were to define crime for with negative social definitions. If he
all cultures and for all time we could only-
accepts these negative definitions, he may
say that crime is an act believed to be harm-
develop inferiority feelings which engender
ful to a group powerful enough to enforce mental conflict and bring him to the brink
its own belief. Note that an effective of unapproved behaviour, over which he
minority can define an act as criminal.
may go with the slightest encouragement
from a group which means something to
Since crime is a social definition we must
him. Or, if he does not develop inferiority
erase any notions which we may have that feelings from these negative definitions, he
crime is inheritable. No man is born a may be excluded from participation and
criminal, but many are born into criminal membership in groups which he wishes to
environments. Some men by virtue of have a part in. Such exclusion may force
limitations accompanying birth have higher him to seek satisfaction for his cravings for
risks of becoming criminal than others, but
social approval, recognition, intimate
no man is a criminal by virtue of birth response, and security in groups which
alone. For example, genetically produced behave in unapproved ways. To maintain
as well as environmentally produced membership and secure recognition from
feeble-minded are more likely to become these groups, he may be forced to engage
criminal than normal people because they in unapproved behaviour. This is the
are over susceptible to suggestion. But it is situation, because what we do is largely
the suggestion and not the genetic constitu-
dictated by the groups with which we
tion that is significant in explaining their identify ourselves and have our greatest
behaviour. Surround the feeble-minded loyalties.
with positive social suggestion instead of
negative social suggestion and you will have
Having recognized the error of here-
no problem so far as criminal behaviour is ditary explanations, the criminologist with
concerned. Likewise, it is the particular his definition of crime and hypothesis of
social definition of physique and not crime causation is quick to see that criminal
physique alone that explains the relation of
behaviour exists in the same continuum as all
certain physical characteristics to criminal unexpected behaviour. Crimes just happen
to be those types of unexpected or unwanted
behaviour that the judging group defines
If a person has inherited or developed with enforced penalties. Unexpected
characteristics which are recognized by the behaviour secures reactions from the wink-
group as varying from the average of the ing of an eye and knowing glances when
group, he is more likely to become criminal
one exhibits bad table manners or bumps in
than if his physical type were average or polite society to the death penalty when the
his variation unrecognized. This is the case
act is treasonous.
because, groups have the habit of assigning
With these points in mind, the contem-
prestige or disfavour to physical deviations. porary criminologist has three objectives in
If it happens to be a prestige assignment so
his dealings with arrested law violators.
much the better for the man, so far as crime
They are protection, deterrence, and refor-
is concerned. Instead of becoming criminal
mation—or rather, the return to society of
he may become a leader, If he is assigned
a useful and conforming citizen, If these
138 NOTES AND NEWS
objectives are to be reached, we must stop fitness for release.
and inspect our courts of law—our whole
To function effectively this board must
system for the treatment of an offender have at its disposal the means whereby the
from the time we first bring him under our
effects of known treatments can be cal-
supervision until he is completely released.
culated. They must be able to fill in the
I belong to the group of criminologists blanks in the following proposition. If we
who believe that the absolute indeterminate
do this, this is likely to be the result. Crimi-
sentence should be used in all cases—that is
nologists are now filling in some of the
a man should be kept under supervision blanks. Illinois sociologist-actuaries state
until it is reasonably certain that he will not
the chances of a parole violating his parole.
again engage in crime. With such a
Through intensive study of 1800 men
sentence some men would be released paroled from the Wisconsin State Prison,
sooner than they are at present and others I found that the University of Wisconsin
would be kept longer—perhaps never to be sponsored in-prison educational programme
released. The use of the absolute indeter-
was associated with a reduction of the subse-
minate sentence appears to be the only way
quent criminal behaviour of men who parti-
that society can be protected and the cipated in it for six months or more. To
offender himself re-educated for return to guide the prison authorities in selecting men
a useful lawful life. As it is the period of for educational treatment, prediction instru-
supervision of some men is too short for any
ments are now being set up to identify the
treatment to have an effect and others have
type of men that can be aided most
terms so long that not only is treatment through education. To guide parole officers
impeded but the positive effect of treatment
in their supervision of a case, prediction
is nullified. To secure maximum protec-
instruments are also being set up to estimate
tion for society, the kind and length of the risks involved when a man is released.
supervised treatment should depend upon
Before the inefficiency and vagueness of
adjustment in a treatment, situation in intuition and anecdote can be measurably
relation to a patterning of factors, that reduced in treatment and more adequate
indicate successful adjustment to an un-
bases for treatment developed, similar
supervised life, rather than upon the kind evaluative and predictive studies need to be
and amount of punishment that will pay a made of all the treatment techniques now
debt to society.
used from arrest to complete release from
If we are to use this idea the courtroom
all supervision. They would also provide
scene must change. The judges would still bases for determining what can be done for
be there—so might the lawyers and the men in the current situation with the avail-
jury—but their activities would be limited able means. Questioning of current tech-
to determining whether or not a point of niques which retard reformation or assist
law is involved and whether or not the but little would be stimulated. With
accused is guilty. Their duties would cease decrease in subsequent criminal behaviour
there. If found guilty a criminal would be as the criteria for change, increased refor-
turned over to a board of experts in social mation would be secured through abandon-
behaviour who would have the responsibility
ment of useless treatment techniques, re-
of selecting appropriate treatment techni-
organization of current ones, and experi-
ques. The board would have the further mentation with new ones.
responsibility of making periodic examina-
—By Alfred C. Schnur. Department of
tions to guide treatment and determine Sociology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio,
NOTES AND NEWS 1 3 9
WORLD-WIDE APPEAL FOR CHILD RELIEF
Plans are being formulated in many placed persons, education, medical and
widely scattered parts of the world toward health, which will indirectly assist children.
a single objective—helping children. Re-
Chester Bowles, chairman of the inter-
cognizing that not only the lives of millions
national advisory committee of the UNAC,
of children but the future welfare of the left the United States in early January for
world is at stake, peoples of many' lands
a five-week tour of European countries in
are concentrating their efforts to speed connection with the UNAC February fund
child relief through the United Nations drive. Plans were already under way in
Appeal for Children.
38 countries, including those in Latin
America and the Far East, to support the
Appeal efforts are to reach a climax on
February 29—the extra day of the year—
when everyone is being asked to contribute
Meanwhile, unsolicited contributions
one day's pay or the equivalent in produce. from private American citizens have been
It is realized, however, that the problem is pouring into the ICEF headquarters. For
an immense and continuing one, requiring example, a man living in California, who
the constant efforts of governments and declined to give his name because he wanted
no publicity, sent the ICEF his entire bank
savings of 1,200 dollars for "children left
A total of 250 million dollars has been in want by the war."
set as the world goal for the campaign held
Supplementary feeding programmes of
in the interest of the International ICEF.—
Since November, the ICEF,
Children's Emergency Fund (ICEF). although woefully short of funds, has set up
This sum cannot "do more than cover a supplementary feeding programmes in
fraction of the need" during the coming various countries—Austria, Bulgaria, Fin-
year, the ICEF warned, providing only land, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland.
for a small supplementary meal for nursing Rumania. Programmes for Albania,
mothers, infants, children and adolescents. Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia were
. Nation-wide Campaign in U. S.
