NEWS AND NOTES SOCIAL WORK AND THE INDIAN CONFERENCE Broadcast A.I.R....
NEWS AND NOTES
SOCIAL WORK AND THE INDIAN CONFERENCE
Broadcast A.I.R. (Madras) on 17th December, 1948, by Dr. J. F. Bulsara, Hon. Gen,
Secretary, Indian Conference of Social Work.
A week after the memorable 15 th August
spires social work and social workers, there
1947, in my broadcast talk as the Hon-
is great hope for this Conference developing
General Secretary of the forthcoming from strength to strength, not for any
All-India Conference of Social Work, I selfish purpose, nor for personal or institu-
expressed a hope that, "at a time when our tional power or profit but for doing good
country's energies were being bent unitedly to our handicapped brethren and the gener-
towards creative and constructive work for ality of the Indian nation. One of the
the socio-economic, educational and cultural objects of the Conference was to bring social
amelioration of our people, the Conference workers in different parts of the country
will fulfil a useful purpose in giving a much-
together on one common platform in order
needed lead to social workers in the syste-
to discuss the common problems. They
matic and scientific handling of India's could thus get support and sustenance for
many social ills and problems." At the Con-
their work by a free and frank exchange
ference held in Bombay in the month of of views and information in their respec-
November the same year, the constitution tive fields of practical social work and there-
of an All-India Conference was adopted by improve their own methods and techni-
and the 'Indian Conference of Social Work' que. Another object of the Conference was
was born on 9th November 1947. It is in to act as a clearing house of information
the fitness of things that the first Session of
and as a centre for help and guidance in
the Indian . Conference of Social Work initiating or developing social work, so
should be held in the metropolitan city of, greatly needed, in our country of vast
what is a very socially-minded province of handicapped populations and numerous sub-
Madras. For, when Bombay was under-
standard sections thereof.
taking this task of convening an All-India
Conference of Social Work, Madras had
It is too early to judge what success
also conceived of a similar idea. At the the Indian Conference has achieved so far
instance of that great friend of India, a towards these ends. But the progress of
sterling social worker and a great humani-
the first year has shown that the Conference
tarian, Lady Mount batten, the Madras has not come a moment too soon, and
Guild of Service under the wise leadership raises hopes that it is fulfilling a widely
of Mrs. Mary Clubwalla, agreed to drop felt want by providing a common meeting
the idea and co-operate with the Bombay ground to Social Welfare Agencies and
Conveners. This was a fine gesture of co-
Social Workers all over the country.
operation and collaboration in what is a
common field of social endeavour, which
From the start we have avoided making
does not attempt to serve any petty, party the Conference merely a venue for letting
or particularistic ends, but has a single off steam, making general speeches or
minded objective of encouraging human passing unworkable resolutions. The object
weal and welfare. So long as such spirit has been to invite social workers in various
of co-operation for the common good in-
fields of practical social endeavour to give

226 NEWS AND NOTES
the Conference the benefit of their expe-
now ably discharging the responsibilities of
rience by means of well-studied papers, the Minister of Health in the Government
talks and discussions and to get the views of India is participating in our work by
and comments thereon of other workers presiding over the Conference at the Session
in the same or similar fields, so that all and throughout the coming year. We deeply
concerned may gain from such an inter-
appreciate her gracious presence in our
change of views and experiences. The midst. Cosmopolitan, enlightened Charity
salient features of each topic or pro-
Trusts like the Sir Dorabji and Sir Ratan
blem and the points of agreement are Tata Trusts and the N. M. Wadia Charities
submitted to a plenary session of the of Bombay have also given handsome annual
Conference in the form of condensed donations.
Reports, which are further discussed and
then submitted to the various Departments
As I have already said the organizers
of Government concerned and social wel-
have never believed in holding conferences
fare agencies with a request to implement of social work qua conferences or annual
them as far as possible or take suitable spectacles and picnics. I personally feel,
action in the light of the conclusions. So after four or five years of spade work, we
far both Government and Social Welfare can even afford to save the annual expen-
Agencies have appreciated this view.
diture and make it a biennial feature. It
should more and more serve the purpose of
In the field of organization also, the bringing social workers in various fields of
Conference has made definite progress-
welfare together, of clarifying their ideas,
Branches of the Conference have been obtaining inspiration for their work and
established in Madras, West Bengal, Delhi, going away strengthened in their resolve to
the Central Provinces and Berar, Bihar carry on their day to day activities, which, in
and Mysore and others are in the process our particular field need not be so specta-
of formation.
cular as substantial, genuine and truly effec-
tive of human amelioration. The work of
As a first step, we have undertaken the the Conference will be more and more in
very necessary and useful task of preparing the lead and guidance it gives to social
Provincial and State Directories of Social workers all over India, and helps to orga-
Work Agencies with a view ultimately to nize social work on a scientific and syste-
publishing an All India Directory of Social matic basis in a country, where, so far, the
Work. In our efforts at enlisting the sup-
work has been largely voluntary, scattered,
port of Governments and States, we must often unsystematised, casual and lacking in
say we have received a fairly ready and co-ordination.
generous response, and we are in-
debted to the Government of India
Social work has been put on a firm
and those of Madras and Bombay and the foundation in most western countries, and
State of Baroda and Jaipur for their valu-
training for social work has been recognised
able contributions towards the growing ex-
as necessary over a period of last 50 years.
pense of organizing the work of the In some countries even ministries of welfare
Conference and putting it on a sound basis. have been established. Most universities
We are further heartened by the fact that give courses of theoretical training, and
the Hon'ble Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, a dis-
ample facilities are provided in Settlements,
tinguished social worker of long standing, Community Centres, and numerous well-

N E W S AND NOTES 227
organised Welfare Agencies for practical
And while we fully appreciate the
work and experience. Training for vari-
tremendous value and significance of volun-
ous branches of social work is considered tary social work in a poor country like ours,
a sine q u a n o n , and both voluntary and and especially admire the splendid efforts
paid workers pursue it as a matter of course.
which the various Women's Organizations
When we attended the Fourth International
all over the country are making towards the
Conference of Social Work in Atlantic City
amelioration of conditions of ignorance,
in last April, we were amazed to find nearly
destitution, squalor and disease in which
ten thousand social workers assembling at large numbers of our less fortunate brethren
the 75th session of the United States Na-
and sisters eke out their daily existence, we
tional Conference of Social Work. Suppos-
will have to admit that social work requires
ing 15 per cent of the whole-time social much more than mere sympathy, enthusiasm
workers had attended the Conference, this and casual, at-will voluntary effort. More
would make an army of 65,000 workers for substantial and sustained work will have to
the United States with a relatively wealthy be done by full-time trained workers if it is
population of 14 crores.
to bear proportionate results.
Together with training and institutional
India is a much poorer country and the facilities for the same, we will have to con-
percentage of poor, destitute, physically and
duct careful field investigations of our many
mentally defective and otherwise handi-
social and socio-economic ills and pro-
capped population must be relatively very blems and carry on research into
much larger. Taking only 15 per cent of
them to find out speedy, effective
such population in a country of 32 crores, and less costly remedies, so that we
at least 5 crores of people may need advice,
may attain a healthy, progressive, well-order-
guidance, assistance and support from train-
ed and self-reliant society. For, unlike
ed welfare workers. In handling feeling, governments, religious creeds and vested in-
willing and thinking human beings, the terests, the aim of social work is not to show
personnel required is much larger. But its efficiency by unlimited expansion, nor to
supposing a trained social worker can perpetuate itself as an indispensable social
handle on an average 50 handicapped per-
activity or institution. The motto that social
sons individually and through institutional workers should constantly and unfailingly
care, we will need an army of at least 1 lac place before their eyes should be to render
trained full-time social workers for what is their work, need and existence progressively
in India a relatively large sick society.
unnecessary. In short, the aim of all social
work, public assistance and relief of the vari-
And yet we have not even scratched the
ously handicapped should never be to keep
surface of the field of training social workers
the people, men, women and children
in our vast country. There are hardly three
among whom they work, permanently help-
or four schools or Universities undertaking less and dependent on the workers or out-
this work and the number of students ad-
side aid, but to make them whole and
mitted annually to social service courses self-reliant so that they may soon get inte-
may not be more than 100. Social workers grated to their respective communities and
will appreciate the immense magnitude of become fully capable of standing on their
the talk awaiting us in the field of training own legs and looking after themselves and
alone.
their dependents. The desire for improve-

228 N E W S AND N O T E S
ment and removal of handicaps must be Work will play its p a r t in inspiring social
m a d e to grow from within and not be super-
workers to such objectives.
ficially imposed from without, a n d rigidly
Besides the many and varied problems
perpetuated often to justify the continuance of the indigenous, normally handicapped in
of an obsolete Welfare agency.
a traditional social structure, the last fifteen
Social workers have an added responsibi-
months have thrown up a tremendously big
lity of not merely indulging in post-mortem,
and difficult problem of the more t h a n five
palliative or curative work, but paying m u c h
million refugees torn from their native soils
greater attention to preventive work. They and age-long habitats. They are presenting
should simultaneously carry on study and to Government and social workers special
research in all fields of social endeavour, so problems of relief, rehabilitation and assimi-
that they can get at the fundamentals of life
lation, the last two not so easy of a speedy
and social organization, understand the root
solution. Trained social workers are and
causes of social, economic, moral and cul-
will be called upon to tackle many knotty
tural handicaps and be able to suggest in problems in relation to the refugees in vari-
the light of their research and experience ous parts of India and once the first shock
to the group, community or government of the suddenness of the catastrophe has
responsible for the destinies of men, women
been absorbed, the urgency of the measures
and children, effective remedies, wherever needed will try the skill, intelligence and in-
their handicaps may be removed, thus genuity of the social workers and Govern-
making the society healthy, normal, and ment departments concerned. It is difficult
independent of the necessity . of supplying at this juncture to envisage the final solu-
external crutches all the time. It is in this
tion, but it is certain that social workers will
steadfast direction of complete social security have to rise to the occasion and prove the
t h a t western society has been steadily pro-
value of their many-sided art and science
gressing during the last 50 years, and of social reconstruction in rebuilding and
towards achieving which laudable object, rehabilitating scattered or disintegrated
social and welfare work in western coun-
h u m a n lives. We have no doubt social
tries has contributed not an insignificant workers and social welfare agencies all over
share. Let us earnestly hope I n d i a n social the country will perform their roll nobly and
work and workers will take their rightful well, and the I n d i a n Conference of Social
place in a similar high endeavour of helping
Work, which is discussing the subject at this
Indian society to such a state of sanity, secu-
Session, will show some ways of tackling the
rity, health, integration and self-reliance, many problems of the relief and rehabilita-
and that the Indian Conference of Social tion of our unfortunate brethren.
I N D I A N C O N F E R E N C E O F S O C I A L W O R K
RECOMMENDATIONS OF T H E MADRAS S E S S I O N 1948
T h e Second Session of the Indian Con-
under four heads as follows:
ference of Social Work was held at Rajaji
(1) State and Social Services.
Hall, Government House, Madras, Decem-
(2) Refugee Relief and Rehabilitation.
ber the 18th to the 22nd, 1948, under the
(3) Rural Social Work and Recon-
Presidentship of Hon'ble Rajkumari Amrit
struction.
Kaur. T h e papers of the Conference were
(4) Welfare in Industry.

NEWS AND NOTES 229
There were 45 papers submitted in the
1. That commercialised prostitution
four Sections. The authors of the papers should be abolished,
gave a brief summary of the contents and
2. That the State should not recognise
the subjects were then discussed in the prostitution as one of the profession for
Sections on December the 19th and 20th, women,
1948. The recommendations were discussed
in the Sections and were then submitted to
3. That the State should pass effective
the Plenary Session on the 22nd December, legislation against such social customs as
1948, by the respective Chairmen. After are directly or indirectly contributing either
further discussion of the Plenary Session the to the encouragement, promotion, or conti-
recommendations were finally adopted as nuation of prostitution. Such acts should
under:
be All India Acts. The State should also
pass an All India Act against trafficking in
Section I : STATE AND SOCIAL SERVICES.
women and children and institute rescue
Prohibition.—This Conference is of the homes for them,
opinion:
4. That it having been brought to its
1. That Prohibition is a positive and notice that certain institutions are being
constructive policy for social reconstruction. used by the organizers for exploiting the
Therefore, in addition to law, it is felt neces-
inmates for immoral purpose, an imme-
sary to institute ameliorative facilities so diate inquiry into this should be instituted
that the external causes of drink may be by the Government both at the Centre
met. This can be done by substitute-drinks
and in the Provinces. To make this
for the addicts such as nira and majjiga, etc., possible the Conference recommends that
counter attractions such as sports, dramas, the Government of India immediately
ballads, folk songs, promotion of thrift, appoint a committee consisting of representa-
welfare among women, and rehabilitation tives of Provinces and States with a view to
of tappers,
further investigation and make possible the
2. It is a recognised fact that since enactment of an All India model Act for
Prohibition is a social reform it will not be the suppression of immoral traffic and the
successful only by legislation, but it must prevention and treatment of juvenile
be aided by the intelligent, educated and delinquency,
active co-operation of the people. There-
5. That in Provinces where there are
fore, educative propaganda among the Children's Acts the suppression of Immoral
people through lectures, slides, films, music,
Traffic Act and Vigilance Act, the respective
etc., must be organized, and
Governments should take immediate steps
3. That Clinics and Hospitals for the for their implementation by creating the
treatment of addicts should be instituted necessary and effective machinery,
where both medical and psychiatric treat-
6. That psychiatric treatment clinics
ment should be provided, and that those for the treatment of psychopathological
interested in the problem of Alcoholism cases among prostitutes should be instituted
should devote greater attention to research to try individual cure,
into the various aspects of the problem.
That a Family Social Council, whose
Treatment and Prevention of Social function is to advise the family in cases
Vice.-This Conference is of the opinion:
of family maladjustments, must be insti-