— scheduled for January. Plans are being
A nation-wide campaign has been launched
made for children's aid in China and other
in the United States this month to collect at
areas of the Far East.
least 60 million dollars for UNAC. More
At the beginning of 1947 the ICEF had
than 70 per cent of the 60-million-dollar only 38,932,000 dollars—of which 15
goal will be allocated to meet the immediate
million dollars was contributed by the U. S.
needs of ill and hungry children abroad. Government and 11 million dollars from
The ICEF will receive 21 million dollars as
residual UNRRA funds—with which to
the United States' share of the world-wide carry on the present programme for
UNAC campaign. The drive throughout 3,700,000 children. It is estimated that
America, sponsored jointly by the American from 20,000,000 to 30,000,000 children are
Overseas Aid and UNAC, also will provide in dire need the world over.
more than 17,500,000 dollars to 25 American
As ICEF executive director Maurice
agencies in alleviating distress of children Fate said, Government contributions have
in more than 20 countries.
enabled the Fund to get started on its job—
In addition, the campaign is to obtain the rest is up to the "citizens of the United
funds for other projects such as aid to dis-
140 NOTES AND NEWS
LABOUR UNIONS IN U. S.
Organized labour in the United States
Protecting and improving working
has witnessed a steady growth since the conditions.
—The international unions and
war. Total union membership has reached
their subordinate organizations, such as
an all-time high of 15 million, an increase local unions, joint boards and district
of almost 500,000 since 1945. There are councils, are primarily concerned with pro-
two major labour organisations—the tecting and improving the working condi-
American Federation of Labour (AFL) and tions of members. City and state groups—
the Congress of Industrial Organizations the federations of labour or the industrial
(CIO). The AFL with about 105 national union councils—are devoted chiefly to legis-
unions reports a membership of over lative, political, and educational matters.
7,500,000 while the CIO reports six million
for its 40 affiliates.
"Departments" composed of those inter-
national unions having jurisdiction over
In addition, there are several important many crafts in a broad industry may be set
independent unions. The four train and up under the AFL constitution to provide
engine railroad brotherhoods have about organization machinery for co-ordinating
450,000 members, the International Asso-
common interests. Each of these depart-
ciation of Machinists 600,000, and the ments holds conventions and functions
Communications Workers of America about
through local, district, state, and in the case
180,000 members. The 40 to 50 remaining of railways, "system" organizations.
national independents' membership totals
Collective bargaining is now widely
Generally speaking, most AFL unions accepted and practised as the basis for sound
tend toward the craft or multicraft type industrial relations in the United States.
while most CIO unions may be classified as The number of collective bargaining agree-
industrial or semi-industrial because, ments currently in effect greatly exceeds
although they may include all production 50,000. In manufacturing industries, more
workers in an industry, they frequently than 69 per cent of the production wage
exclude certain maintenance, technical, or earners work under the terms of union
INDIA'S ZEAL FOR LABOUR REFORM
The following is a summary of the from the very beginning, this was the
speech made by the Hon'ble Mr. Sam-
first session of the International Labour
purnanand, Indian Government Delegate, in
Conference that the members of the Indian
the course of the debate on the Director delegation were attending as representatives
General's report presented to the 31st of a free nation, and said that the achieve-
(International Labour) Conference which ment of independence by India was of
recently concluded its session at San importance to civilisation as a whole.
Referring to the great loss sustained by
Mr. Sampurnanand began by pointing India by the death of Mahatma Gandhi, he
out that, although India has been a member
directed attention to Mahatma Gandhi's
of the International Labour Organisation interest in labour and said; "He himself
NOTES AND NEWS 141
conducted one of the most successful labour
Dealing with conditions of Asian labour,
strikes in India by methods whose purity he said: "I would like to offer to our
won the admiration and respect of even of
neighbours in Asia, namely, Pakistan,
the millowners against whom it was directed
Burma, the Phillippines, Syria and Ceylon,
and it was under his guidance that the our most cordial welcome to the member-
Ahmedabad Textile Union, the oldest and ship of this Organisation. I hope we shall
best organised trade union in India, was soon have the opportunity to welcome the
founded in 1920. Although the Mahatma's Indonesian Republic as a member of our
activities were necessarily confined to India family. I express the gratitude of my
to a great extent there was room in his country, nay, of the whole of Asia, to the
large heart for all the lowly and down-
I.L.O. for the much greater interest they
trodden of the world."
have lately taken in labour conditions ' in
Asian countries. I am particularly thankful
Emphasising India's loyalty to the I.L.O.,
that the first conference in Asia under the
he pointed out that, though the partition of
auspices of the I.L.O. was held in India.
the country caused great strain because of
I have no doubt that such regional con-
the dislocation caused by communal riots ferences will do much to stimulate the
and the influx of five million men, women interest of Asian labour in this Organisa-
and children from Pakistan and though the tion. I look forward to the Asian Regional
phenomenally increased cost of living, lack Conference, which is due to be held in
of transport and currency difficulties have China, and hope that such conferences will
seriously upset the country's economy, the become permanent features of the activities
Indian Union has been contributing in the East. I recognise that action on the
undivided India's full quota both to the recommendations of the regional conferences
United Nations and to the International is more a responsibility of the States
Labour Organisation without having any Members than of the I.L.O. and, on behalf
foreknowledge of the commitments into of India, I do accept that responsibility in
which Pakistan might enter with these all sincerity. I am glad to know that a
technical conference of labour inspectors
from Asian countries is being convened at
Affirming India's unswerving allegiance Kandy, Ceylon, in November next, and suit-
to democratic principles and practice, he able steps are being taken to strengthen the
said that even a glance at India's draft Con-
research sections of the International Labour
stitution will show the anxiety of those who
Office's branch offices in Asia. The proposal
framed it to safeguard at every step those for setting up an industrial commmittee on
principles of democracy which alone can plantations is also, I gather, under consider-
ensure the full enjoyment of civil liberty ation. I hope this committee will be formed
and civic rights by every citizen. Under the
as early as possible."
Constitution, labour is a concurrent subject,
the federal Government and the constitu-
"I would particularly invite the atten-
ent States having joint jurisdiction. The tion of the International Labour Organisa-
main function of the federal Government tion to the Resolutions passed at the Asian
would be to co-ordinate provincial legisla-
Conference on the problems of agricultural
tion and maintain minimum and uniform labour and co-operation, and on constituting
standards of legislation and administration an Asian Advisory Committee to advise the
throughout the country.
Governing Body of the International Labour
142 NOTES AND NEWS
Office on Asian questions, and the Asian
"In the sphere of industrial disputes, our
aspects of general questions. These Resolu-
Industrial Disputes Act provides for com-
tions embody the aspirations of Asian coun-
pulsory arbitration when Government is
tries and I hope they will receive early and
satisfied that this is necessary in the public
interest, and prohibits strikes or lockouts
without notice in certain essential services
He next dealt with the progress made known as public utility services. The year
by India in respect of labour reform, and under review was devoted to the setting up
said; "Our Health Insurance Bill, in the of works committees and the necessary con-
drafting of which we received so much ciliation and arbitration machinery provided
assistance from the I. L. O., has now under the Act. At the same time, our Trade
become law. I am glad to inform this Unions Act has been amended with a view
Conference that the changes which were to compelling employers to recognise and
made in the Legislature were actually to negotiate with trade unions which satisfy
towards great liberalisation. The final Act certain conditions. Furthermore, the tri-
ensures greater benefits to the workers than partite machinery established by the
were suggested in the Bill. The Act will in
Government of India for the discussion of
the first instance apply only to factory labour problems was further enlarged by
workers, whose number today is over two the setting up of new industrial committees
and a half million."
on coal, cotton textiles, jute, leather goods
and cement. The first two have already had
"We have also recently passed the their sessions early in 1948, while the other
Minimum Wages Act, which provides for three are likely to meet soon. The Planta-
the fixation and periodic review and revision,
tions Committee set up last year held its
if necessary of the minimum rates of wages
second session this year, and complete
payable to workers employed in certain agreement was reached among the various
scheduled employments. These employments parties on the lines of legislation for
include, among others, plantations, agricul-
regulating the conditions of employment
ture and allied occupations. This is our and work in tea, coffee, rubber and chin-
first attempt to regulate the working condi-
chona plantations, and also on measures for
tions of labour in agricultural holdings. The the provisions of medical facilities and
lack of organisation among agricultural increase in wages."
labour and the great diversities in social
and economic conditions from one region
"The most important event in the his-
to another make this one of the most com-
tory of tripartite conferences in India has,
plicated tasks that could be imposed on any
however, been an agreement among the
Government. An Act to regulate the representatives of workers and employers to
employment of dock workers has also been observe an industrial truce for a period of
three years with a view to increasing national
production. This agreement has been
"The employment service organisation reached on the basis of partnership of labour
which was set up immediately after the in industry, which is now the declared policy
cessation of hostilities for the resettlement of the Government of India. The terms of
of mobilised personnel and discharged war this partnership are defined in a compre-
workers, has since been thrown open to all hensive resolution on industrial truce, which
industrial workers. The number of employ-
we consider is a landmark in the history of
ment exchanges has also been increased."
labour relations in India."
NOTES AND NEWS 143
LABOUR-MANAGEMENT CO-OPERATION IN TRAINING
Unions and employers in the United community trade and individual plant
States are co-operating together in an levels. In each case, union and manage-
extensive National Apprentice Programme ment are equally represented. At the
to train the skilled manpower needed for end of March, 1948, there were 5,989 joint
the expanding economy. The programme, management-labour programmes in opera-
co-ordinated by the U. S. Department of tion. These include programmes in which
Labour's Bureau of Apprenticeship has a number of employers are participating and
grown tremendously since the war, when those set up for an individual plant or shop.
formal, longer-range apprentice training
was temporarily replaced by on-the-job
In those plants where the employees do
training and other substitute methods to not have an organization or where the
meet the immediate demand for a large existing employee organization is not con-
number of workers.
cerned with the training of skilled workers,
the employer establishes his own apprentice-
An act of Congress in 1937 initiated ship system. In order to be registered,
the apprenticeship programme on a nation-
however, such programmes must be ap-
wide scale although, of course, varying proved by the State Apprenticeship Council
types of apprentice-training methods had (set up in more than half the 48 states) or,
been operating for many years in the many
where none exists, by the Federal Com-
trades. Under the Act, the Apprentice-
mittee on Apprenticeships. At the end of
Training Service (ATS) was created in March, the number of employers with
the Department of Labour to bring manage-
registered apprenticeship programme total-
ment and labour together to work out led approximately 150,000, a gain of 62,500
mutually satisfactory plans for training over the number listed a year previous.
apprentices and to co-ordinate the pro-
These establishments with registered pro-
gramme all over the country.
gramme ranged from large railroad systems,
At the same time, the Federal Com-
manufacturing companies, newspapers, and
mittee on Apprenticeship (FCA), made up shipyards to small contractors and machine
of representatives of management, labour, repair shops.
and interested Government agencies, was
appointed to develop basic standard and
All programmes conform with basic
policies in apprenticeship programmes on standards.
—All individual apprentice train-
a nation-wide scale. Since apprentices are ing programmes conform with basic
employed in a wide variety and constantly standards set up on a national scale. An
growing number of trades, the standards apprenticeable occupation'is considered one
recommended by the Federal Committee which requires 4,000 or more hours to learn.
on Apprenticeship are general in scope, A training schedule is set up jointly by
leaving to employees and employers in the management and labour in that occupation,
different trades the responsibility for work-
with this work experience supplemented by
ing out details.
at least 144 hours per year of related class-
Equal representation for labour and
room instruction. A progressively increasing
—The organization of appren-
scale of wages for the apprentice, averaging
ticeship committees extends from the approximately 50 per cent of the journey-
national through the state council, local men's rate over the period of apprenticeship,
144 NOTES AND NEWS
also is agreed upon. The length of training
in the United States, William F. Patterson,
varies according to the trade, but averages Director of the Labour Department's Bureau
about four years.
of Apprenticeship, also pointed to their value
The minimum age for apprentice in promoting good industrial relations.
trainees is 16 years, but the average age of
"Industrial relations," he said, "have
trainees to-day is well over 20 years in many
been improved in every case in which
trades. A large number of apprentices are
management and labour participate jointly
veterans of the armed services, who are in an aprenticeship programme, as such
being given the opportunity to learn a skilled
programmes represent voluntary action on
trade denied them during the war years. the part of employers and their employees
The U. S. Government provides subsistence to work together for their mutual benefit."
aid to veterans participating in approved
He also said that the National Apprentice
The greatest increase in apprentice Programme could be of great service in the
training has been in the construction indus-
"know how" exports of the United States
try. More than half of the estimated to other Democratic countries "less indus-
200,000 apprentices training under the trially developed than ours by supplying
national programme are learning some them with engineers and craftsmen, or with
skilled phase of construction. The General methods and procedures of producing
Committee on Apprenticeship for the them."
Construction Industry, consisting equally of
It is estimated that there are now
leading representatives of contractor and between 6,000,000 and 7,000,000 skilled
labour organizations, acts as a co-ordinating
workers in the United States—"skilled"
agency for apprentice-training in all being defined as a person not merely
branches of the construction industry and operating equipment but a matured techni-
promotes the development of national and cian, mechanic, or craftsman. The ATS
local apprentice-training programmes.
hopes to develop the National Apprentice
Within this framework, national joint com-
Programme to a point where—together with
mittees have been established in 13 building
an annual study of the number of skilled
crafts such as bricklayers, carpenters and workers in every trade, their age and rate of
loss of workers to the industry, and the
Promotes good industrial relations.
— probable volume of production—it would
In noting the "amazing" growth of the joint
assure the maintenance of a stabilized,
labour-management apprentice programmes adequate skilled work force.
FREE FILM SHOWS FOR INVALIDS
A unique humanitarian organization, the
and institutions, was started in 1939 with
Volunteer Film Association, has been 59 members, two films and a single
providing entertainment in the form of projector.
morion pictures for shut-ins in St. Louis,
To-day, the organization has 627
Missouri, for the past nine years. The members, a large film library and ten
organization, which last year conducted projectors. The majority of its members
1,670 showings to invalids in their homes render financial assistance to the group,
NOTES AND NEWS 145
while others act as exhibitors, going in teams
At present, she is preparing an outline of the
of two into homes and hospitals to show association's experiences in response to
numerous requests from people in other
All the films are carefully selected with cities in the United States who want to
the physical condition of the patients start similar services.
always taken into consideration. A special
Although the Volunteer Film Association
committee of the association works with was the first agency to bring motion pictures
physicians, social workers, hospitals and to patients in private hospitals and in their
social agencies to find shut-ins who will homes, the use of films as a planned, thera-
benefit from the service, and another tech-
peutic activity was widely recognized during
nical training committee gives instruction World War II. In most military hospitals
in film projection to new volunteers.
throughout the United States, films are used
The organization was founded by a St. both for their entertainment value and for
Louis resident, Miss Marjorie Lang, who the rehabilitation of psychologically and
has been an invalid herself for 19 years. physically handicapped veterans.
SOCIAL SECURITY SCHEME TAKING SHAPE
Britain's National Health Scheme, topped the 70 per cent mark.
started on July 5, is getting satisfactorily
Free for all.
—All this means that the
National Health Service is now available
It has been optional for doctors to enter
free to every man, woman and child in
the scheme, but by July 7 the percentage Britain: everyone is now provided with
of doctors participating had risen to around
free medical, hospital, dental and eye service
98 in some areas. The final figure of the and treatment. And the treatment is not of
doctors joining will not be known for a few the "utility" kind: whatever is necessary
days, but it will certainly be very high for health and well-being—even if it involves
although difficulty may arise in some rural the most expensive methods of treatment
known—will be available free to the poorest
Hospitals, Surgeries, and the Ministry of
person in the country.