230 NEWS AND NOTES
tuted by the State so that free advice and
Prevention and Treatment of Crime.
mediation for such maladjusted individuals This Conference is of the opinion:
and families may be available, and
1. That the Government of India
8. That there is very little factual data immediately appoint a committee with a
to go by and therefore, the Universities view to investigating into the management,
should take up direct research of the problem
principles and working of the institutions
in cities where it is predominantly prevalent.
for the care and rehabilitation of the desti-
tute, the delinquent, and the victims of
Tuberculosis.— This Conference views social vice, immoral traffic, economic ex-
with great concern the rising incidence of ploitation or other social handicaps,
tuberculosis in India and notes with satis-
faction that Government are making
2. That the term 'Certified Schools'
strenuous efforts to fight the scourge. carries a stigma with it, which militates
However this Conference is of the opinion against the rehabilitation of the child, and
therefore steps be taken by the respective
1. That in order to prevent and nip the Governments concerned to abolish the term,
disease in its incipient stage, it is best to have
and to change the name suitably, and take
early examinations of the young up to the such other steps as will prevent the child
age of 25 carried out on an extensive from acquiring a sense of social stigma in
scale and as a routine measure. This any way,
Conference, therefore, recommends to
Government that early steps be taken for
3. That prevention is more important
examining the School and College-going than treatment and that the proper treat-
population of India, and with a view to ment of young delinquents will decrease the
doing so, to establish and maintain Mobile crime among the adults. It also urges the
Unit for mass miniature radiography. This importance of creating a Social Directo-
Conference understands that Government rate to co-ordinate all social service acti-
have started one such unit at Madanapalle, vities for children, women and men, and
and recommends that this facility should
be extended to all parts of India at an
4. That proper treatment of the in-
early date,
mates in a jail depends to a large degree
upon the personnel who are running the in-
2. That more Sanatoria, Settlements stitution. It is, therefore, important that
and Homes for incurables should be started staff, trained in social science should be
by Government, and
appointed in jails.
3. That Government pay special
Labour in Prisons.—This Conference
attention to the research and experimental feels that research and experiments be
work at present being carried out in this carried on to consider the advisability of
country with regard to B.C.G. Vaccine incorporating the following suggestions:
e.g. at the Union Tuberculosis Sanatorium,
1. That industries inside jails should be
Arogyavarma, Madanapalle, S. India, with such as would give training that suits the
a view to preventing the spread of Tuber-
fitness, needs and taste of the inmates,
culosis amongst the population—especially
amongst children and thereby curtailing the
2. That an inmate of the jail is given
expense to be incurred by Tuberculosis the security of food, clothing and shelter,
Health Services in the future.
and then asked to work on some industry.

NEWS AND NOTES 231
He has no incentive and, therefore, the out-
1. The encouragement of wider studies
put is negligible and unprofitable. There-
in the newer knowledge of Nutrition and its
fore the convict should be taught to main-
adoption as an essential part of the State,
tain himself and his family even while in Civic or Health Services,
the jail by paying him in proportion to the
2. That public health nutrition work
work that he does, and providing the facili-
should consist of various services offered
ties of food and clothing in relation to the to the different vulnerable groups of popu-
amount he earns. If this is done, he will lation namely, expectant and nursing
be better equipped for rehabilitating himself
mothers, infants, toddlers and pre-school
after he is released, and
and school children, who need balanced
3. That the jail should be modelled nutrition. This can be done through health
as far as possible as a self-sufficient colony centres, clinics and in schools by giving
with various industries, market, bank, etc. midday meals, and
Hospital Social Service.—This Confer-
3. That provision of at least one hot
ence feels the imperative need for
meal be made for making up the deficiencies
in the usual diet of the workers.
1. The establishment of Hospital Social
Service Departments which would tackle
General.
the social and emotional factors which
1. Accepting the view, that the modern
generally cause, accompany or result out of
State should become a Social Service State,
diseases, and thus help correct diagnosis, this Conference strongly urges upon the
effective treatment and speedy and lasting Provincial and Central Governments imme-
recovery.
diately to start a Department of Social
2. This Conference suggests:
Service with a view to co-ordinating the
social service activities of the various depart-
{a) that the Hospital Social Workers ments and to fostering and promoting social
must be equipped with the skill of case-work work in the province.
and must have a knowledge of hospital
organization and adequate medical informa-
2. This Conference further recognises
tion,
that it is urgently necessary for Governments
to arrange for Refresher Courses for the
(b) that the Hospital Social Worker Civil Services which are dealing with social
should keep in touch with community re-
welfare projects, so that in the absence of
sources and should help to mitigate the trained social workers, the existing civil ser-
adverse effects of social and economic factors
vices may be reoriented into the new ideo-
on the patients,
logy of public service.
(c) that the Social Service Department
3. This Conference, while considering
may also participate in educational and re-
the various measures for minimising the
creational programmes for child patients evils of prostitution, takes note of the evil
and convalescents in the hospital and in social customs and rites which are mainly
educating public opinion on preventive responsible for encouraging the evil. There-
medicine.
fore, greater stress should be laid on social
Nutrition Programme within the Frame
reform measures such as widow marriage,
work of Health Services.—This Conference abolition of child marriage, marriage of old
recommends:
men with minor or young girls, and the per-

NEWS AND NOTES 232
nicious system of dowry. Where social still existed. Proper housing surveys were,
legislation for this is enacted and is in force,
therefore, thought to be essential prere-
greater efforts should be made to rouse quisites for formulating housing programmes.
social consciousness and educate public
4. Cottage Industries.—Encouragement
opinion, for, without such public opinion, should be given for the expansion of remu-
legislation becomes ineffective.
nerative cottage industries on a co-opera-
4. This Conference strongly urges upon tive basis. The refugees should be advanced
Governments, Universities and other acade-
loans and afforded facilities for the purchase
mic bodies in India, to take early steps to of raw materials for the marketing of pro-
introduce diploma and degree courses in ducts. Adequate training facilities will have
the theory and practice of sociology and to be provided. The selection of cottage
social work.
industries should be made so as to secure
Section II. REFUGEE RELIEF AND REHA-
maximum production and employment and
BILITATION.
fill in existing gaps in our production chain.
The whole scheme should be worked out
This Conference after having considered in such a way that each refugee should
the various aspects of the refugee problem become an effective producer within a
formulates the following recommendations: period of nine to twelve months.
1. Cultural Assimilation.—This Con-
5. Occupational Rehabilitation. — It
ference is of the opinion that in the formu-
was observed on the basis of available facts
lation and implementation of all plans for that it will not be possible to absorb all the
refugee rehabilitation the necessity of refugees in the vocations followed by them
cultural assimilation of refugees should before their migration. Traders and busi-
always be kept in view.
nessmen will have to be diverted to other
2. Rural Rehabilitation.—That the re-
productive occupations. Vocational guid-
gional dispersion of refugees should be ance and technical training should be orga-
undertaken and encouraged in accordance nized and diversification of occupations
with the absorbing capacities of various should be resorted to. The refugees will
regions. The rest of the refugee population have to be trained to take up occupations
should be settled in extensions, satellite and which were formerly followed by Muslim
new model townships which should again in evacuees.
their turn be integrated in the normal civic
6. Refugee Children.—It was felt that
life of the country.
high priority should be given to the nur-
3. Housing.—Since the need of provid-
ture and education of all refugee children.
ing housing facilities for the refugees is The state should take full responsibility for
telling heavily upon the Government it was the education and training of all such
recommended that the problem be tackled children for a period of at least two years.
on the model of construction of houses in It may be necessary to introduce double
post-war Japan. Further, new technique shifts in schools and colleges to meet the
for construction of cheap houses should be demands of the situation.
explored and adopted by Government. It
7. Refugee Women.—Particular care
was felt that in many cases scope for pro-
of refugee women in general and unattached
viding shelter to a larger number of refugees women in particular should be taken. It
within the existing housing accommodation is suggested that they should be rehabili-