National . Insurance Regional Offices are
sliding quietly into the new picture—a piece
This National Health Service is but one
missing here, rough edges there, but the part of the finest social security scheme in
pattern is taking shape. The Ministry re-
the world: other aspects are national in-
ported that the transfer was taking place surance which, in return for regular weekly
smoothly: the preparatory work had been contributions, provides cash benefits during
done so well that the addition of 26,000,000 sickness, injury, unemployment and widow-
new "customers", and all the other adminis-
hood, payments at child-birth and at death,
trative work, threw no undue strain on the and pensions for industrial disablement and
on retirement from regular work; family
Hospitals, numbering 2,751, have been allowances to provide 5 sh. a week for every
taken over without fuss: the dentists were child in the family after the first; and
coming in, too—70 per cent already and national assistance for people whose needs
more joining in all the time; chemists and are not fully covered by the other services.
opticians were joining hourly and had also
—By Montagu Colley.
146 NOTES AND NEWS
HEALTH MUSEUM IN CLEVELAND
People living in Cleveland, Ohio, are in one eye and did not even know it!" You
learning how to stay healthy and live longer,
can even dial your life expectancy based on
thanks to a unique institution, a Health insurance company tables. To see how your
Museum. The first in the Western Hemi-
blood circulates, you flick a switch and
sphere, this latest advance in health educa-
watch a moving red light make a complete
tion has helped Cleveland become one of the
circuit through the human body.
healthiest communities in the United States.
Besides thousands of local people, the
Motto of the myth-debunking institution
museum attracts enthusiastic visitors from is "Health Through Knowledge." A Food
all over the world—including busy govern-
Facts And Fallacies exhibit asks simple
ment health officials.
questions as: "Is fish brain food?" "Are
raw eggs more digestible than cooked eggs?"
Unlike most museums, this lively 39-
If you do not already know, you lift a
room former mansion has no guards, roped-
wooden flap to learn why the answer in
off exhibits or "Hands Off' signs. Instead, both cases is "No". Near-by, another
you are invited to push buttons, pull levers,
nutrition game tells how many calories some
twirl knobs and turn cranks of some 4,000 everyday foods contain.
mechanical and electrical exhibits, designed
to show you how you function, from birth
Both men and women are fascinated by
to old age. These tricky but instructive the museum's 100 original reproduction
models make you stop, look, listen and re-
models done by Obstetrician Robert L.
member. Aware that the average American
Dickinson and Sculptor Abram Belskie.
knows more about his automobile than his Plastic replicas of these three-dimensional
body, and that countless deaths and diseases
miracle-of-birth sculptures are sold to
stem solely from ignorance, the museum uses
medical and nursing schools, marriage
dramatic devices to get across its health counsellors and planned-parenthood groups.
You are urged to test your eyes, lungs,
But the museum's most popular exhibit
heart, head, hands and feet. You press a is the celebrated Transparent Man. A
foot treadle to straighten the slumping life-sized model, its "skin" is clear plastic
Posture Lady. You turn a crank and dis-
through which you can plainly see bones,
cover in what order baby's teeth usually blood vessels, shape and position of internal
come. To save your own remaining molars
organs, as well as the nervous system. Inter-
and bicuspids, a mechanical apparatus nally illuminated by coloured flashes in a
shows you how to brush them correctly. To darkened room, the Transparent Man holds
judge who has tuberculosis, you look at visitors in awe at the human body's magni-
photographs and learn that only X-rays can ficence. European "born", the Transparent
really tell. One man, while waiting for his
Man was brought here by the museum's
wife, amused himself with an eye-testing guiding genius, Dr. Bruno Gebhard. A
machine. To his surprise, he found he could
dynamic, imaginative, 47-year-old natura-
see only faintly out of his left eye. He lized American, Gebhard was formerly
visited a specialist the following day who curator of the Dresden Hygiene Museum.
scolded him; "You have been almost blind He became a voluntary German exile in
NOTES AND NEWS 147
1937 after refusing to join the Nazi Party. Alaskan coast recently requested some
Coming to New York as a World's Fair exhibits not requiring electricity. For every
technical consultant, he designed most of museum visitor, 10 persons are reached
the exhibits in the Hall of Man. Shortly outside its walls. For people with health
afterward, Dr. Gebhard received a new problems, the museum's convenient Ques-
assignment. The late Elisabeth Prentiss, a tion Box answers everything—with the aid
fine-arts patron, donated her Cleveland of the American Medical Association's
home and a half million dollars to start the Health Education Bureau.
first United States health museum. Now
Cleveland's trail-blazing health museum
supported by two endowment funds, con-
has already been used as a pattern for two
tributions and memberships, the non-profit others recently started in Dallas, Texas, and
museum—since opening its doors in 1940— Mexico City. So contagious is the idea that
has been Cleveland's health conscience and New York, San Diego, Pittsburgh and other
communities are seriously considering it.
Behind the main stone-brick building lies
Dr. Gebhard would like to see a chain of
a bustling workshop where most of the them from coast to coast. "Every city with
wooden, plastic and card-board models are a 250,000 population should have one," he
designed and constructed. To inoculate as contends. And why not? In the words of
many people as possible against ignorance St. Augustine, emblazoned atop the Trans-
and misinformation, exhibits are loaned to parent Man's revolving pedestal: "Man
schools, factories, conventions, department wonders over the restless sea, the flowing
stores, county and state fairs. Duplicates water, the sight of sky; and forgets that of
of models have been sold to grateful all wonders, man is himself the most
customers as far away as China and South wonderful."—By Jack Pollack. From This
America. A "floating health center" off the
May 16, 1948.
WHAT AMERICAN LABOUR THINKS OF AMERICA'S FREE ENTERPRISE
Fortunately for the success of the to the end, or will they lose interest and let
European Recovery Programme and related
a bold and exciting start fizzle off into
undertakings, the American worker has a failure? One cannot get that answer by
strong faith in the value and validity of the
catechizing the American people on their
United States' democratic free enterprise reactions to such abstractions as the
system. These attitudes are established by European Recovery Programme, Inter-
surveys, covering workers in the eastern national Trade Organization, or even the
and middle-western states, recently con-
ducted by the Ross-Federal Research Corpo-
ration for Modern Industry
The realist must accept the hard, in-
exclusively for the United Nations World.
frangible fact that the American, like the
national of any other country, will primarily
This survey assists in answering the judge all these ventures by what they do to
question troubling half the world: Will the his own fortunes, his own prospects and
people of the United States, embarked on pocket-book. This applies as much to
a costly and ambitious experiment in world American labour, as to American manage-
leadership, follow that programme through
ment, or any other group.
148 NOTES AND NEWS
—Recurrent strikes have expect a drastic change in the economic
frightened (or heartened) those who do not
climate within the next 24 months. On the
expect America to fulfil the task of putting
question of "deflation," in contrast to
the Western world back on its feet. That "depression," three out of five said they
fear is the result of a misconception. In expect the present inflationary spiral to end
America, strikes are merely one aspect of within the next two years. Only 37 per
collective bargaining. They are not under-
cent, though, expect this deflation to be
taken to win elections, embarrass a govern-
accompanied by unemployment, pay enve-
ment, or precipitate the chaos on which lope cuts, and hard times in general. A
revolutionary doctrines thrive. They re-
larger segment, 44 per cent, thinks it will
present simply the perpetual jockeying for be confined to a desirable drop in living
advantageous positions among economic costs, or recognizes it as a useful step toward
factions in a free society. They reflect a stabilizing the domestic economy. Even
contest, a tug-of-war, over who gets what more important, 96
per cent do not expect
from industry's earnings. They are in no-
to lose their own jobs or otherwise to be
wise a conflict over the principles on which
adversely affected by the advent of deflation.
that industry is founded and functions.
Security before higher pay.
The fact of over-all significance which tude carries special weight since, the survey
emerges from this survey is that American revealed, 9 out of 10 workers are more in-
workers do not share the view that the terested in security than in higher pay. Almost
United States economy will soon crumble as many are satisfied with their present
from inherent infirmities. They do not go employment, on both counts. Seventy-three
to their jobs in an atmosphere of personal per cent do not expect to strike in 1948,
insecurity and worriment. They do not get
though 10 per cent do, and 17 per cent are
up every morning anticipating an economic not sure. Seven in 10 feel that the jobs they
crash on the 1929 model. They do not, in
now have yield income enough to provide
short, expect economic disaster. Otherwise, a "reasonably comfortable" living, . by
they would be less willing to help America typical American standards. Moreover,. 87
with its two major exports: (1) a modest per cent express all-around satisfaction with
but noticeable portion of the fruits of her
present working conditions. (This includes
democratic free enterprise system; and (2) both union and non-union labour). Even
faith in the workability of that system.
when wages are the subject for questioning,
there is little difference between organized
Despite inflated prices and a shrinking and unorganized (see table below). In this
dollar, only 28 per cent of the American take-home area, the degree of discontent
public as a whole believe that depression is is surprisingly slight, in view of current
likely within the next year or two. Fifty-five living costs. Nearly 70 per cent of all
per cent expect no trouble, and the re-
workers, including unionists, think that their
maining 17 per cent frankly "don't know." wages are fair:
Contrary to the public attitude, union
members—probably subject to more gossip
"Does your present job pay you enough
than any other group—take an even more to give you a reasonably comfortable living,
sanguine view: 59 per cent except continued
or are you unable to buy many things you
need because your job does not pay
However, the American worker does enough?"
NOTES AND NEWS 149
Job does not
68 per cent
31 per cent
1 per cent
64 per cent
36 per cent
70 per cent
29 per cent
1 per cent
When this query was amended by in-
sible for the high prices (of articles men-
quiring as to whether present pay would be
tioned as being priced higher than they
fair if it were not for high prices, the index
should be) ?"
of wage satisfaction rose to 92 per cent for Labour, labour demands for
all job-holders, and 97 per cent for unionists.
high wages; strikes .. .. 27 per cent
Mounting prices are undoubtedly the General opportunism and pro-
sore spot in the American economy. Poll
fiteering by "everyone," and
takers for the survey also found that 89 per
specifically by "big busi-
cent of all American consumers (including
ness," "management," "mo-
labour) contend that prices are "very high,"
nopolies," "middle m e n , "
while only 6 per cent say that they are a "bit
high," 4 per cent say "spotty," and just one
"farmers," the "black
per cent say they are "reasonable". More-
market" 27 per cent
over, the overwhelming majority consider Shortages; pent-up demand .. 8 per cent
prices to be excessive when measured against
Government policies, Con-
almost every conceivable yardstick: income,
gress, etc 8 per cent
quality of merchandise, or recollections of Shipping too much to Europe.. 7 per cent
prewar price tags.
Lifting of price controls .. 6 per cent
Inflation 4"'per cent
It is no revelation to find that virtually People are to blame for pay-
all Americans regard prices as too high—
ing high prices .. .. 3 per cent
but it is startling to discover that only 7 Manufacturing costs .. .. 2 per cent
per cent blame shipments abroad for this Miscellaneous .. .. 5 per cent
condition. Even if the 8 per cent who No opinion 16 per cent
believe that government policies in general
are at fault were to be added, the total
In any such cross-section, more people
opposition to America's international pro-
necessarily belong to the "labour" than to
grammes reaches a top of only 15 per cent.
the "business" category. Despite this, the
And at that only 4 per cent of this align-
sins of labour and of business are equally
ment would ship less abroad as a method condemned.
for reducing prices at home.
Public Opinion Poll On High Prices.
It would be foolish to infer from this
Since many pressure groups have been survey that the United States is a land
trying to exploit price discontents as one flowing with milk and honey for everyone,
way of putting over their panaceas, it is and that serious worker complaints do not
worth noting how the American public exist. However, even sharp dissatisfaction
divides its censure:
with one's income is hardly the prelude to
revolt. All workers interviewed in this
"What do you consider chiefly respon-
survey, including those who felt themselves
150 NOTES AND NEWS
under-paid, displayed trust in the normal and
the medium for improving his lot.
processes of collective bargaining, in a
So long as the American worker feels
number of ways. Seventy-eight per cent, as he does now, he will continue impervious
for example, are "pretty well satisfied" with
to the scare propaganda that would have
officials of their local union, as against 9 him believe that American underwriting of
per cent who are not. Such survey figures global recovery threatens his own interests.
do not indicate any new era of labour-
He will remain equally impervious to ex-
management bliss. On the other hand, they
tremist attacks upon the merits of his
do demonstrate that the American worker democratic system.
is convinced that more is right than wrong
—By Arthur Pearce and Luis Villanon.
with his world, and that he has the chance From United Nations World, June,
NATION-WIDE SAFETY DRIVE
A nation-wide industrial accident pre-
D.C., September 27, 28, 29. Its main
vention programme is being planned by the objective will be the co-ordination of all
U. S. Department of Labour, at the request safety services for the wide application of
of President Truman. Citing the fact that known safety methods.
industrial accidents cause much human
It was noted that, even during the
suffering and economic and social waste, the speed-production war years, accidents were
President declared, "I believe that the reduced greatly through the co-operation of
primary objective at this time should be a Government, industry and labour. In 1944,
concentrated and co-ordinated effort by the number of accidents in all United States
everyone concerned—management, labour industry was reduced eight per cent, and
voluntary safety organizations, and State and in 1945 an additional 10 per cent. The
Federal Labour Departments."
nation-wide drive will strive to extend this
trend in peacetime production. Connolly
He requested that the Department of said that the drive would be concentrated
Labour "through the Bureau of Labour in the smaller plants because it is in these
Standards (BLS), the agency with primary plants, employing a few workers, that 70
responsibility for promoting safety in per cent of total job injuries (the 1947 total
industry, call a national conference of all was more than 2,000,000) occur.
interested groups to develop a practical,
nation-wide programme for reducing
A 16-page safety guide has been prepared
by the Bureau for workers in all types of
industrial plants. Illustrated in colour and
The BLS, assisted by its Safety Advisory interestingly written, the pamphlet discusses
Committee, is now laying plans for the such basic essentials as wearing protective
peacetime drive. After meeting with the clothing, using machine guards, keeping the
committee, made up of representatives of machine and its adjacent area clean,
management, labour, safety organizations promptly reporting defective equipment, and
and state labour departments, William L. obtaining prompt first aid even for minor
Connolly, BLS director, announced that the injuries. It is the first of a series to be issued
President's National Conference on Indus-
as part of the accident prevention
trial Safety will be held in Washington, programme.
NOTES AND NEWS 151
KNOW YOUR NEIGHBOUR
Community projects designed to help and as active volunteers in the nursery and
people become acquainted on an inter-group
basis and thus achieve greater mutual under-
The Neighbourhood Project also
standing and appreciation are in operation sponsors study groups on human relations
in many cities throughout the United States. and provides material to organizations
The New Haven (Connecticut) Neighbour-
planning inter-group projects—radio skits,
hood Project, sponsored by the National plays, movies, literature and book lists. Books
Conference of Christians and Jews, is one which help interpret various religious and
such group which typifies Democracy in racial backgrounds are made available for
circulation and project members are pre-
pared to give reviews of them at informal
With approximately 350 active parti-
social gatherings. Monthly choral group
cipants, it operates under the guidance of meetings held in neighbourhood homes
educational and community consultants familiarize participants with the music of
and a Neighbourhood Council of citizens different national groups. "Taste What's
representing all racial, religious and Cooking In Your Neighbour's Kitchen" is
nationality backgrounds which make up the another project which affords a chance to
community. Funds come from the National
explore national dishes.
Conference, voluntary contributions, mem-
bership dues and small school fees.