233 N E W S AND NOTES
tated on" a pattern of family life rather than in prices for their produce. This Conference
on mere vocational basis.
holds that to achieve this object early steps
should be taken by Government to fix guar-
8. Cultural Programme.—With a view anteed minimum prices through the mecha-
to bringing about a cultural synthesis nism of commodity corporations and bond-
between refugee and non-refugee elements ed warehouses, utilizing as far as possible,
in the population as also for its own educa-
cooperative institutions,
tional value, this Conference desires that
there should be provided wherever possible,
2. So long as controls on food stuffs
well-thought out cultural and social pro-
continue, this Conference recommends that
grammes, club activities, sports and other it may be so extended as to cover prices of
recreational facilities.
goods essential to the pursuit of efficient
agriculture and keep them at corresponding
9. Suitable Publicity.—The Conference fair level, or the controls may be extended
notes with regret that in certain places at production levels also, so that there may
public sympathy for the refugees had dimi-
be an increased acreage for food crops and
nished and the morale of the displaced per-
restraint on the acreage for cash crops,
sons had fallen. It is felt that suitable pub-
3. That social workers should con-
licity ought to go far in counteracting both sider the encouragement of village industries
these tendencies.
as one of their prime duties. They should
10. Organisational Co-ordination.—It
not only teach and encourage village handi-
is observed that with a view to co-ordinat-
crafts, but also personally use and advocate
ing the rehabilitation plans it was desirable to others to utilize for their daily consump-
to establish a Joint Rehabilitation Board tion village-made articles in preference to
with representatives of the Central, mill-made and imported goods,
Provincial and State Governments. This
4. That Government Development
will also help the stimulation of new Departments will be doing great service to
ideas and formation of new programmes on the cause of rural welfare, if they could co-
the basis of country-wide resources and ex-
operate and help, financially and function-
perience gained in different parts of the ally, private institutional efforts in the same
country.
direction,
11. Social Service Agencies.—It is felt
5. That it is of paramount importance
that private social service agencies should that villages should be so grouped as to form
give their best help in the settlement of autonomous bodies which would function as
refugees and the state should try to utilize effective administrative, economic and cul-
their service for the execution of rehabili-
tural units, under suitable Punchayat
tation programmes.
organizations,
Section III. RURAL SOCIAL WORK AND
6. Realising the need to protect the
R E C O N S T R U C T I O N .
agriculturist from the vicissitudes of nature,
This Conference recommends the fol-
namely floods, cyclones, droughts, pests,
lowing measures for Rural Social Work and crop-diseases, etc., it is recommended that
Rural Reconstruction, viz.,
Government should provide a comprehen-
1. In order to ensure rural prosperity sive river management, minor irrigation
the agriculturists should be protected from works and crop and cattle insurance
the risks arising from violent fluctuations schemes,

234 N E W S AND NOTES
7. The attention is called to the deplo-
should be given their degree only after they
rable condition of village schools in regard to
have taught one year in adult education
equipment for teaching and. recommends schools, and Medical Graduates given their
that Government should insist upon village diplomas, only after they have performed
schools possessing a prescribed minimum one year of public health service in rural
equipment, and further recommends that areas; and in this sphere of adult education,
the interest of universal education would special attention should be paid to women's
be best served only by placing all the village education. During this period adequate
schools in direct charge of the Government. subsistence allowance must be given to the
If it is not possible to take over the social workers.
management of all primary schools immedi-
9. This Conference feels that the ex-
ately, the following measures are urgently istence of serf and neat-slave conditions is a
required to place primary education in rural blemish on our social organization and re-
areas on an efficient basis:
commends that these conditions should be
(i) Steps must be taken particularly for abolished immediately, and concerted mea-
the institution of efficient supervision of all sures must be taken to eradicate them in all
private, aided and District Board Schools, forms, open as well as veiled.
(ii) Provision should be made for effec-
10. With a view to improving the lot
tive medical inspection in all rural schools, of the Harijans and under-privileged
peoples in villages, this Conference recom-
(iii) Arrangements must be made for mends that they should be provided with
free supply of midday meals to all poor free house sites by the Government and
children attending village schools,
liberally helped in the construction of houses
(iv) Holidays and vacations in village on them.
schools should be so adjusted as to enable
11. General.—This Conference is of
the school children to help their parents in the opinion that while the country should
seasonal agricultural operations,
welcome honorary workers, social workers
(v) Rural areas should be given high in general must be well trained and ade-
priority in the establishment of new schools, quately paid. The training of rural workers
and
should be given a high priority and the
(vi) All new schools should be on basic training centres should be located in rural
education lines, as far as practicable, and areas only.
the existing ones should, as soon as possible,
Section IV. WELFARE IN INDUSTRY.
be converted into basic schools.
The following recommendations were
8. This Conference is of the opinion adopted by the Plenary Session of the
that a comprehensive scheme of universal Conference:
adult education should form a major
1. The Indian Conference of Social
plank for a programme of rural recon-
Work conscious of the fact that good housing
struction. To achieve this objective, is the foundation of health and efficiency,
as early as possible, this Conference feels and that unless the housing conditions of the
that a nationwide enlistment of services of workers are improved, all other welfare and
the University graduates is necessary, and social measures undertaken either by the
recommends that all graduates in Arts and State or the employers will be of little value,
Science, after passing their examination, would like to emphasise the need for tack-

N E W S AND N O T E S 235
ling the problem of housing for the indus-
(ii) to protect and maintain a proper
trial workers as of great urgency justifying standard of housing,
resort to exceptional measures,
(iii) to encourage co-operative housing
2. This Conference notes with satis-
societies and also persuade insurance com-
faction the desire of the Provincial and panies and banks to invest monies for house
Central Governments to deal with housing building, and
problems in the country since 1947. It,
(iv) to subsidise and contribute to the
however, feels t h a t t h e general problem of
housing schemes of Improvement Trusts and
housing still remains unsolved,
local authorities.
3. It is recommended that the housing
7. It is recommended that in connec-
standards as laid down in the report of the
tion with every housing scheme, there shall
Housing sub-committee of the Standing be associated a fully trained and experienced
Labour Committee and endorsed by the T r i -
welfare staff in order t h a t the housing
partite labour conference should be accept-
scheme may yield full benefit and become,
ed in all housing schemes as the irreducible
as it should, one of the main educative
minimum standard of housing for workers.
factors leading to an all round higher
standard of living.
4. This Conference considers t h a t there
8. This Conference strongly recommends
should be a positive approach to the the formation of neighbourhood units pro-
problem of industrial housing by the Pro-
viding housing for various classes of people
vincial and State Governments and recom-
together, so that the residents may develop
mends that the approach to the problem a proper social consciousness and full civic
should cover not only the houses themselves,
life.
but all necessary provisions to provide for
proper and adequate community life such
9. It is also recommended that social
as recreation, entertainment, shopping faci-
workers and organisations do undertake
lities, public health, education and good social surveys or studies into the living con-
location in relation to the place of work ditions of workers and on the social aspects
or the rest of the city.
of segregation of workers' colonies from the
rest of the community as is the practice in
5. This Conference disapproves the most industrial areas.
idea of segregation of any particular class in
housing schemes.
Labour Community Development.
6. This Conference is of the opinion
1. This Conference recommends that
that housing in the country inclusive of immediate attention should be paid to the
provinces and states demands the continu-
problem of labour community development
ous attention of able and well trained by all the parties concerned namely govern-
minds. It, therefore, recommends the esta-
ment, employers and local bodies, in as m u c h
blishment of a separate Housing Authority as unsatisfactory living standards constitute
so that speedier and comprehensive atten-
a potential danger to the body politic.
tion may be paid to the problem of indus
2. This Conference feels it necessary
trial housing. T h e functions of such an to evolve a set of standards by which exist-
authority should b e :
ing and future community development
(i) to survey the housing conditions of may be judged and raised to the desired
industrial workers,
level wherever necessary.