Next year is the last in which the project
Nursery schools and a summer play will be underwritten by the National
school for children form the focal point Conference. By that time it is planned to
of the project. Mutual understanding is have developed a manual on neighbourhood
extended to the adult level by the parents activity, one or two films and a number of
working together on advisory committees booklets describing specific undertakings.
GROWING USE OF VISUAL EDUCATION IN U. S.
Educators in the United States have them all: they are doubling their present
taken thoroughly to heart the Chinese facilities and expect to produce 200,000
saying, "One picture is worth 10,000 words."
projectors this year.
In the past 30 years, visual education—
As one example of the use of films in
blackboards, maps, globes, models, posters, American city school systems, Indianapolis
photographs, charts, and above all films and
(Indiana) has its own library of more
film strips—have virtually reconstructed than 1,100 subjects ranging from diamond
cutting to atomic energy, supplying 81
elementary schools and seven high schools.
The earliest classroom films were 35 mm.
silent reels with cumbersome projectors and
Most states have facilities for distributing
constituted a fire-hazard. The modern free films to schools, either through the
16 mm. sound reels can be handled without
State Department of Education or through
mishap by anyone with a few minutes of the state university. In addition to docu-
instructions. Although many classrooms are mentary films prepared by industrial orga-
already equipped with projecting machines, nizations, shipped with no charge except for
American manufacturers intend to supply transportation, schools may obtain educa-
152 NOTES AND NEWS
tional films from Government departments, undertaking of all state educational interests
for a small service charge, and certain films
(the University of Nebraska, Department of
prepared by private producers for teaching Public Instruction, Vocational Board and
purposes at a small rental. The University the four state-supported teacher training
of Chicago has become a major center for schools) and the Motion Picture Association
the development of educational films.
of America, a private organization.
Many of these films may be purchased
Educators from the state schools care-
by schools, if they choose, for continuing fully preview a wide variety of instructional
use. Purchases of films issued by the U. S. films dealing with English literature, biology,
Department of Agriculture have increased physics and American and world history.
more than 500 per cent in recent years and
When a selection is made, the MPA pays
up to half of these purchases have been for the films out of a grant from the Car-
made by schools in foreign countries.
negie Corporation of New York.
Constant efforts are being made in the
Extra-curricular instruction also is
United States to extend the use of films as offered under the "Nebraska project,"
an aid to education. For example, the stressing health, international relations and
"Nebraska project," operated on a test basis aviation education. When the present
in 24 of the 500 rural high schools in that project ends in 1950, it is expected that the
predominantly agricultural Midwestern film programme will be continued and ex-
state, is now in the second year. It is a joint
tended through public support.
JOBS FOR "UNEMPLOYABLES"
One great lesson came to America out
is self-respect, self-confidence,
of this last and cruelest of wars. It was
and ambition regained.
that there is no economic necessity for either
2. In jobs where the specific
Government or private charity to provide
handicap was not a hindrance
subsistence for what formerly were called
to the specific requirements of
the job, the handicapped
worker produced an average of
During the war American management
two per cent more than non-
made the discovery that, in the right job,
handicapped fellow workers on
the handicapped and the war disabled could
produce on a par with or sometimes even
better than non-handicapped workers. The
3. Handicapped workers changed
proof is in plant production records where
jobs on a ratio of only 40 per
more than one million handicapped persons
cent of those without handicaps.
took their places on the production lines of
4. Absentee record of handicapped
war industry. Here are some of the things
workers was as good as—some-
these records disclose:
times better than—that of non-
1. The handicapped worker has a
greater incentive to succeed. A
These discoveries, made by detailed
job, where he supports himself studies of case records by the United States
without the paternalism of Department of Labour, have enabled us to
family, friends, and employers, approach the problem of placement of
is more than wages earned. It disabled war veterans with intelligence.
NOTES AND NEWS 153
They have made possible the development An enemy mine which he was disarming
of techniques in employment counselling and
exploded and t®re off both his hands below
in aptitude tests which point the way for the elbow. He was taught the use of arti-
the economic rehabilitation of hundreds of
ficial hands and returned to the farm home
thousands of those who during the war of his youth. An agricultural-implement
served their country in uniform. The manufacturer provided special controls for
Veterans Administration estimates that two the farm tractor. He thus was able to
million young Americans will return from cultivate and harvest a crop equivalent to
their uniformed service with some degree that of any of his neighbours.
It is the policy of the Department of
Actual experience in solving the pro-
Labour to place disabled veterans and other
blems of individual veterans compelled to handicapped workers on an individualized
change their prewar vocations supplies basis. This involves a counselling interview
indisputable proof that only a compara-
with each applicant and a comparison of
tively few disabled veterans cannot be his qualifications with specifications of job
placed in jobs in which they can make orders on hand. If there is no job available
their own way. Misunderstanding has re-
for which the applicant is qualified, then
sulted in prejudice on the part of some employers are contacted in the effort to
employers against hiring handicapped locate one.
workers. But this feeling can be overcome.
There was an exception to this general
It has been in actual case histories which I policy, however, in a Southern city recently.
have taken from reports of Veterans A manufacturer, planning a new product
Employment representatives to the Veterans
and operation, placed an order for 50
women assemblers. The pay was at the rate
There was the case of one veteran who earned by skilled workers. An employer
served with distinction in the South Pacific contact representative of the Employment
in the course of which his right arm was Service office visited the establishment. He
shattered by an enemy bullet, making it noticed that the workers could sit at tables
impossible for him to resume his vocation while performing the operation. He suggest-
as a master baker. He came to the Employ-
ed that veterans with leg injuries might
ment Service office despondent. The perform the work with equal competency.
Veterans Employment representative con-
The employer agreed and 27 disabled
tacted the personnel director of a large veterans were hired. Subsequent checks
baking concern. A conference was arranged
with the employer disclosed that he was
for the veteran. He was told of a new well satisfied with their performance and
baking concern which planned to manu-
that the morale of the entire organization
facture and distribute frozen bread products.
had improved from the enthusiasm which
The veteran was hired to supervise the these disabled veterans displayed over their
mixing of the dough. A check-up six new sense of economic freedom.
months later disclosed that he was earning
The attitude of the large labour orga-
more money than ever before and had pur-
nizations toward disabled veterans and
chased a part interest in the concern.
other handicapped workers has been parti-
There was another veteran who, before cularly gratifying to me. Both the American
entering the service, had operated a slicing Federation of Labour (AFL) and the
and wrapping machine in a bakery. In the
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
service he was made a land-mine technician.
have issued declarations of national policy
154 NOTES AND NEWS
and established programmes providing
6. To provide training programmes
special consideration for disabled workers
for disabled veterans without
in plant contracts.
previous work experience and
A pamphlet issued by the AFL—
all handicapped workers who,
parallel to a similar CIO publication—and
because of injuries are compelled
sent to all constituent unions defines this
to change their vocation.
policy. It declares the AFL programme to
The final step in this programme
provides for co-operation with other com-
1. To secure the adoption of a plant munity groups in returning disabled veterans
policy in all contracts for the and other handicapped workers to lives of
employment of disabled veterans usefulness. I quote from it:
and other handicapped workers
on specific jobs on the basis of
"Efforts to assist veteran and other
impaired workers should not be limited to
2. To form a plant committee from single in-plant programmes. The problems
the union and management for of this group are a community responsi-
bility and the community should share in
3. To analyze jobs in terms of their solution. Local unions through their
physical activities required for Central Labour Council should set up in
the specific job and determine conjunction with local employer groups a
the physical capabilities of the committee to facilitate the transfer of dis-
disabled applicant in comparison abled veterans and other handicapped
workers to suitable jobs in another industry.
This committee should endeavour to work
4. To match the worker and the with Government agencies, veteran organi-
job on the basis outlined above. zations, and civic groups in an effort to
5. To modify machine controls or establish a well-rounded community
the duties of a job when possi-
ble to make it available for a
disabled veteran or other handi-
—By Lewis B. Schwellenbach, Secretary,
capped worker. (No re-engin-
United States Department of Labour.
neering involving great expense
From the Rotarian, December
REHABILITATION OF THE DISABLED IN U.S.
Through the co-operative efforts of litated into useful, paid jobs; in 1947 the
private and public rehabilitation services in number receiving employment increased to
the United States, thousands of disabled 237,933.
veterans and victims of disease or accidents
Rehabilitation services are now available
are becoming self-reliant citizens, each able in all the 48 states, the District of Columbia,
to earn his own living and enjoy the fruits Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Alaska. A main
of his labours. During 1946, for example, office, usually located in the State capital
213,814 handicapped persons were rehabi-
or principal city, easily accessible branch
NOTES AND NEWS 155
offices and numerous community facilities
The costs of rehabilitating disabled
provide all necessary services for the indi-
veterans are paid entirely from Federal funds.
dual. All that he has to do is apply.
War veterans may utilize either the regular
civilian programme or the benefits provided
The services are not only for those for them by special legislation and adminis-
whose disabilities are readily seen, such as tered by the Veterans Administration and
amputees, paralytics, spastics and the blind,
the Veterans Employment Service.
but also for those with unseen handicaps
such as tuberculosis, emotional instability,
—Training is usually
arthritis, deafness and heart disease. In arranged for through colleges and universi-
short, any condition resulting from accident,
ties, public and private vocational and trade
illness or any other cause which substantially
schools, correspondence courses, extension
prevents or interferes with one's earning a courses and tutors. In the absence of appro-
living in accordance with his best ability priate facilities, special provisions have been
makes the individual eligible for rehabilita-
established for training disabled persons
within industry. Such training provides for
working at a job either under conditions
Operated And Supervised by States.
— comparable to apprenticeship or under
The states operate and supervise the rehabi-
simulated conditions. Training of disabled
litation programme through divisions of persons in industry is governed by organized
vocational rehabilitation which usually are labour standards, state labour legislation and
units of the state boards of vocational standards, and the rules and regulations of
education. The activities of the state the Wage-Hour Division of the U. S.
agencies are supplemented by those of com-
Department of Labour.
munity and labour-employer groups, who
No rehabilitation case is closed until the
have advisory committees attached to the disabled person is on the job, adjusted to the
public agencies and provide medical and working conditions, and receiving a wage
related services, monetary aid, shelter, food, commensurate with that paid to regular
clothing, transportation, specialized training workers in the occupation. The individual's
and educational assistance.
job performance is watched for a reasonable
The U. S. Government, through the time to provide additional medical, surgical
Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, provides and psychiatric care or to supplement
funds to the states for all administrative training, if required.
costs in operating their programmes and
Specific forms and techniques, developed
also stands for 100 per cent of the expenses by the U. S. Employment Service (USES),
of vocational guidance and placement. The are employed to analyze physical demands
individual pays nothing for his medical of jobs and indicate the activities a parti-
examination, medical and vocational diag-
cular individual is capable of performing,
nosis, guidance, training or placement. Costs together with the working conditions to
of medical and psychiatric treatment, which he may be exposed. This "physical
hospitalization, living expenses during re-
demands analysis technique" has been
habilitation, travel, occupational tools, adopted for all studies relating to occu-
equipment and licences are shared equally pations for the handicapped. Through this
by the states and the U. S. Government if
approach, every job in the USES
an individual is found to require financial
Dictionary of Occupational Titles—in which
assistance in meeting these expenses,
18,000 jobs are described—is considered
156 NOTES AND NEWS
suitable for persons with some degree of capped. Handicapped workers actually
handicap. The USES believes, no special produced two per cent more for every hour
job need to be set aside for the handicapped;
worked than did their normal co-workers
rather, all jobs should be regarded as on the same job—and the difference in the
rate of absenteeism between the two was
Excellent Working Records.
—Studies by negligible. Handicapped workers also had
the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, the better work injury records and were superior
U. S. Civil Service Commission, the Bureau
in employment stability.
of Labour Statistics and private industries
The permanent year-round activities of
reveal excellent working records of those the rehabilitation services are spearheaded
physically handicapped persons who were by the annual observance of "National
employed after they had been well trained Employ the Physically Handicapped Week,"
and properly placed. In plants with good authorized by Congress to "enlist public
selection and induction methods, the support for an interest in the employ-
handicapped generally proved to be superior
ment of otherwise qualified but physically
handicapped persons." In this, as in all
Surveys showed that 450 companies other rehabilitation and employment efforts
employing 88,600 handicapped workers were
in the United States, the ability—not the
getting better results from physically im-
disability—of the handicapped is the
paired persons than from the non-handi-
U. S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS: FACT FINDER
OF THE NATION
Hardly a day passes when the average population check, the public becomes keenly
American newspaper and magazine reader conscious of the scope and complications of
does not see some such statistical statement this statistical agency's duties.
as, for instance: "The average age of
Census Bureau information is freely
American mothers at the time of the birth available to every citizen. Scientists and
of their first child is just under twenty-three
research workers in all fields rely on census
years," or "The average American family statistics as a guide to their conclusions or
spends twenty dollars a year for movie a help in setting up experiments. Recently,
tickets." Newspapers, magazines and public for example, statisticians working on popu-
speakers use such figures constantly. Some-
lation studies predicted that the average
times their source is mentioned—"according age of the American people was increasing
to the United States Bureau of the Census."
so rapidly that by 1980 there would pro-
But just as often the reader or listener takes
bably be three times as many men
it for granted that the statistics come from and women over 65 as in 1930. Medical
the Census Bureau.
scientists responded to this prediction by
Despite the all-pervasive nature of its increasing the emphasis in research and
work, the Bureau of the Census is an teaching on problems of geriatrics, or the
agency of which most Americans are largely
diseases of old age. State, local and national
unaware for nine years out of ten. But every
government agencies rely on Census Bureau
tenth year for three or four weeks, when the
figures as a basis for all kinds of planning.
Bureau makes its direct, house-to-house The major population census of 1940 in-.
NOTES AND NEWS 157
cluded detailed questions about housing and
for easy comparison. They are then avail-
the tabulated results served as a factual able to other government agencies for final
basis in determining specific local needs for interpretation and action. But the original
various types of additional dwellings.
records, in which the names of individuals
appear, are never shown to anyone outside
Managers of businesses and industries the Census Bureau. Nor is any combination
make extensive use of the tremendous store of facts ever revealed by which any indivi-
of information gathered in frequent special dual or organization could be identified. The
business and industrial surveys. For example,
only exceptions to this rule are that
manufacturers or wholesalers of consumer individuals, wishing to cite Census Bureau
goods such as clothing are interested in the
records as proof of age or nativity, to prove
number of retail clothing stores in various eligibility for pensions or to establish citizen-
parts of the country. A grocery clerk, ship, may apply for copies of their own
planning to start his own small store with records. Thus, the only personal record the
his savings, may write to the Bureau for President of the United States could ever
exhaustive information on every aspect of see would be his own.
the grocery business in his community.