N E W S AND NOTES 236
3. This Conference believes that the
By Trade Unions.
following among others are important items
(i) Helping works committees arid pro-
which go to make up a good labour duction committees to function smoothly
community:
and effectively,
(i) Adequate earnings to maintain a fair
(ii) Organizing a special branch to
and decent standard of life,
attend to and implement schemes like co-
(ii) Good housing with adequate public operative banking, housing, credit stores,
health facilities and arrangements for etc.,
carrying out repairs in time,
(iii) Establishing workers' schools and
(iii) Schools for children as well as for literacy classes both for men and women and
adults (both men and women), and
training them in the problems of citizen-
{iv) Facilities for shopping, exercise, in-
ship and trade unionism, so that workers
door and outdoor recreation, club life, read-
may themselves shoulder more and more
ing rooms and libraries, cultivation of hob-
responsibility of running trade unions, and
bies, training in handicrafts, etc.
{iv) Attending to needs of labour not
4. This Conference feels, that physical only as workers and trade unionists, but
standards of planning alone will not be ade-
also as citizens and providing for their phy-
quate and that the mental, moral and cul-
sical, mental, moral and cultural education
tural development of the community should and well-being, as is being done by unions
not be lost sight of. The need for trained under the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi.
social workers and directors of recreational
By Industry.
activities for this purpose cannot be over
(i) Starting creches for the benefit of
emphasised. In order to meet this para-
children of women workers wherever
mount need, it is recommended that social necessary;
workers trained in recognised institutions
{ii) Running canteens for providing
should be recruited and put in charge of clean, cheap and nutritious food to workers;
this work by government, local bodies as
(iii) Providing facilities for rest and re-
well as private industries.
creation during recess hours and before and
Trade Unions and Social Welfare.
after work; and
1. This Conference is of the opinion
(iv) Following all factory laws and labour
that although some progress has been made laws not only in letter but also in spirit.
in the field of social welfare by the starting
By Government.
of Health Insurance recently by the Central
(i) Starting welfare activities on the
Government and the adoption of ameliora-
lines followed by some Provincial Govern-
tive measures by some Provincial Govern-
ments,
ments, industrialists and two or three Trade
Unions, much remains to be done by the
(ii) Formulating and implementing suit-
Government, Central and Provincial, indus-
able post-war reconstruction schemes,
try in general and Trade Unions as a class.
(iii) Imposing a welfare cess on the pro-
This Conference, therefore, recommends that
ducts of industry as has been done in the
the following steps among others, should be case of Coal Industry and establishing a
taken by these parties for the amelioration welfare fund for financing all measures
of the present deplorable working and living calculated to promote the welfare of the
conditions of labour;—
industrial workers, and

237 NEWS AND NOTES
(iv) Introducing legislation for insuring
4. Industrial Hygiene is a composite
workers against the risk of occupational subject of study and field work by the phy-
diseases, unemployment, old age and death. sician, the nurse, the engineer, the chemist,
the psychologist, and therefore, this Con-
Industrial Health and Hygiene.
ference feels that Industrial Hygiene is best
1. This Conference is of the opinion advanced by a team work of the above.
that the Personnel Officer is an essential
5. Industrial Hygiene is an essential but
liaison officer between the employee and the distinct aspect of Labour Welfare. By
employer. The Conference, therefore, re-
mixing up the two due weightage is not
commends to every large industry the em-
being given to industrial hygiene, or broadly
ployment of and co-operation with the speaking, to the health services inside the
Personnel Officer. The officers should be industry.
qualified and imbued with a spirit of ser-
This Conference therefore recommends:
vice if they are to be useful
(i) Greater specialisation of the field of
2. In view of the importance of the Industrial Hygiene services existing in the
personnel management, this Conference re-
country today, like the factory and mine
commends the encouragement of institu-
inspectorate of the Government,
tions of personnel management.
(ii) That the management be made more
3. Considering that industrial hygiene and more responsible for the health and
has by now established itself in all Western safety of the workers inside the factory,
Countries as a well tried out science of though it need not necessarily mean that less
high value for advancing social and indus-
emphasis should be placed on the health
trial economy and welfare, this Conference of the workers outside the factory premises.
recommends that Governments start as soon The poor factory environment and the
as possible an Industrial Hygiene Institute neglected working conditions inside the
in every Province doing both teaching and factories and the mines warrant such a re-
field work.
commendation in India.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION'S STEPS TO RAISE
HEALTH STANDARDS
SOUTH EAST ASIA OFFICE OPENED IN N E W D E L H I
The World Health Organization tuberculosis testing and immunization pro-
(WHO) is launching the first large-scale gram in Europe that is being conducted
international medical research program under the direction of the United Nations
on tuberculosis as part of its efforts to raise International Children's Emergency Fund.
health standards throughout the world. Ap-
Individual cards are made out for each
proval of the $100,000 research program person tested in the latter program, re-
and other projects was announced by cording all relevant information. These
WHO's executive board following its recent cards are then made available to WHO for
meeting at Geneva, Switzerland.
research. It is estimated, the board said,
The first phase of the research already that during the course of the European
is under way, the board noted. It is based campaign, 50,000,000 children and youths
on information obtained from the mass will undergo tuberculin tests and 15,000,000

238 N E W S AND N O T E S
will be vaccinated with BCG (Bacillus mental health education will be undertaken.
Calmette-Guerin). Similar campaigns are Co-operation with other interested organi-
planned for the future in other parts of the
zations in the mental health program
world.
will be sought, the board said.
T h e board, which is charged with carry-
T h e board also revealed progress in
ing out W H O ' s policies and plans, also setting up regional organizations of W H O
announced that it h a d authorized the crea-
in various parts of the world. T h e South
tion of a bureau of medical supplies "at the
East Asia office was opened at New Delhi,
earliest possible date-" This bureau, the India, on January 1, 1949, to serve coun-
board explained, will advise governments tries including India, Ceylon, Siam, Burma
on procurement of essential drugs, biological
and Afghanistan. A working agreement
products, medical equipment, etc. In time also has been sanctioned under which the
of emergency the bureau will obtain neces-
Pan American Sanitary Organization will
sary supplies for areas needing them.
service the Western Hemisphere. A special
Other WHO Programmes.—In helping temporary administrative office is planned
to stamp out venereal infections, the board for Europe by January 1, 1949, to assist in
reported, W H O will carry out an extensive the health rehabilitation of war-devastated
VD control program with the aid of the areas.
Children's Emergency F u n d which has
Grants of $600,000 for fellowships a n d
allocated $2,000,000 for combating the medical literature in the various W H O fields
infections among mothers and children. of specialization have been approved. The
Emphasizing the value of large-scale use of
board also has authorized the sum of
penicillin in the treatment of syphilis, the $800,000 for assisting member countries re-
board said W H O will undertake to stimulate
questing specific aid. Two-thirds of the
production and distribution of the drug. It W H O member countries have asked for this
is still in short supply.
help which provides demonstration services,
Research and studies in mental health assistance of expert teams, fellowships to
also will be carried on by W H O . As part of
train medical and public health personnel,
this program, comparative studies, a and supplying medical and teaching
survey and demonstrations in the field of equipment.
P R E V E N T I O N A N D C O N T R O L O F D E L I N Q U E N C Y A T T H E
I N T E R N A T I O N A L L E V E L
We don't know very m u c h more about therapeutic, even predictive value. Still the
influencing h u m a n behaviour today than we
lag which marks so many other social fields
did when this organization held its first persists in our own, and we are in many
meeting seventy-five years ago. We have, places, not seventy-five years behind but
however, adopted a dynamic approach several times seventy-five years, in the appli-
towards conduct, we have moved from classi-
cation of our knowledge of h u m a n behavior.
fication of the phenomena to an attempt
to understand our motivations, and indeed
T h e past three-quarters of a century
we have even discovered some tentative have seen much of value in the way of
principles of psychodynamics which have international interchange of ideas and ex-
1Paper given at the National Conference of Social Work, 1948.