Before choosing a place for his store and
Orignally the census was a simple count
investing in a large stock, he can find out of the population, made in order to deter-
what parts of his city are growing fastest, mine how many congressional representa-
how many other grocery stores each section tives each of the thirteen original states
has, how financially successful they are, and
should have and how federal taxes should
the amounts of all kinds of food products be allotted among them. In 1790, less than'
sold in his community. Figures compiled a year after the first meeting of Congress,
in the general population censuses are the first census was begun, not by a central
useful, too, to business men and other government bureau, but by the 17 United
private individuals as well as to the govern-
States Marshals (local legal officers of the
ment and students of population. If a man
Federal Government) with whatever assist-
wanted to start a foreign language news-
ants they could muster. There were no
paper, say in Polish, census figures would prepared questionnaires, no maps of the
tell him how many persons in each com-
districts to be covered; transportation was
munity spoke Polish as a second language.
extremely difficult, with few roads and
fewer bridges. Under these circumstances,
No individual and no business, however the lists were rather haphazard affairs.
large, could gather statistics comparable to When the enumerators had done their best
those furnished them by the Census Bureau.
to get the name of every person in their
This is true not only because the Bureau districts, they were required to post the lists
has a special legal status, an expert orga-
in two public places so that individuals
nization and facilities, but also because the who had been overlooked might write in
public has such confidence in the absolute their own names. Added to the physical
privacy of census returns that census-takers difficulties, was a widespread suspicion of
or enumerators, as they are called—receive the newly constituted Federal Government,
complete, honest answers to questions that and especially of the census process itself.
less impersonal inquirers would never pre-
sume to ask. The Census Bureau does not
As census taking became a more familiar
act on its own findings; its statisticians sort phenomenon, conducted with greater effici-
the facts and tabulate and arrange them ency and fact, the scope of the inquiry was
158 NOTES AND NEWS
broadened to include questions suggested by repeat the course for their assistants. Finally,
scientists, educators, and other interested 116,000 enumerators—the actual census
groups. The first census of manufacturers, takers—are hired, given their instruction
for instance, was made in 1810. During and the oath of secrecy. They then start
the nineteenth century the census became out on their rounds of every house in every
a progressively larger and more complex road, city, town and county, until at least
undertaking, until it took eight years to one member of every household has been
complete each decade's survey. Eventually interviewed. On a predetermined day the
a permanent organization, the present occupants of all hotels, rooming-houses and
Bureau of the Census, was established and tourist camps all over the country are
the inquiry was reorganized into one general
interviewed, to insure that every traveller
population census every decade, with various
will be seen once, and only once.
special, supplementary surveys at other
times. Meanwhile, the traditional secrecy
The completed census forms are
of census information was guaranteed by a assembled and counted at district offices,
series of laws passed in 1870, providing fines
then packed in wooden boxes and sent to
and jail sentences for any census employee the Bureau at Washington. There the
who might reveal such facts. Since then boxes are unloaded on platforms braced to
the Bureau's files have been virtually sealed;
support 250 tons. After they are unpacked,
access to records made before 1870 is per-
each questionnaire is copied on to a machine
mitted, at the discretion of the Bureau tabulation card, or "punch card," a small,
Director, for such purposes as historical oblong piece of card-board on which any
possible combination of answers to the scores
of questions on each form is expressed by a
Every decade the Census Bureau series of holes arranged in various positions.
receives thousands of suggestions for new The cards are sent on their way through a
questions. After sifting out those that are series of calculating machines which tabu-
impractical or non-essential, it submits a late, sort and sift all the facts by cities and
tentative list to a citizens' advisory com-
towns, by counties, states, regions and by
mittee of statisticians, scientists, businessmen,
innumerable special categories. As the facts
representatives of labour and the public at are checked and computed they are pub-
large. Congress makes the final decision lished gradually in a series of small booklets
on what questions will be used.
and sent out to various public and private
agencies. For about three years the work of
Great care is taken, not only in the comparing and cross-relating the facts of
preparation of the questionnaires, but in the
each census goes on, with expert statisticians
selection and training of enumerators, who pointing out trends and developing formulas
are all temporary employees. Every ten for the prediction of future social and
years, before the four week period when the
economic developments. Finally all the,
actual population count is made, 7,500 records are assembled and printed in 70
special staff members are hired to supervise volumes of about 700 pages each. All of
the census in various parts of the country. this information is invaluable to industry,
Some of them go to Washington for weeks to scholars and above all, to Federal and
of intensive schooling, and then, equipped local governments which must have the
with training films and instruction manuals, facts in order to plan intelligently for the
they return to their home districts and future.
NOTES AND NEWS 159
TATA INSTITUTE NEWS
CLASS OF 1948-50
1. Agarwal, H.
11. Haldipur, (Miss) M. L.
B.A., Benares Hindu University, 1948
B.A. (Hons.), Bombay University, 1948
Leri, Jodhpur State
Honavar, Bombay Province
2. Akali, (Miss) K. J.
12. Jagati, J.
B.A., Bombay University, 1944
B. Com., Calcutta University, 1943
M.A., „ „ 1945
B.L. „ „ 1946
3. Aney, G. M.
B.A., Nagpur University, 1947
Nagpur, C. P.
13. Jagdish Bahadur
B.A. (Hons.), Delhi University, 1946
M.A. „ „ 1948
4. Bajaj, (Mrs.) S. K.
Etah, U. P.
B.A., Nagpur University, 1947
14. Kalla, M. P.
B.A., Agra University, 1945
5. Banerjea, (Miss) S.
M.A., „ „ ' 1947
B.A., Calcutta University, 1948
Bikaner City, Bikaner State
Calcutta, Wat Bengal
15. Khound, B. N.
6. Belavadi, R. H.
B.A., Calcutta University, 1939
B.A. (Hons.), Bombay University, 1948
16. Kirby, (Miss) S. D.
7. Borooah, R. L.
B.A., Bombay University, 1948
B.A., Calcutta University, 1947
Hubli, Bombay Province
17. Kuddyady, (Miss) S. R.
8. Das, R. C.
B.A., Bombay University, 1948
B.A., Calcutta University, 1945
M.A., „ „ 1947 Barpeta, Assam
18. Kumar, J. D.
9. Dasgupta, Sugata
B.A., Punjab University, 1944
B.A. (Hons.), Calcutta University,
M.A., „ „ 1946
Amritsar, East Punjab
Calcutta, West Bengal
19. Lasani, A. A.
10. Das Gupta, (Mrs.) Sunita
B.A., Nagpur University, 1948
B.A., Calcutta University, 1937
Harda, C. P.
Calcutta, West Bengal
160 NOTES AKD NEWS
20. Mathur, S. N.
28. Rao, S. C.
B.A., Agra University, 1945
B.A., Bombay University, 1937
M.A., Lucknow University, 1947
B.T., ,, ,, 1941
LL.B., „ „ 1947
Aundh, Bombay Province
29. Sheth, (Miss) P. C.
21. Mazmudar, (Miss) D. N.
B.A. (Hons.), Bombay University, 1948
B.A. (Hons.), Bombay University, 1944
30. Sumariwalla, J. D.
22. Miranda, (Rev.) A. J. V. S.
B.Sc, Bombay University, 1947
L.D., Pontifical University, Kandy,
T.D., Bombay University, 1948.
31. Swaries, E. I.
B.A. (Hons.), Bombay University, 1948
23. Pachery, V. D.
B.A., Nagpur University, 1946
32. Tejani, (Miss) N. D.
M.A., „ „ 1948
B.A. (Hons.), Bombay University, 1946
Hoshangabad, C. P.
24. Padbidri, (Miss) K. S.
33. Thadani, (Miss) K. K.
LL.B., Bombay University, 1946
B.A., Agra University, 1947
Mangalore, Madras Province
Agra, U. P.
25. Prasad, M.
B.A., Agra University, 1947
34. Vaidya, (Miss) K. M.
B.A., Nagpur University, 1942
M.A., „ „ 1945
26. Radhalaxmi, (Miss) K. K.
B. Music, Bhatkhande University of
B.Sc, Madras University, 1947
Indian Music, Lucknow, 1944
Cannanore, Madras Province
Nagpur C. P.
27. Raju, K. V. K.
35. Vasantarao, L.
B.A., Andhra University, 1948.
B.Com., Calcutta University, 1936
Waltair, Madras Province
Vizagapatam, Madras Province