N E W S AND N O T E S 239
perience in the field of criminology. W h e n by now familiar to many American, workers.
the first conference of this organization was
They have stood the test of the war and
held, probation was a narrow concept, latest reports indicate t h a t their number
practised tentatively in but a few juris-
has been increased to cope with the in-
dictions of the United States. T h e juvenile
crease in the adolescent criminality. Their
court had not yet been conceived and the central idea is that there should be avail-
child guidance movement was still to await
able to the sentencing authority a wide
the work of the thinkers and practitioners range of treatment stations, from the most
in dynamic psychiatry before the child open type to the traditional walled insti-
guidance movement could be spread abroad
tution, to which after examination and
as a device for understanding and treating observation the offender may be sent. There
the behavior disorders of children.
he may receive a variety of treatment—
agricultural, shop and t r a d e instruction,
These three concepts—probation, the academic education, and help in the
juvenile court, the guidance clinic—have planning of leisure time as well.
done more than influence our thinking Each unit is small, and still further
about and our treatment of the young subdivided into house groups under interest-
offender. Their results are seen today in
ed masters. Parole is integrated into the
the movement for adolescent courts, for programme from sentence until at least a
raising the upper age of juvenile court year after release.
jurisdiction; they are penetrating the un-
realistic barrier of twenty-one years which
T h e Youth Authority Act of the
legally differentiates t h e adult from the American L a w Institute benefited from an
adolescent, and they are having their in-
understanding of the fundamentals of the
fluence on the handling of the adult offender
Borstal system; training schools for young
as well.
offenders in California have incorporated
T h e origins of these things are to be found
some of its features into their programmes.
in the common law of Great Britain and
According to recent reports, England has
in the pioneering work done in the great made progress also in the extension of cen-
clinics of central Europe. It is important,
tral control over the recruitment, training
I think, to stress our common debt to other
and supervision of probation officers. A recent
countries for the originating ideas which we
observer recounts that the government there
consider to be indigenous to America, but has taken the lead in the establishment of
of which our practice is rather the culmi-
hostels—this time for the training of pro-
nation than the initial impetus.
bation officers rather than probationers,
Origins in Other Countries.—Consider where persons entering probation work live
with me for a moment some of the things and study together during their course of
that are happening in other parts of the preparation.
world in the field of crime prevention and
European Ideas.—We have spoken
treatment which should be better known, briefly about the juvenile court as an
which bear within them the seeds for American instrument, now almost in its
application here in the United States, and fiftieth year, which has been adopted by
should be of interest to other countries.
almost every nation in the world. O n e
T h e Borstal reformatories of England group of countries', however, has never in-
for young offenders up to twenty-three are troduced this enlightened system, because

240 NEWS AND NOTES
for some years previous to the birth of the train again for freedom in special settlements.
juvenile court idea, they had themselves Together with their wives and children they
contrived a non-punitive device for re-
acquire new skills and re-learn ways of
moving children from the criminal court living together so that when they again go
process almost entirely. These are the Child
out into the world it is not as exiles return-
Welfare Councils, as known in Denmark, ing from artificial isolation, but as persons
Norway and Sweden.
who take up community living again at the
point where they left off.
In general they are committees set up in
each town and rural area, consisting of in-
Italy, among other countries, finds her-
terested citizens whose occupations—minis-
self after this war with a large juvenile
ters, doctors, teachers, welfare officers, population who show in their attitudes and
nurses—bring them in touch with the prob-
behavior the disorder which has marked
lems of children. The council initiates its upheaval. A magnificent Italian moving
own examinations into cases which come picture, Shoeshine, dramatically illustrates
to its attention, and it also receives com-
that country after five years of war and
plaints from parents, police, schools and the impact upon these young boys of the
welfare boards. After investigation, the traditional reformatory, based on fear, phy-
council may then make any orders in the sical cruelty and the debasing of decent attri-
interest of the child, which are in other butes and loyalties. No moving pictures
countries handed down by the juvenile court
have yet been taken, to my knowledge, of
". . .so that the public looked upon it the Villaggi del Fanciullo—literally trans-
rather as a helping than as an awe-inspiring lated, Children's Villages—which have been
and punitive institution." In effect the organized in several places in Italy, the best
Child Guardianship Councils of Scandinavia known perhaps at Civitavecchia, the port
have succeeded in removing the question city northwest of Rome. This village for
of the treatment of children, even those who
more than two years now has been caring for
have committed what are in other places children between the ages of ten and
described as criminal acts, from the scope sixteen, both boys and girls. May I quote
of penal legislation and criminal procedure. briefly from a report by the founder of this
villaggio:
The Soviet Union has given to the world
two ideas for the re-education of anti-social
"It is not a prison, nor a concentration
individuals which merit closer attention and
camp for children, nor a school; it is a
greater application. The first is the scheme community of free citizens... The children
for re-educating boys who were rendered come of their own free will to the village;
homeless after the first war—all of you who they remain free as they were on the street
have seen Wild Boys of the Road will recall
. .. .The basis of the pedagogic system is to
the effective fashion in which such children give the child personal responsibility.... We
were first gathered together and then re-
accepted the social conditions in which these
trained for a constructive life. I read only children lived. The only thing they cared
recently that some of the leading figures in for was gain; they worked in gangs; they
the Russian prosecution of World War II never went to school, but they knew life
were the "besprizornye" of that early period.
and they value everything in money. That
The second contribution from Russia is the is why all their activities in the village are
colony plan in which sentenced prisoners remunerated, from morning to night; even

NEWS AND NOTES 241
their school work is paid according to the countries, in their turn, are anxious to im-
marks they get. In the morning they go to
prove their practice, to apply many of the
school and in the afternoon to the work-
fine promises inherent in their penal codes,
shops, where they are also paid. T h e mayor,
which, for lack of trained staff and techni-
the assistants, the judges, all are paid. On que, they are now unable to do.
the other hand, the boys pay for their meals,
Widening Our Horizon.—I should like
their lodging, etc., with money coined in the
to go on and on, if time only permitted, to
village."2
describe the psychiatric clinics and obser-
vation centres of Belgium, the hostels and
I have quoted at some length from this open institutions of South Africa, all of
report because I regard it as an interesting
which have much of value for other coun-
postwar attempt to re-educate young vic-
tries. But I think it is not necessary to
tims of the war in terms of "their own labour my point further, which is simply-
standards at the point where they are first this—the current practice of preventing
taken in for help. I am sure t h a t all the crime and treating offenders has reached its
countries which have been overrun during present stage of development as a result of
the war or have otherwise suffered bombard-
the interchange of people and ideas. T e n
ment and destruction would be able to learn
years of war and disorganization have inter-
much from this venture. It would be of
rupted this normal flow. If we are to widen
value, I am sure, to know more about it,
the horizons of our knowledge and improve
to evaluate it, and to interpret its program
our procedures, there must be m u c h more
for the benefit of others.
such interchange, it must be organized, and
T h e Latin-American penal codes, follow-
it should be centralized in some international
ing the influence of Lombroso and his school
organization. May I say at this point that
of criminal anthropology, contain within there is such an organization a n d it is con-
them some of the most advanced ideas to be
cerned with just such problems. It is locat-
found anywhere for the study and treatment
ed within the Department of Social Affairs,
of offenders on a clinical basis. They em-
one of the great central departments of the
phasize the role of what they denominate United Nations. Such an interest by an
'criminal anthropology and the contribu-
international peace organization is by no
tion to an understanding of offenders to be
means new. T h e League of Nations,
made by endocrinology and psychiatry. between 1932 and 1939, took an active in-
Many of their institutions for adults have terest in these matters, serving to bring
connected with them criminological institutes
together, for example, several international
for the examination of prisoners. Other bodies with a direct or, incidental interest in
countries can learn a great deal from Latin-
these questions. We find included the
American experience with this clinical ap-
International Penal and Penitentiary com-
proach; from the realistic and highly missions of Berne, the International Asso-
h u m a n e practice obtaining in several Latin-
ciation of Penal L a w of Paris, the Howard
American countries which permits conjugal League for Penal Reform of London, the
visits to confined m e n ; from their statutory International Association of Children's
provisions for lay judges, and for women to Court Judges of Brussels, the International
sit on the children's court bench. These Union of Child Welfare of Geneva.
1Those who are interested in reading further about the Villaggi del Fanciulio of
Civitavecchia are referred to the International Child Welfare Review. Vol. I, No. 2-.3,
pp, 120-122, published by the International Union for Child Welfare, Geneva.

242 NEWS AND NOTES
In May 1932 seven such international ship in the International Penal and Peni-
organizations signed a joint m e m o r a n d u m tentiary Commission and at this date the
in which they expressed their willingness outcome of the consultations between t h e
to collaborate with the League of United Nations and the Commission is still
Nations in these matters. O u t of this being awaited. T h e Social Commission is
collaboration came many worthwhile studies
completing its deliberations prior to ad-
— a n inquiry into juvenile courts, a report
journment, and it is fair to expect that the
on the Child Welfare Councils of Scandi-
basis will indeed be firmly established for
navian countries, a survey of juvenile insti-
fruitfully undertaking work in this import-
tutions, and a code of "Standard Minimum
ant international field, "in close association
Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners." This
with other social problems."
last was adopted by the League and com-
municated to all member governments.
T h e first international gathering of
It was quite in the nature of things, there-
penologists met one hundred and two years
fore, for the General Assembly at its first ago. As a result of t h e efforts of Enoch
meeting in London to take over from the
C. Wines, noted American prison reformer,
League, among the so-called non-political subsequent meetings in Europe led to the
activities of that organization, responsibility establishment of the first international orga-
for international action in the field of pre-
nization to improve penal treatment—one
vention of crime and treatment of offenders.
year before the first meeting of what was
then known as the National Conference of
To detail briefly what has happened Charities and Corrections, now the National
since t h e n : the Economic and Social Council
Conference of Social Work.
referred the matter to the Temporary Social
Commission which recommended the esta-
It is timely and useful to be reminded
blishment of a permanent Social Commis-
of these early beginnings, and to draw re-
sion, "to undertake, among other matters, newed confidence from the pioneering efforts
consultations with the International Penal made by a group of our predecessors, who
and Penitentiary Commission with a view are long since dead but whose ideas go
to recommending . . . a scheme by which marching on. We are told so often that
this whole subject can be fruitfully under-
the world has grown smaller in recent years.
taken on a broad international basis in close
All too frequently this cliche is used to
association with other social problems."
emphasize that in this shrinking it has some-
how split in two. I prefer to think that
At its first meeting in January 1947, as the world grows smaller the opportunity
the permanent Social Commission was pre-
increases to learn more from one another
vented from consulting with the Interna-
and about one another, to share our expe-
tional Penal and Penitentiary Commission riences, to avoid making the same mistakes,
because Franco Spain was a member of and to add to the general store of our
that body, and the General Assembly resolu-
common knowledge for the advancement of
tion of December 1946 had banned any our common humanity.
dealings by United Nations with any orga-
nizations to which Franco Spain adhered.
By Benedict. S. Alper, Focus, November
Spain has since withdrawn from member-
1948.

NEWS AND NOTES 243
TOWARD BETTER MENTAL HEALTH THE WORLD OVER
In accepting the World Federation of the needed help in the physical care of
Mental Health as one of its official consulta-
children, she pointed out, it also is neces-
tion bodies, the World Health Organization sary to help with psychological problems of
(WHO) has opened a two-way channel children. Other fields of joint effort, she
of cooperation for better mental hygiene, said, include "the control of venereal disease,
Dr. Nina Ridenour said in a recent inter-
tuberculosis and malaria, all of which have
view in the United States. Dr. Ridenour mental implications in respect to causative
is executive officer of the International factors, effects and control."
Committee for Mental Hygiene, which
recently sponsored the formation of the
Dr. Ridenour said the Federation plans
Federation.
to make further recommendations to WHO
designed to extend and co-ordinate inter-
"We are now in a position to make re-
national research and co-operation in
commendations directly to WHO and, in various aspects of mental health. As ex-
turn, to implement recommendations that amples, she mentioned pilot studies and
come from them to us," she said.
demonstrations in mental health education,
WHO, Dr. Ridenour said, has accepted widespread dissemination of information
a Federation recommendation urging on mental health, and international co-
attention to mental health principles in the operation by professional organizations to
current WHO programs for maternal formulate principles important in promoting
and child welfare. In order to give mothers the health development of children.
ARBITRATION OF LABOR DISPUTES IN U.S.A.
One of the notable developments that of a given clause or provision in the union
has appeared on the American labor-
agreement.
management scene in recent years is the
As indicated, a widespread method of
increasing use of arrangements for private, resolving such issues in the United States is
voluntary arbitration in settling industrial by resort to arbitration. This is a voluntary
disputes.
way' of settling differences between the
unions and the employers.
The existence of peaceful labor rela-
tions does not preclude disputes in connec-
It must be emphasized that govern-
tion with specific issues between labor and mental authorities have no part in this
management. At times, such disputes may process. The arbitrators are appointed by
be personal in character—as when the the disputants themselves, and their autho-
worker takes exception to orders laid down rity is limited by the mutual consent of the
by his foreman. At other times, there may parties. However, the decisions of the
be differences over shop practices, over par-
arbitrators are generally respected; for that
ticular piece-rates, over the distribution of matter their rulings can be enforced by the
overtime work, and similar matters. Again, courts should either party find it necessary
a question may arise regarding the meaning to do so.

244 N E W S AND NOTES
Arbiter's Task Based on Agreement.--
in when a disagreement between the parties
As a rule, the settlement of grievances by arises.
arbitration is provided for in the contracts
Occasionally, the naming of the arbitra-
negotiated between the employers and the tor is left open at the time the contract is
unions. Once a dispute arises the first step signed. In such cases, the contract provides
is to settle it directly between the union machinery for the designation of arbitra-
representatives and the appropriate repre-
tors whenever the need arises, and it is
sentatives of the employer. If no agreement common, in these instances, to provide that
can be reached in this fashion, the issue is when it is impossible to agree upon the
referred to arbitration.
selection of an arbitrator, a third party,—
Arbitrators' decisions are, as a rule, final
one with no interest in the dispute—shall
and binding on all parties to the dispute.
name an arbitrator. Accordingly, such
Thus, the authority enjoyed by the arbi-
agreements designate such an intermediary.
trator derives directly from the terms of a In some cases, this third party may be a
collective bargaining agreement. Under some
prominent figure trusted by both manage-
contracts, arbitrators are given very wide ment and labor; in other cases, it may be
powers to rule on all disputes between the agreed that some government agency, such
union and management, including such issues
as the, United States Department of Labor,
as may arise during the life of the contract is to be asked to name the arbitrator.
but which were not foreseen at the time it
There is also in the United States a
was negotiated. Other agreements limit private group, the American Arbitration
arbitrators' jurisdiction to definite questions. Association, which is devoted to the promo-
tion of arbitration. It is to be noted that
For example, many contracts provide this group deals not only with labor dis-
that wages may be reviewed periodically, putes but also with commercial disagree-
either at stated intervals ranging from six ments. It maintains lists of persons availa-
months to a year, or whenever living costs ble for service as arbitrators. This organi-
change materially. While many unions and zation has functioned so well that union
employers, when unable to agree among agreements at times provide that it may be
themselves on such questions, prefer to let called upon to name arbitrators when
arbitrators decide these issues, as well as needed.
other grievances, there is a minority, both
among labor and management, which in-
Issues VariedProcedure Simple.—The
sists on placing such questions outside the issues which come before the arbitrator are
scope of the arbitrators' authority.
as varied as the problems which confront
management and labor in their relations
There are several ways in which arbi-
with each other. For example, workers may
trators are appointed. Frequently, the feel that their overtime is improperly com-
names of those who are to serve as arbitra-
puted; or they may object to the promo-
tors are agreed upon at the time the con-
tion policy within the plant; or they may
tract is negotiated. In some industries, arbi-
have complaints of their own. Either side,
trators serve for the duration of the con-
obviously, can bring the matter up for
tract, on a full-time basis. In other indus-
arbitration.
tries, where contracts cover smaller num-
bers of employers and workers, the arbitrator
The arbitration procedure itself is rather
operates on a part-time basis, being called simple. As a rule, a spirit of informality

N E W S AND N O T E S 245
prevails. T h e complaining party proceeds
Occasionally, however, it is found, in
to state its case and present whatever argu-
negotiating a new contract, that most of the
ments and proof may bolster its position
points at issue are agreed upon, with only
T h e other party then submits an answer in
a few points remaining unresolved. In such
the same manner. T h e arbitrator, of course,
cases, it is not unusual to resort to arbitra-
is empowered to ask whatever questions he
tion. It becomes necessary, however, to
feels may serve to throw light on the issues.
appoint an arbitrator to hear the specific
At the end, each party offers a rebuttal.
issues in question. These issues are carefully
defined, and the authority of the arbitrator
In some situations, the arbitrator may then flows from the special agreement
ask for additional information or order an worked out between the parties.
investigation of certain facts. In all in-
stances, however, the powers of the arbitra-
tor are limited by the prior agreement
Even the Taft-Hartley Law did not in-
between the management and the union.
vade the area of labor-management rela-
tions relating to voluntary arbitration. In
In a recent case, for example, the union
those disputes which involve employer-
requested the employers to make an adjust-
financed welfare funds, the Taft-Hartley
ment of wages because of increased living Law provides that when the employers and
costs. When the employers rejected the the unions are unable to agree on arbitra-
union's request, the matter was submitted tors, either of the parties may request the
to arbitration. T h e union thereupon pre-
Federal courts to appoint one. However,
sented the arbitrator with data showing the
there is nothing in the law which prevents
extent to which the cost of living h a d risen
the parties from selecting an arbitrator of
as well as with information indicating the their own choice.
prevailing wage scales. T h e employers coun-
tered with the claim t h a t business condi-
tions did not permit them to make any
Against Compulsory Arbitration.—In
wage adjustments. T h e union then offered similar fashion, the Taft-Hartley Law pro-
statistics which revealed t h a t business, far vides that when unions have a jurisdictional
from declining, had been improving and dispute as to whose members are to be
that the profits of the particular manufac-
employed on a particular job, and the
turers h a d been going up accordingly. T h e employer files a complaint with the National
decision of the arbitrator in this case was in
Labor Relations Board, the latter must give
favor of the workers.
the unions ten days to settle the difference
by themselves before it attempts to decide
As can be seen from these cases, arbi-
the issue. Thus, the union's freedom to
tration procedures are used to resolve dis-
reach agreement on such questions, though
putes during the life of an agreement. O n c e
restricted to a considerable extent, is
the agreement expires, the powers of the
nevertheless safeguarded.
arbitrator lapse with it. Not until the
agreement is renewed does the authority of
the arbitrator receive a new lease on life.
It should be borne in mind that labor
In other words, whenever an agreement in the United States, both the A.F. of L.
expires, each party is free to exercise its and the C I O . , as well as the employer
economic strength in order to reach a re-
groups are opposed to compulsory arbitra-
newal of the contract.
tion—that is, arbitration ordered by the

246 N E W S AND N O T E S
government or arbitration conducted in this way can genuine collective bargain-
through personnel selected by government ings free from any form of government inter-
agencies without a specific request to that ference or domination, be preserved.
effect m a d e by both parties in a dispute.
T h e r e is universal agreement t h a t only
—By Lazare Teper.
M E M O R I A L S T A T U E O F F A T H E R F L A N A G A N U N V E I L E D I N
"BOYS T O W N . "
A memorial statue of the late founder tor was Eugene Kormandi of Notre D a m e
of Boys Town, Father Edward J. Flanagan, University (South Bend, I n d i a n a ) .
was unveiled recently at the famed "town"
" T h e story of Father Flanagan's achieve-
for homeless and wayward boys in the State ments challenges the admiration of the
of Nebraska. More than 1,500 persons world," said Harris in making the presenta-
attended ceremonies during which Mon-
tion. " W e hope that this statue, placed in
signor Nicholas H. Wegner, successor to the spot he loved, will forever shine as an
Father Flanagan as director of Boys Town,
inspiration and prove a shrine to the
accepted the memorial from John Harris, memory of a man who gave unselfishlv to
founder of Variety Clubs International.
others."
T h e statue, presented by the entertain-
Father Flanagan was the first recipient
ment world's organization devoted to huma-
of the Variety Clubs International H u m a n i -
nitarian projects, shows Father Flanagan tarian Award in 1938 and kept in close
with his hands on the shoulders of two boys,
touch with the work of the organization
while two others sit at his feet. T h e sculp-
until his death on May 15, 1948.
P R O G R E S S I N H O S P I T A L S U N D E R S T A T E C O N T R O L
General lines of progress in British become practicable. Detailed surveys are
hospitals during the six months that they to be made before any drastic changes are
have been under state control have been considered. Contracts have been made
indicated by the Chairman of the Board with 350 whole-time and 950 part-time
which administers hospitals in the South-
specialists in various branches of medical
West Region. Here the population of science, and the eventual aim is that every
4,500,000 is double that of the other regions,
patient under hospital care will be in
and the problems which arise throughout charge of a specialist.
Britain are seen in their full perspective.
Hospitals have their own management
This Board took over more than 500 committees, by which the drawbacks of
hospitals, with accommodation for about centralised administration are avoided.
68,000 patients, and has found the transfer
smoother than was anticipated.
Far from degenerating into a system
of remote control for hospital services, the
It states t h a t in some respects hospital National Health Service has resulted in
services have already been improved. Sweep-
a harmonious combination of voluntary
ing reforms were not visualised, the aim effort with State enterprise.
being to maintain the existing services, and
to embody current improvements as they
— ( L o n d o n Press Service).

NEWS AND NOTES 247
MEANING OF ADULT EDUCATION
Speaking to Delhi teachers receiving national outlook, and fundamental sciences
training under the Delhi Municipality adult to strengthen their foundation, for the
education scheme, on Sunday, Dr. S. R. pursuit of their vocations. The teacher
Ranganathan, President, Indian Library and the library played a considerable part
Association, said that considerable confusion in the system.
was caused by the different meanings
In Sweden, the objective of adult edu-
attached to the term "adult education" as cation was the same but included men of
practised in different lands.
all ages. Self-education through books was
In his recent tour of the countries of dominant and instead of a teacher each
Europe and America he found that hardly circle had a leader often chosen from among
any two countries aimed at similar results the group itself and occasionally employed
or used similar agencies in their adult from outside.
education movement. In Denmark, the
In America, on the other hand adult
attempt was to reach young persons education was more concerned with the
about five or six years after they left Americanization of the immigrant, i.e., his
school. The content of the course excluded
induction into the culture and language
information or further training in the arts of America. It included, therefore, making
and crafts practised by them, this help the literates in one language literate in
they are getting from the employers or another.
professional organizations. The course in-
cluded only literature and fine arts like
—Dr. Ranganathan's Talk to Delhi
music, painting and dancing to sublimate Teachers.
emotions, civics, geography and history to
From The Indian Journal of Adult
widen their civic sense and induce an inter
Education, Vol. IX. No. 6. November, 1948.